Military Review

Pol Pot. The Khmer Route. Part of 4. The fall of the regime and twenty years of war in the jungle

From the very first days of finding the Khmer Rouge in power, Kampuchea’s relations with neighboring Vietnam remained tense. Even before the Communist Party of Kampuchea came to power, its leadership was incessant struggle between the pro-Vietnamese and anti-Vietnamese factions, which ended in victory for the latter.

Anti-Vietnamese Khmer Rouge Policy

Pol Pot himself was very negative about Vietnam and its role in Indo-Chinese politics. After the Khmer Rouge came to power, the policy of purging the Vietnamese population began in Democratic Kampuchea, as a result of which a significant part of the Vietnamese fled across the border. At the same time, official Kampuchean propaganda blamed Vietnam for all the problems of the country, including the failures of the economic policies of the Pol Pot government. Vietnam was presented as the exact opposite of Kampuchea, much was said about imaginary Vietnamese individualism, which was opposed to Kampuchean collectivism. The image of the enemy helped unite the Kampuchean nation and strengthen the mobilization component in the life of Kampuchea, which already existed in constant tension. All the negative moments in the life of the Kampuchean society, including the “excesses” of Pol Pot's repressive policies, were written off to the intrigues of the Vietnamese.

Pol Pot. The Khmer Route. Part of 4. The fall of the regime and twenty years of war in the jungle
- "Grandpa Pol Pot" and children

Anti-Vietnamese propaganda was particularly active in affecting the peasant youth, who formed the main support of the Khmer Rouge and their main mobilization resource. Unlike adult Kampucheans, especially representatives of the urban population, many young residents of remote villages did not even see Vietnamese in their lives, which did not prevent them from considering them as their sworn enemies. This was facilitated by the official propaganda, which proclaimed that the main task of Vietnam was to exterminate the Khmers and seize the territory of Kampuchea. However, behind the anti-Vietnamese rhetoric of the Kampuchean authorities were not only Pol Pot's personal hatred for the Vietnamese and the need to create an image of the enemy to mobilize the population of Kampuchea. The fact is that Vietnam was the main conductor of Soviet influence in Southeast Asia, which China did not like very much. With the hands of the Khmer Rouge, China actually tested Vietnam for strength and declared its claims to leadership in Indochina and in the revolutionary communist movement in Southeast Asia. On the other hand, for Pol Pot, the confrontation with Vietnam was a chance to expand the volume of Chinese material, financial and military support. The Khmer Rouge leadership was convinced that in the event of a conflict with Vietnam, China would provide comprehensive assistance to Democratic Kampuchea.

The formal provision of the anti-Vietnamese rhetoric of the Cambodian authorities was based on the confessions of alleged Vietnamese agents of influence that were beaten out in Kampuchea prisons. Under torture, the arrested people agreed with all the charges and testified against Vietnam, who allegedly recruited them for sabotage and espionage activities against Kampuchea. Another justification for the anti-Vietnamese position of the Khmer Rouge was territorial claims. The fact is that the territory of Vietnam included territories inhabited by “Khmer Krom” - ethnic Khmer who found themselves after the independence of Vietnam and Cambodia were part of the Vietnamese state. The Khmer Rouge sought to revive the former power of the Khmer Empire, only in the form of a communist state, so they also advocated the return of Khmer lands to the Democratic Kampuchea. These lands were in the east part of Vietnam, and in the west part of Thailand. But Thailand did not occupy, in contrast to Vietnam, an important place in the aggressive policy of Democratic Kampuchea. Democratic Kampuchea’s Defense Minister Son Sen constantly reminded Pol Pot that his troops were unhappy with the Khmer lands being part of Vietnam and were ready to weapons in their hands to return them to Kampuchea. In the agricultural communes of the country, meetings were regularly held at which psychological treatment of the peasants was conducted with the aim of setting up the population for the impending war with Vietnam. At the same time, already from 1977, the Khmer Rouge began the tactics of constant armed provocations on the Kampuchea-Vietnamese border. Attacking the Vietnamese villages, the Khmer Rouge hoped that in the event of a serious military confrontation, Kampuchea would use the help of China. To do this, Chinese military advisers and specialists were invited to the country - according to various sources, from 5 to 20 thousands of people. China and Kampuchea strongly emphasized the importance of bilateral relations and declared the special character of the Chinese-Cambodian friendship. Pol Pot and members of his government visited the PRC, met with the country's top leadership, including Marshal Hua Guofeng. By the way, the latter, at a meeting with the leaders of the Khmer Rouge, declared that the PRC supports the activities of Democratic Kampuchea in the direction of further revolutionary transformations.

