Military Review

Project of heat steam locomotive №8001

In 1939, the Voroshilovgrad Locomotive Plant (now Lugansk Diesel Locomotive Building Plant) started the creation of its first heat and steam locomotive left in stories under the factory number "№8000". In the future, the specialists of this company began work on a new locomotive of a similar class. For certain reasons, this project was delayed for several years and was completed only at the end of the forties. Moreover, during this time he managed to undergo the most serious changes.

The construction of the experimental heat steam locomotive No.8000 was completed in October 1939 of the year, and soon it was put to the test. After a series of checks on the nearby railways and on the experimental ring of the Moscow Railway Research Institute, the locomotive was returned to the manufacturer for rework. Around this time, the idea emerged to create a new project for a similar heat-steam train, which has other design features and characteristics.

From the point of view of its characteristics, the thermal steam locomotive No. XXUMX should have become an analogue of a serial passenger locomotive of the IC type. The new project of Voroshilovgrad designers, in turn, implied the use of a FD-type locomotive as a standard. For this reason, the prospective locomotive should have the 8000-1-5 axial formula and the power of the order of 1 thousand hp. To speed up the work and simplify the project, it was decided to make a new heat steam locomotive on the basis of the existing one. Thus, this locomotive received an updated crew part, and the boiler, power plant and other units were borrowed from the heat-generating train No. XXUMX. The development of a new project was led by PA. Soroka, who had previously taken an active part in the creation of the previous steam heat steam locomotive.

General view of heat-steam locomotive №8001

By analogy with the previous development, the new cargo heat steam locomotive received the designation by its serial number: No. XXUMX. It was under this designation that the promising locomotive remained in the history of the Soviet railway transport. No other names or indices were assigned to the project.

The heat locomotive No.8001 was almost no different from the locomotive No.8000 in the overall layout and architecture of the units. Moreover, part of the nodes was simply borrowed from the previous project. New elements, in turn, were taken from serial steam locomotives with the corresponding characteristics, first of all the types FD and SU. This approach led to the formation of the characteristic general appearance of the locomotive.

The crew of the new locomotive was developed on the basis of the FD locomotive aggregates with the axial formula 1-5-1. It was equipped with one runner and one supporting axle with wheels with a diameter of 900 mm, as well as five driving axles with wheels with a diameter of 1500 mm. Most of the crew units were borrowed from the FD locomotive without any changes. In this case, the frame was refined with the use of new units, such as the baffle shafts of the power plant. It was proposed to install the shafts behind the runner axis and in front of the supporting one. Thus, the layout of the crew, despite a different axial formula, was also taken from the project "№8000".

The boiler of the heat steam locomotive №8001 was also borrowed from the locomotive №8000 and was a modified version of the units of the steam engine type Su. Recall, due to some specific features of the power plant, the heat steam locomotive No.8000 received a modernized version of the steam locomotive boiler, which differed in a number of characteristics, primarily by increased steam pressure almost one and a half times - at the level of 20 kgf / sq. Cm. At the same time, the evaporating surface of the boiler had an area of ​​199,5 sq. M, the superheater was 72,6 sq. M, and the grate area was 4,73 sq. M.

The power plant also has not changed. On the sides of the driving wheels, it was proposed to install two cylinders with a diameter of 430 mm in which two pistons were placed. Moving in different directions with the 770 mm stroke, the pistons through the system of rigid elements were supposed to set in motion the baffles, which, in turn, were connected with the driving wheels. When driving or moving at a low speed (up to 15-25 km / h), only steam was alternately supplied to the three cylinder chambers. When accelerating to a certain speed, it was proposed to inject diesel fuel into the central chamber, while the side ones continued to work on steam. After that, the power plant began to work simultaneously as a steam and diesel engine.

