Military Review

Project of heat steam locomotive №8000

Since 1935, Soviet scientists and designers have been working in the so-called promising direction. heat locomotives. This concept involved the construction of locomotives with a combined power plant, which included a steam engine and an internal combustion engine. This idea was proposed by a student of the Moscow Electromechanical Institute of Transport Engineers L.M. Mayzel, who took an active part in further work. During the first few years, scientists and engineers carried out theoretical work, and in 1939, several new projects started at once that were developed by the Kolomna and Voroshilovgrad steam-building plants.

Voroshilovgrad Locomotive Plant (now Lugansk Diesel Locomotive Building Plant) began work on a promising project in the first months of 1939. The works were headed by A.S. Bliznyansky, D.V. Lviv and P.A. Magpie. In addition, the author of the idea L.M. Meisel, by this time graduated from college and settled to work at Voroshilovgrad plant. In just a few months, a group of engineers formed the look of a promising locomotive, and then developed a project for which an experimental heat steam locomotive was later built. It is noteworthy that all the design work took only a few months. The project was ready in June 1939 of the year, after which the construction of the locomotive started.

As part of the program for the development and construction of heat steam locomotives, Voroshilovgrad engineers were assigned the task of creating a passenger locomotive, which in its characteristics would be similar to a serial locomotive of the IC. For comparison, the Kolomna plant was supposed to create a heat steam locomotive TP1, according to its characteristics, similar to the FD steam locomotive. In accordance with the terms of reference, the Voroshilovgrad heat steam locomotive had to have an axial formula 1-4-2 or a similar one, and also develop power up to 3000 hp Thus, in the future, a promising locomotive could become a full-fledged replacement for existing IP locomotives. It should be noted that the development of a cargo heat steam locomotive began a little later, but the implementation of this project was delayed for several years.

General view of heat-steam locomotive №8000

It is noteworthy that the heat-steam train project developed by the Voroshilovgrad Locomotive Plant did not receive a special designation. AT stories he remained under the prototype serial number. An experienced locomotive had the number 8000, which is now used to designate the entire project. Later, another similar project was created, known under the symbol “No. 8001”.

During the development of a new project, it was decided to use some work on existing projects, and also to borrow certain units from serial steam locomotives. At the same time, however, a proposal appeared not to copy the general features of the locomotive of the IC. In particular, the new heat locomotive got the wheel formula 1-4-1 with one supporting axis instead of two, like the “reference” steam locomotive. In addition, due to some features of the new power plant, it was necessary to redesign the existing boiler units borrowed from the steam engine Su.

Heat steam locomotive №8000 received the crew part, based on the units of existing steam locomotives, but having some differences from the production models. It had an axial 1-4-1 formula with one runner, four driving and one supporting axes. In addition, behind the runner and in front of the supporting axles, there were two baffle shafts used to transfer torque from the engine to the driving wheels. Runner and supporting axles with small diameter wheels were located on Bissel-type trolleys. The driving wheels were borrowed from the engine locomotive and had a diameter (in a circle of rolling) 1850 mm.

On the frame of a steam locomotive mounted boiler, based on units of the steam locomotive Su. It was assumed that the power plant locomotive №8000 will differ from Su smaller diameter cylinders. This led to the need to increase the steam pressure and the corresponding modification of the boiler. The most notable change was the completion of the furnace. Initially, the Belper firebox was used with a flat horizontal ceiling. To increase the parameters of the boiler while maintaining acceptable dimensions had to use a radial ceiling.

The renewed boiler had an evaporating surface with an area of ​​199,5 m2, a steam superheater with an area of ​​72,6 m2 and a grate area of ​​4,73 m2. After all these improvements, the steam pressure in the boiler was raised to 20 kgf / sq. Cm. For comparison, at the base Su this parameter was equal to the whole 13 kgf / sq. Cm. Thus, there was every reason to rely on the preservation of the required parameters and performance of the technical task.

Unlike the Kolomna TP1, the Voroshilovgrad heat steam locomotive No.8000 had minimal external differences from serial steam locomotives, which are noticeable only to specialists. So, the locomotive had only one back cabin for the serving crew. To perform some work on the sides of the boiler, two sites were provided with access through the stairs in the front.

The tender also had no external differences from serial samples. Inside the rectangular case were located coal pits, tanks for water and diesel fuel, as well as some other units. The tender was connected to the locomotive by a coupling device, as well as a set of pipelines and conveyors for feeding solid fuel to the furnace.