Against the background of maintaining friendly relations with China, relations with Vietnam and the Soviet Union behind it continued to deteriorate. If, after the Khmer Rouge came to power, the Soviet Union reacted to it rather positively, as the communist forces still won, albeit with a slightly different ideology, by the end of 1977 the Soviet leadership realized its anti-Vietnamese and anti-Soviet character polpotovskogo regime, distanced itself from the development of relations with Democratic Kampuchea. Increasingly, criticism of the government of the Khmer Rouge, who were openly accused of Maoism and the conduct of pro-Chinese policies in the country, began to be heard in the Soviet media and regional literature. Nevertheless, the leadership of the Communist Party of Vietnam attempted to normalize relations with neighboring Kampuchea, for which, in June 1977, the Vietnamese side turned to the Red Khmer with a proposal to hold a bilateral meeting. However, the government of Kampuchea in a response letter asked to wait with the meeting and expressed hope for the improvement of the situation on the borders. In fact, the Khmer Rouge did not want any normalization of relations with Vietnam. Even in spite of the fact that China preferred to keep a certain distance and not intervene openly in the Cambodian-Vietnamese confrontation.

Cambodian-Vietnamese war 1978-1979

31 December 1977, the Khmer Rouge leadership, to the whole world, announced that Vietnam was taking acts of armed aggression against Democratic Kampuchea on the borders of the country. Naturally, after this demarche, the hope of normalizing relations was completely lost. The inevitability of open confrontation between the two states became obvious. Moreover, Kampponhnang had built a military air base from which Vietnamese territory could attack aircraft in the event of the outbreak of hostilities. Border provocations against Vietnam continued. So, on April 18 1978, an armed Khmer Rouge unit invaded the territory of the Vietnamese frontier province of Anqiang, which attacked the village of Batyuk. In the village began the total destruction of the local population. 3157 people died, including women and children. Only two villagers managed to escape. After this raid, the Khmer Rouge retreated to the territory of Kampuchea. In response, Vietnamese troops launched several raids into Kampuchean territory. It became clear that the large-scale military clash of the two states was not far off. Moreover, in Kampuchea, slogans were raised about the need for the complete destruction of all Vietnamese people and the genocide of the Vietnamese population of the country began. The attack on Batyuk and the killing of more than three thousand Vietnamese civilians was the last straw of patience for the Vietnamese authorities. After such a raid, it was not possible to tolerate the antics of the Kampuchean Khmer Rouge, and the Vietnamese military command began to prepare directly for the armed operation against Kampuchea.

However, without the support of at least part of the Khmer population, the actions of Vietnam could be perceived as aggression against Kampuchea, which potentially entailed the danger of China entering the war. Therefore, the Vietnamese leadership has stepped up its work to find those political forces in Kampuchea that could be considered as an alternative to the Polpotov Khmer Rouge. First of all, the Vietnamese leadership entered into negotiations with a group of old Kampuchean communists who had long lived in Vietnam and enjoyed the confidence of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam. Secondly, those representatives of the Khmer Rouge, who, for whatever reason, in 1976-1977, became a possible support of Vietnam. ran into the territory of Vietnam, fleeing political repression. Finally, there was hope for an armed uprising against Pol Pot of part of the Khmer Rouge, dissatisfied with the policy of the leadership of Kampuchea and located on the territory of Kampuchea itself. First of all, it was the head of the Eastern Administrative Zone So Phim, which we wrote about in the previous part of our story, and his political associates. The Eastern Administrative Zone maintained de facto independence from Pol Pot and in every way hampered the policy of Phnom Penh. In May 1978, the troops subordinated to So Phim, raised an uprising against Pol Pot in eastern Kampuchea. Naturally, this speech was carried out not without the support of Vietnam, although openly Hanoi had not yet decided to speak out against Kampuchea. However, the uprising was brutally suppressed by the Khmer Rouge, and So Phim himself was killed. The hopes of the Vietnamese for the transition to opposition to Pol Pot Nuon Chea, who occupied one of the most important places in the hierarchy of the Khmer Rouge and was traditionally considered a “pro-Vietnamese” politician, did not materialize either. Nuon Chea not only did not go over to the side of Vietnam, but also remained with Paul Poet almost to the end. But Vietnam has an ally in the face of Heng Samrin.