Thus, the new experienced locomotive No.8001 was a modification of the previous No.8000 with an updated crew part, which could to some extent facilitate its construction. However, during the construction of a new prototype, workers at the Voroshilovgrad plant faced new problems that were far from technical in nature. The assembly of a promising cargo heat-and-steam locomotive started at the very beginning of 1941 of the year. By the end of June, it was almost completed, but the war began. Because of this, the continuation of work was postponed indefinitely. In further testing and trial operation, only prototype No. XXUMX was used. Until the end of World War II, “No. XXUMX” was constantly used on various railroads, while “No. XXUMX” stood in the unfinished form and waited for the assembly to be completed.

After the liberation of Voroshilovgrad from the German occupation in February 1943, the restoration of the almost completely destroyed locomotive building plant began. After some time, the workers of the enterprise were given the opportunity to continue the construction of serial steam locomotives, as well as to create new projects. So, at the beginning of 1945, work on the steam-steam engine No. XXUMX was continued. This time, the specialists managed to bring their development to the test.

By the time of the resumption of work on the locomotive No. XXUMX, Voroshilovgrad had had a great experience in testing and operating the locomotive No. XXUMX. During the tests and trial operation, the strengths and weaknesses of the project were identified. New information proposed to use when finalizing a promising project. In this regard, a new version of the project “№8001” was developed, in accordance with which it was planned to rebuild the existing prototype. In its current form, it was just a copy of the base locomotive No. XXUMX with a new crew part and therefore could not show high performance due to the preservation of all the shortcomings of its predecessor.

Using existing experience, designers have significantly changed the design of the boiler and the combined power plant. To ensure the required parameters of the updated power plant, it was proposed to reduce the steam pressure in the boiler to 17 kgf / sq. Cm. At the same time, the grate of the firebox was increased to 6 sq.m, the evaporating surface was brought to 221 sq.m, and the superheater area grew to 113,5 sq.m.

The combined power plant was actually re-designed. Taking into account the operation of the previous model, it was decided to use the new original design of the combined machine. On the sides of the frame of the steam locomotive it was planned to have two cylinders of variable diameter. The front chamber had an internal diameter of 400 mm, the rear one - 425 mm. In the anterior chamber was placed one piston associated with rigid elements to transfer power to the front breakage shaft. In addition, it was rigidly connected to the front piston of the rear chamber. In the rear part of the rear chamber there was another piston of the tronkov type, connected with the drives of the rear breakage shaft.

The stroke of all the pistons of the updated power plant was 770 mm. The front camera was intended only for work on a pair, while the rear camera was also proposed to be used in the steam-gas cycle. As planned by the authors of the project, a promising heat steam locomotive, like its predecessor, was supposed to accelerate using only steam, and at a certain speed deliver diesel fuel to the rear cylinder chambers. In addition, it was proposed to supply steam to the rear cameras, which would increase the power of the car. Steam supply was provided at the moment of pressure reduction in the chamber to equal the boiler one.

According to the project, when working on a pair, the average indicator pressure in the rear chambers of the cylinders should have reached 10-13 kgf / sq. Cm. When using diesel fuel, the maximum pressure in the rear chambers should not exceed 36 kgf / sq. Cm. Later it turned out that these calculations were not entirely accurate, and the real indicators differed markedly from the design ones.

Heat steam locomotive №8001 was to be equipped with a tender similar to that used in the previous project. The six-axle tender had a coal pit for solid fuel, as well as water and diesel tanks. The locomotive and the tender were connected by pipelines for supplying liquids and conveyors for reloading solid fuel. A curious feature of the tender was the presence of doors and stairs for access to the locomotive cab. The cab itself had no such units.

After the modifications, the perspective heat and steam locomotive had to have a working mass at the level of 141 t and a coupling order of 107 t. In this case, the load on the driving axle should reach 21,4 t. The design speed was determined at the level of 85 km / h. For certain reasons, the real locomotive was much harder. During the weighing, it was found that the working weight of the heat-generating train No. 8001 is 152,9 t, and the coupling weight is 116,3 t.