On the sides of the frame were located two cylinders with a diameter of 430 mm, which were the basis of the original combined power plant. Both cylinders were made as a single unit, also performing the function of one of the supports of the boiler. Thus, a large unit was firmly fixed in the design of the locomotive, and was also one of the power parts.

Inside the cylinder there were two pistons with an 770 mm stroke, which divided the total volume into three separate chambers. As conceived by the designers, during operation, the pistons had to move in different directions, setting the connecting rods in motion. It was assumed that the steam will be consistently fed into two side and one central chamber, ensuring the correct movement of the pistons and setting in motion other parts of the power plant.

The piston rods of the cylinder through a system of rigid elements were connected with two bogie shafts: the two front cylinders had to rotate the front one placed between the runner and the driving axle, the two rear cylinders - the baffle shaft located in front of the supporting axle. With the help of the drawbar and sparnikov, the torque of the fender rollers was transmitted to the driving axles.

Projects of heat steam locomotives, developed in 1939 year, implied the use of a power plant of a similar design. It was assumed that the steam engine will be used for moving from a standstill and acceleration to certain speeds. After that, it was planned to supply diesel fuel to the cylinders, with the help of which it was possible to achieve a noticeable increase in power and reduce fuel consumption.

As the working volume of the heat engine was proposed to use the central chamber of the cylinder. When accelerating to a speed of the order of 15-25 km / h, when the pistons began to move with the desired frequency, diesel fuel had to be injected into the central chamber, as a result of which it began to work on the principle of a two-stroke diesel engine. Only steam was supplied to the side chambers in all operating modes of the power plant. To supply diesel fuel, a steam locomotive received pumps with gas pushers of the Arshaulov type.

Due to the specifics of the innovations and some features of the new original units, the heat steam locomotive No.8000 hardly differed from the “standard” steam locomotive of the IC in terms of size and weight. The working mass of this locomotive was 140 tons, coupling - 100 tons. The estimated engine power was 3000-3500 hp (1500 hp on a steam engine and 2000 hp on a diesel engine), which made it possible to determine the construction speed at the level of 130 km / h.

For comparison, the operating weight of the locomotive IC reached 132-135 t, and the maximum power was 3200 hp The design speed was declared at 115 km / h. It is noteworthy that the coupling weight of the locomotive was only 81-82 t, whereas for “No. 8000” this parameter was more on 20 t. Such differences were associated with the design of the crew part, namely the number of supporting axles and, as a consequence, the distribution of weight across the axes.

The heat and steam locomotive project, later designated No. 8000, was completed in June 1939. Soon the plant workers began to build an experienced locomotive. Due to the complexity of the design, as well as the workload of the enterprise, the assembly of the prototype lasted about three months. He came to the test only in mid-October.

The first test ride took place on October 18. On this day, an experienced heat and steam locomotive drove the haul from Voroshilovgrad to Kondrashevsky and came back. It should be noted that already during this trip, the plant specialists checked the operation of the power plant in a combined mode. Soon began testing in other parts of the railways. As test tracks, the Southern and North-Donetsk railways were used. Until January 1940, the heat steam locomotive №8000 in total passed about 2000 km, using different operating modes of the power plant.

In early February, 1940, after carrying out factory tests and refinement, locomotive No. 8000 went to Moscow. On February 7, he reached the capital, where he was sent to the Research Institute of Railway Transport. Subsequent tests were planned on the experimental ring of the institute. It is noteworthy that already at this stage, experts noted: Voroshilovgrad Locomotive Plant managed to successfully solve the problem of building a locomotive with a combined steam and heat engines.

Tests on an experimental NIIZhT ring have shown that a promising heat steam locomotive has high characteristics that distinguish it favorably from existing locomotives. So, the calculated characteristics of power and speed of movement were confirmed. In addition, fuel consumption was set at work. Due to the use of diesel fuel, which dramatically increases the power of the locomotive, it was possible to achieve a twofold saving of fuel in comparison with steam engines of the type IC.

However, it was not without problems. Due to design defects, large steam leaks occurred, which made it impossible to test the power plant in some modes. For example, it was not possible to check the locomotive on the long lifts using only the steam engine. Also, some other tests of the steam locomotive were not carried out during operation without the use of a diesel engine. In addition, there was a noticeable excess of the recommended load on the rails associated with the design of the carriage part and the weight of the entire locomotive.