Heng Samrin (born 1934) came from a poor peasant family who from the early years participated in the national liberation and communist movement in Cambodia. After the victory of the Khmer Rouge, Heng Samrin, who commanded one of the regiments of the National Liberation Army of Kampuchea, was appointed to the position of political commissar of the division, then - commander of the division. At the time of the uprising in the Eastern Administrative Zone, Heng Samrin held the position of deputy chief of staff of this zone. In 1978, he refused to submit to Pol Pot and took the lead of a subordinate division against the Khmer Rouge. He managed to capture part of Kampong Cham province, but then the Khmer Rouge were able to force Heng Samrin’s troops to the Vietnamese border. The Vietnamese leadership decided to use Heng Samrin and his supporters to give legitimacy to their further actions - they say, we do not just invade Kampuchea in order to overthrow its government, but support a sensible and moderate part of the Kampuchean communist movement. For this 2 December 1978 in the province of Kratie, on the border with Vietnam, the United Front for National Salvation of Kampuchea was created. Seventy people took part in its founding congress - the pro-Vietnamese veterans of the Kampuchean communist movement. Heng Samrin was elected chairman of the front.

Preparations for the invasion of Kampuchea intensified in the fall of 1978, which was also reported to the Soviet side, which did not directly participate in organizing the invasion, but in fact supported the Vietnamese line on Kampuchea. The Vietnamese military command was not afraid of a quick entry into the war of China, since, according to the Vietnamese, China simply would not have time to react to the lightning-fast throw of the Vietnamese troops. The Vietnamese Popular Army exceeded the Kampuchean armed forces in terms of numbers, weapons, and level of combat training. Therefore, the outcome of the collision, in principle, turned out to be predetermined from the very first days of the conflict. Starting hostilities, the Vietnamese did not even doubt their own victory, as the Soviet political and military leadership asserted. At the head of the Vietnamese troops preparing for the invasion of Kampuchea, was General of the Army Van Tien Dung (1917-2002) - a Vietnam national liberation war veteran who developed and implemented the plan of the Spring Offensive of the year 1975, as a result of which South Vietnam fell. Van Chien Dung was considered one of the most successful commanders of Vietnam, the second after Waugh Nguyen Ziapa.

December 25, 1978 from the Vietnamese city of Banmethuot tank and motorized rifle units of the Vietnamese army. They quickly crossed the border with Kampuchea and entered its territory. The offensive involved 14 Vietnamese divisions. The Khmer Rouge squads stationed on the border did not show any serious resistance, so very soon the Vietnamese troops advanced deep into Kampuchea towards Phnom Penh. Despite the loud statements of the Cambodian leadership about the inevitable defeat of the Vietnamese and the victory of the Cambodian people, very soon the Vietnamese managed to advance to the capital of the country. January 1, 1979 the fighting was already in the vicinity of the capital. On January 5, 1979, Pol Pot called on Kampuchea and the Kampuchean people to wage a war with "Soviet military expansion." Mention of Soviet military expansion was obviously made to attract the attention of China, as well as possible interference by the West. However, neither China nor Western countries provided military support to the Pol Pot regime. Moreover, on the advice of the Chinese, Pol Pot facilitated the evacuation of Prince Norodom Sihanouk from the country, ostensibly so that the prince represents the interests of Democratic Kampuchea at the UN. In fact, the Chinese were much more interested in Norod Sihanouk in this situation than Pol Pot. Sihanouk was the legitimate head of the Cambodian people and as such was recognized by the international community. Naturally, if Sihanouk was successfully lured to its side, China, even in the event of the collapse of the Polpot regime, could in the long run count on regaining control of Cambodia. The position of Pol Pot was becoming increasingly precarious. On the morning of January 7, 1979, a few hours before the Vietnamese troops entered the capital of Democratic Kampuchea Phnom Penh, Pol Pot left the city with his closest associates. He flew by helicopter to the west of the country, where military units that remained loyal to the leader of the Khmer Rouge retreated. Khmer Rouge Foreign Minister Ieng Sari escaped from Phnom Penh “on his own” and only reached the border with Thailand on January 11, torn off and even lost his shoes. He was clothed and shod at the Chinese Embassy in Thailand and sent to Beijing. The Vietnamese forces, having entered Phnom Penh, officially transferred power in the country to the United Front of National Salvation of Kampuchea, led by Heng Samrin. Formally, EFNSK and Heng Samrin were positioned as the forces that liberated Kampuchea from the dictatorship of Pol Pot.