Work on the restoration and alteration of the unfinished locomotive №8001 started at the beginning of 1945 of the year, but because of the limited capabilities of the plant, it stretched for several years. The new steam locomotive was prepared for testing only in September 1948 of the year. Soon the locomotive went to the railway.

Locomotive layout

In the autumn of 1948 of the year and in the winter of 49, the Voroshilovgrad Locomotive Works carried out factory tests of a new heat and steam locomotive. Test trips showed that the project has noticeable problems, and the real values ​​of some indicators do not correspond to the calculated ones adopted in the project. For example, the average indicator pressure in the rear chambers when working on a pair was only 5-7 kgf / sq. Cm, while the project provided for twice as much. When diesel fuel was supplied, the pressure in the chambers reached 55 kgf / sq. Cm, which, in turn, exceeded the calculated values.

Such problems worsened the characteristics of the locomotive, as well as hampered its operation. Thus, the unstable operation of the power plant led to the fact that at speeds less than 30 km / h the heat and steam locomotive was twitching. In addition, specialists did not succeed in fully implementing the steam-gas cycle of operation of the rear chambers, at which they additionally supplied steam, which made it possible to increase power.

There were proposals to refuse additional steam supply and use only diesel, but in this case the locomotive could not show the calculated characteristics. Moreover, after abandoning the full steam-gas cycle, the cargo heat steam locomotive No.8001 became only a slightly modified version of the passenger number8000 with minimal differences in performance, primarily in the developed power.

According to reports, the tests of heat steam locomotive No.8001 continued until the 1949 year and ended without any particular success. The locomotive was used only in test rides and, as far as is known, never pulled any payload. The design in its current form had a lot of flaws, the correction of which was associated with an extra waste of time.

Continuing the development of the project "№8001" considered inappropriate. By the end of the forties, domestic enterprises developed the first full-fledged diesel locomotives with electrical transmission, due to which the heat and steam locomotives lost their future. In the mid-thirties, the idea of ​​a steam locomotive became interested in railroad workers due to the expected high efficiency - up to 13-15% versus 6-7% for a steam locomotive. The new diesel locomotives, in turn, could boast an efficiency of 25%. Thus, further work on the subject of heat steam locomotives did not make any sense.

Due to the lack of prospects, prototype tests #8001 were discontinued in 1949 year. For some time, an experienced locomotive was stored at the manufacturing plant, and then, apparently, was disassembled. It is quite possible that the former units and assemblies of a heat steam locomotive were used to repair serial steam locomotives that were operated on the country's railways.

Completion of tests of locomotive №8001 became a point in the history of Soviet heat and steam locomotives. Previous projects, TP1 and “No.8000”, clearly showed that this technique, in addition to its advantages, has noticeable disadvantages. Their correction took too much time, and besides, the war prevented the development of this technique. As a result, the third heat-steam train project appeared too late. By this time, the first high-performance diesel locomotives were built, which left no room for locomotives with a combined steam and diesel engine. Having finished testing the heat steam locomotive No.8001, the Voroshilovgrad Locomotive Plant engaged in projects of new diesel locomotives, which really had real prospects. More in our country, steam locomotives were not developed and were not built.

Based on:
Rakov V.A. Locomotives of domestic railways 1845-1955. - ed. 2-e, revised and enlarged. - M .: "Transport", 1995
Photos used:
Rakov V.A. Locomotives of domestic railways 1845-1955
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  1. Bayonet
    Bayonet 11 December 2015 06: 49
    I wonder how the cylinder was cooled in diesel mode?
    1. AlNikolaich
      AlNikolaich 11 December 2015 07: 35
      Apparently, it did not cool down at all ... Only to the surrounding air.
      On diesel pile drivers, for driving piles, the same thing.
      1. Bayonet
        Bayonet 11 December 2015 10: 49
        Quote: AlNikolaich
        On diesel pile drivers, for driving piles, the same thing.