Tests at NIIZhT continued until the beginning of the summer of the 1940 year, after which the experienced heat steam train was returned to the manufacturer. Soon, the designers of the enterprise developed a project for the modernization of the locomotive, implying the revision and replacement of a large number of different components and assemblies. In particular, it was proposed to replace the wheelsets, change the cylinder blocks, as well as seriously modify the elements of the power plant and some other other components.

However, further calculations showed the inappropriateness of such an upgrade. It turned out that such an update of the existing heat and steam locomotive would cost about the same as the construction of a new locomotive. In this regard, the modernization program was significantly reduced, leaving only minor and minor modifications in it, which allowed to keep costs at an acceptable level.

In the course of refinement on a reduced plan, an experienced heat steam locomotive lost some steam pipelines, which they considered unnecessary, received new bearings of bogie shafts, as well as spool-type steam distribution mechanisms instead of cam lobes. In addition, a number of bolted joints replaced welded and made some other improvements. Due to such modifications, it was possible to solve some problems, however, it was not possible to reduce the increased load on the rails, since the coupling weight was reduced slightly.

The modernization of the reduced plan took a lot of time, because of which the locomotive №8000 again went to Moscow only in June 1941 of the year. In the course of the regular tests, it was planned to check the possibilities of a heat-steam train for towing trains. Such tests began already at the station Debaltseve near Voroshilovgrad. On the route Debaltseve - Lyublino locomotive held the composition of the mass 900 t.

Locomotive layout #8000

The heat locomotive arrived in Moscow on June 20, and after some preparation, made another flight with a payload. June 21 began a trip on the route Moscow - Bologoye - Moscow with a train of mass 1100 t. Such tests continued for a long time and allowed us to establish the real characteristics of a promising locomotive. The next day after being sent to Bologoye, the Great Patriotic War began, which seriously affected the further operation of the heat steam train.

After checks on the October Railway, locomotive No. XXUMX was sent to them on the road. V.V. Kuibyshev, where it was exploited in the next few months. In the summer of 8000, an experienced heat steam locomotive worked on the Moscow-Ryazan railway, where it was used to tow cargo and passenger trains. During this stage of operation, the specialists of NIIZhT, who monitored the work of the locomotive, prepared a regular report. At this time, it was noted that the efficiency of the heat steam locomotive on certain sections of routes reaches 1942-10%.

At the same time, the speed limits that existed on the railway between Moscow and Ryazan had a significant negative impact on real indicators. Because of them, the locomotive was not able to pick up a high speed at which the power plant could develop maximum power and show the best efficiency.

In 1943, an original proposal appeared concerning the operation of the central chambers of the cylinders. At the suggestion of LM Maisel, when the pressure in the chambers was reduced to the level of the boiler, they had to be allowed in steam. Due to this, it was possible to slightly reduce the temperature of the cylinders and pistons, as well as create better conditions for the use of steam energy. At that time, the heat steam locomotive №8000 worked on the Tashkent railway, where the checks of the new proposal began. In the future, this technique was tested when returning to Moscow (through Siberia), as well as on sites near the capital. The admission of steam into the central chambers made it possible to slightly increase the power of the power plant and increase the maximum speed of movement.

The last test trips, during which an experienced locomotive pulled cargo and passenger trains, went from 1946 to 1948. During this test phase, various aspects of the operation of the power plant were checked, and an updated list of requirements for promising heat and steam locomotives was compiled. The existing “No.8000” had a number of serious flaws that appeared during trial operation and prevented its full use. New projects should get rid of these problems.

The main disadvantage was the increased load on the rails. Due to the large coupling mass, which was not able to reduce to an acceptable level, it was necessary to limit the speed of movement. For example, on rails weighing at the level of 40-43 kg, the 1 m length should be moved at a speed of no more than 70 km / h.

Also, operation has shown that the cylinder block needs serious modifications. The existing design had a drawback in the form of regular breakage of steel bushings, which excluded the use of a diesel engine. Repair took some time and decommissioned locomotive. More serious problems had to be faced with the breakdowns of the crew part. In the design of the latter there were no axle wedges, due to which, during its breakdown, it was necessary to disassemble the entire locomotive and produce new canvases of the frame.