The Fall of Democratic Kampuchea and the Kampuchea People's Republic

10 January 1979 was proclaimed by the People’s Republic of Kampuchea (NRK). In the part of Cambodia occupied by the Vietnamese, the formation of new power structures under the control of the United Front of National Salvation of Kampuchea began. The backbone of these structures were representatives of the "middle link" of the Kampuchean Communists, who switched to the Vietnamese side. At first, the power of the new government rested on the direct power support of Vietnam. The world community did not recognize the People’s Republic of Kampuchea. Despite the war crimes of the Polpot regime that became known, it was the representative offices of Democratic Kampuchea that for a long time were considered by most countries as legitimate, while the NRC was recognized only by pro-Soviet countries that were members of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance. For the NRC, the lack of real local authority has become a serious problem. It was planned to form people's committees, but this process went slowly and with great difficulties. In fact, it was only in Phnom Penh that the central authorities of the EFNSK were operating, relying on the assistance of Vietnamese advisers, both military and civilian. The core of the new regime was the Communist Party of Kampuchea (CPC), supported by Vietnam and representing an alternative to the half-Communist Communist Party of Kampuchea. Practically in all regions of the country not only were the squadrons of the Vietnamese People’s Army stationed, which remained the main force mainstay of the regime, but also housed Vietnamese civilian administrative and engineering advisers who helped the new government to establish a system of governance and organization of the national economy.

The contradiction between the two groups of the new elite - the former military and political leaders of the Eastern zone of Democratic Kampuchea, who have gone over to the side of Vietnam, and the old veterans of the Kampuchean Communist Party, who lived in 1950-1960-s, also became a serious problem of the new government. and never recognized Pol Pot as the leader of the country's communist movement. The interests of the latter were represented by Pen Sovan (Rod.1936). Pen Sovan was not just a veteran of the Cambodian revolutionary movement, but also a major of the Vietnamese People’s Army. At the beginning of 1979, the group under his leadership held the “third congress” of the Kampuchea People’s Revolutionary Party (NRPK), thus not recognizing the “illegitimate” congresses in 1963, 1975 and 1978 Pen Sovan was elected General Secretary of the Central Committee. However, the creation of the NPC before 1981 was kept secret. Heng Samrin was appointed head of the People’s Revolutionary Council. Formally, he was considered the head of the new revolutionary government, although he was in fact subordinate to the Vietnamese advisers.

Thus, by 1980, the most significant positions in the leadership of the NRC and the NRP were held by Heng Samrin, Pen Sovan and Chea Sim - also the former “Red Khmer”, who joined the Vietnamese side with Heng Samrin. In the summer of 1979, meetings of the Kampuchea Revolutionary People’s Tribunal began, at which 15-19 on August, Pol Pot and Ieng Sari were sentenced in absentia to the death penalty for committing numerous crimes against the Kampuchean people. It was during this period that widespread coverage of the Khmer Rouge repressive policy, which was carried out in 1975-1978, began. The new leaders of Kampuchea announced the number of Cambodian citizens killed during the three years of the Khmer Rouge rule. According to Pen Sovana, 3 100 000 people were killed at Pol Pot. However, this figure - over 3 million. People - is denied by the Khmer Rouge itself. Thus, Pol Pot himself in a recent interview that the Khmer Rouge leader gave in December 1979 reported that during his leadership more than several thousand people could not die. Khieu Samphan later stated that the 11 000 dead were Vietnamese agents, the 30 000 were infiltrated by Vietnamese, and only 3000 Kampuchean people died as a result of the mistakes and excesses of the Khmer Rouge local policy. But, according to Khieu Samphan, at least one and a half million inhabitants of the country died as a result of the actions of the Vietnamese troops. Of course, that the last words no one took seriously.

After the occupation of Phnom Penh by Vietnamese troops and the formation of the government of the People’s Republic of Kampuchea, the Pol Khmer-controlled Khmer Rouge troops retreated to the western part of the country, to the border with Thailand. This region for many decades became the main stronghold of the Khmer Rouge. In the first months after the fall of Phnom Penh, the Vietnamese surrendered to captivity, and about 42 of thousands of soldiers and officers of the Khmer Rouge army were killed or captured. Loyal to Pol Pot the troops suffered serious losses and lost their positions in the country. Thus, the general headquarters of the Khmer Rouge in Amleang, the bases in the province of Pursat and the river fleet based in the province of Kahkong were destroyed.