        On a diesel driver, the frequency is very low, hence much less heat, and the mass of parts is much larger, especially the piston.
        1. Amurets
          Amurets 11 December 2015 12: 58
          Quote: Bayonet
          On a diesel driver, the frequency is very low, hence much less heat, and the mass of parts is much larger, especially the piston.

          Most likely it was cooled by steam. Judging by the fact that steam entered the cylinders, it was the way it was. Recall the principle of operation of the steam-atmospheric machine. This was the case in this machine, since without the supply of steam the heat of the steam locomotive fell, which is noted in the article. look on the Internet for an article: 6-stroke ICE. There are a lot of them, which will be convenient for you to understand, there and see. For this reason alone, I do not give links. By the way, Wiki also has a description of such an engine.
  2. Vasek Trubachev
    Vasek Trubachev 11 December 2015 10: 24
    The steam locomotive is a stillborn child of "scientific and technical" adventurism. Viable hybrids in technology are known to history only with rare exceptions. In the animal kingdom, such "experiments" are deprived of the ability to reproduce without compromise: mules, ligers (tigrols), zebroids ... commercial bananas ... steam locomotives ..
  3. Free wind
    Free wind 11 December 2015 15: 09
    Sophisticated car. By that time there were already quite good diesel engines, but for some reason the designers went along some mysterious path. Conservatism may be to blame, the locomotive should look like a steam locomotive, and that’s the point. We had some designers who at least have a head count, but he will prove that the old is good. Maybe someone remembers the wipers on the ZILs, or rather their pneumatic drive, they were everywhere, but on the ZILs they went all the way to the end. The most complicated and expensive design. How many curses and funny stories with this garbage was. Unscrew the air supply valve, the hiss of air is heard, the brushes stand, unscrew more .... more ... a sharp file and the brush flew to the x ... pits, stop and with the mats climb into the mud to look for this infection, and make these electric drives the rams refused, and so will it
    1. AlNikolaich
      AlNikolaich 11 December 2015 20: 40
      Not at all! On the 131 Zilka, I also came across an electric drive of brushes ... And my dear!
      But on the veteran GAZ51 was a vacuum drive wipers! What a plague!
      The stronger you gas, the less often they wave ... But at idle, like wings
  4. Captain nemo
    Captain nemo 12 December 2015 01: 16
    Having completed the tests of the steam locomotive No. 8001, the Voroshilovgrad steam locomotive plant started new diesel locomotive projects that really had real prospects. More in our country, steam locomotives were not developed or built.

    As it’s not clear, it’s tied a little with this earlier
    As a result, the third draft of the steam locomotive appeared too late.

    That is, the third project was still there - and what were the consequences of the third project, only on paper or was it in metal?
    By this time the first diesel locomotives were built

    The magazine "technology of youth" for 1980 disagrees with you.
    But at the expense of the first post-war diesel locomotives, it would be really very interesting to know.
    I was lucky to see with my own eyes the worker TE-1, after 1980 at the Ostashkov station, at night to climb at the TE-2 put in a sludge, and even practice at the first TE-3 under serial number 007 with low windows, at the Malyshev Kharkiv Plant.
    The semi-uvor story in copyright turned out with diesel diesel engines for the TE-3 of the D100 family, but I learned about this recently, and before that I considered this to be a purely Soviet development.
    1. kugelblitz
      kugelblitz 12 December 2015 02: 25
      Probably just the same article?

      1. Captain nemo
        Captain nemo 12 December 2015 17: 53
        Quote: kugelblitz
        Probably just the same article?

        Yes, one of a series about locomotives built before the military.
  5. kugelblitz
    kugelblitz 12 December 2015 02: 07
    It's funny, but before the war, the Kolomna people developed and manufactured quite good, real diesel locomotives. The problem they had was in insufficiently powerful electric motors for an excessively powerful Daewoo. Of the features corresponding to modern locomotives, they already then had a sectional layout, cooling system, power transfer, etc. Namely, Eel and VM, while the first ones were released as many as 18 units and worked until the 60s.