The prototype of the heat steam locomotive №8000 had both advantages and disadvantages. The specifics of the latter ultimately affected the decision of the specialists of the people's commissariat of communications. In their opinion, in its current form, the locomotive could not be used in real transport, since the existing shortcomings made it difficult to operate, maintain and repair. Experienced rides stopped in 1948. By decision of the management, locomotive No. 8000 was written off for lack of prospects. Soon it was disposed of.

The project of the passenger heat steam locomotive was closed due to the mass of problems that could be eliminated only by creating a completely new locomotive. After the completion of the project “№8000”, the specialists of the Voroshilovgrad Locomotive Plant returned to the creation of a freight heat steam locomotive, the development of which was suspended several years earlier. It was decided to update the existing project using the experience gained and the existing developments. The new locomotive received the serial number number XXUMX and is worthy of separate consideration.

Based on:
Rakov V.A. Locomotives of domestic railways 1845-1955. - ed. 2-e, revised and enlarged. - M .: "Transport", 1995
Photos used:
Rakov V.A. Locomotives of domestic railways 1845-1955
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  1. Amurets
    Amurets 8 December 2015 08: 09
    I can’t understand why smart people couldn’t understand the impasse of the idea? After all, the first diesel engines were designed to work on pulverized coal and I don’t think that Lviv and Meisel did not know about the failure of this work as well as the failure of mechanical power transmission in the USSR and abroad diesel locomotives, as Professor Yu.V. Lomonosov was convinced Thanks to the author for covering the little-known pages of our railway transport.
    1. Captain nemo
      Captain nemo 9 December 2015 01: 26
      Quote: Amurets
      I can’t understand why smart people couldn’t understand the impasse of the idea? After all, the first diesel engines were designed to work on pulverized coal

      The locomotive is not a car for you, if a locomotive can move off smoothly, then a locomotive with a mechanical transmission to the wheels as if the car is moving away or when shifting gears will break the couplers with all the consequences if the pneumatic brake system of the entire train is exhausted at that moment.
      The problem of breaking the hitch was of course solved even on the 20x Shchel-1 locomotive, which now stands in Khovrino due to the use of an electric transmission, but it is more complicated, more expensive and heavier than a mechanical one, the latter is critical for diesel locomotives, unlike electric locomotives, where a weight ballast is often used.
      It seems that this is related to the fact that on the mining dump trucks of the "Belaz" family with a carrying capacity of 80-120 tons, mechanical transmission to the wheels is no longer used, although there are no couplings like those of train cars.
      1. Nick1953
        Nick1953 9 December 2015 18: 51
        "if the locomotive can move off smoothly,"
        My friend, you obviously didn’t ride on steam locomotives! :-)
        The squad moves off with such a jerk that you are afraid to fall off the shelf!
        And how did the heavy ones get under way? The engine pushed back to squeeze the composition buffers, then tore forward. There was a roar! :-) :-)
  2. mishastich
    mishastich 8 December 2015 09: 00
    Die sowjetische Hybride der Diesel-Dampflokomotive.

    We are waiting for 8001.
  3. Robert Nevsky
    Robert Nevsky 8 December 2015 12: 09
    Thanks to the author for the article! We are waiting for more articles on steam locomotives! hi
  4. moskowit
    moskowit 8 December 2015 16: 24
    Interesting and entertaining with an abundance of technical information. Thanks. I did not know about such a direction in steam locomotive and diesel locomotive engineering.
  5. shturman032
    shturman032 8 December 2015 22: 04
    TP1 was a beautiful example of heat and steam locomotive building, but by that time electric and diesel locomotives would have been rushing around if it weren’t for war, the century of steam locomotives would have ended earlier
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 9 December 2015 01: 09
      Quote: shturman032
      by that time electric and diesel locomotives were already in full swing, if not for war, the century of steam locomotives would have ended earlier

      I don’t think so! The breakthrough in thermoelectric locomotive building occurred after the 20th Party Congress. Although Stalin first drew attention to diesel locomotives in 1945, when he was traveling to the Potsdam conference. He was interested in a locomotive that pulled a government train, which does not need frequent equipment. Before and during the Second World War, diesel locomotives were focused on the Ashgabat Railway. Although TURKSIB was originally designed for diesel locomotives. Reference: Virolainen Voldemar Matveyevich in his memoir "Green Street". The author's biography is in Wikipedia and TSB.
      1. shturman032
        shturman032 9 December 2015 09: 23
        Sorry, I meant foreign railway. Although we, for example, had VL22, a handsome electric locomotive.