War in the jungle. The Khmer Rouge against the new government

However, gradually, the Khmer Rouge was able to recover from the strikes inflicted by the Vietnamese. This was facilitated by the general change in the military-political situation in Indochina. If formerly Democratic Kampuchea was supported only by China, then after the invasion of Kampuchea by the Vietnamese troops, Thailand and the United States were behind the Khmer Rouge, who were trying to prevent the strengthening of the Vietnamese and, therefore, Soviet positions in Indochina and Southeast Asia . In the partisan resistance of the Khmer Rouge, the American leadership saw an obstacle to the further advance of the USSR in Indochina. China’s secret agreements were concluded with Thailand, according to which China refused to support the Thai Communist Party, which fought a partisan war against the royal regime of the country, and Thailand, in turn, provided its territory for the Khmer Rouge bases.

Secretly, the position of Thailand was welcomed by the United States, which also came out in support of the representation of Democratic Kampuchea at the United Nations by the Polpotov delegation. Enlisting the support of the United States, China, and Thailand, Pol Pot intensified hostilities against the new Kampuchean government and the Vietnamese troops supporting it. Despite the fact that China was formally defeated in the short-term Sino-Vietnamese war, it continued to provide military and logistical assistance to the Khmer Rouge. Paul Pot by 1983 managed to create nine divisions and form the Ronse group to act in the rear of the new Kampuchean government. Steps have been taken to break out of international isolation. In particular, representatives of the Khmer Rouge, along with supporters of Son Sann and Norodom Sihanouk, joined the coalition government of Cambodia, recognized by the United Nations and by a majority of non-pro-Soviet countries. In 1979-1982 The coalition government was headed by Khieu Samphan, and in 1982, he was replaced by Son Sann (1911-2000), a veteran of Cambodian politics, Norodom Sihanouk’s longtime associate, who remained in charge of the coalition government until 1993. Khieu Samphan himself in 1985 was proclaimed the official successor of Pol Pot as leader of the Khmer Rouge and continued to lead the activities of the Khmer Rouge guerrilla groups in the jungles of Cambodia. The formal president of Democratic Kampuchea was proclaimed by Prince Norodom Sihanouk, Son Sann became prime minister, Khieu Samphan became deputy prime minister. At the same time, the actual power over the rebel formations remained in the hands of Pol Pot, who remained commander-in-chief of the armed forces of the Khmer Rouge and the leader of the Kampuchea Communist Party.

Pol Pot remained under the control of impressive military units - about 30 thousand people. Another 12 of thousands of soldiers were listed in the monarchical grouping Sihanouk and 5 of thousands of soldiers in units subordinating to Son Sannu. Thus, the new government of Kampuchea was opposed by about 50 of thousands of fighters based in the western regions of the country and in the territory of neighboring Thailand, supported by Thailand and China, and indirectly by the USA. China provided military assistance to all the groups that fought against the Vietnamese government of Kampuchea, but 95% aid came from the Khmer Rouge groups. Only 5% of Chinese weapons and equipment received troops, controlled directly by Sihanouk and Son Sanna. The latter were more assisted by the United States, but preferring to act not openly, but through controlled funds. Singapore and Malaysia also played an important role in helping the anti-government groups in Cambodia. At some point, it was Singapore’s help that was decisive. We should not forget about the important role of refugee camps. On the territory of Thailand in the 1980-s. there were tens of thousands of Cambodian refugees who were deployed in camps set up under the control of the UN and the Thai government. However, many refugee camps were in fact the bases of the Khmer Rouge combat units. Among the young refugees, the Khmer Rouge recruited fighters, and they were trained and deployed there.

During the 1980-x-1990-x. "Khmer Rouge" waged a partisan war in the jungles of Cambodia, occasionally making attacks and attacks in major cities of the country, including the capital Phnom Penh. Since the Khmer Rouge were able to regain control over a number of rural areas of the country, transport links between its regions, including the most important cities of the country, were seriously hampered in Kampuchea. In order to deliver cargo, it was necessary to organize a powerful escort by Vietnamese military units. However, the Khmer Rouge failed to create “liberated areas” in the provinces of Kampuchea far from the Thai border. The insufficient level of combat training of the Khmer Rouge, the weakness of the material and technical base, and the lack of broad support from the population also had an effect. In 1983-1984 and 1984-1985 large-scale military operations of the Vietnamese army against the Polo-poets were undertaken, leading to the defeat of the Khmer Rouge bases in a number of areas of the country. In an effort to increase support from the country's population, the Khmer Rouge gradually abandoned purely communist slogans and proceeded to the propaganda of Khmer nationalism. The main emphasis was placed on the seizure of the country's territory by Vietnam and the imaginary prospects for the Vietnamese settlement of the Kampuchean territory, as a result of which the Khmers would be expelled or assimilated. This propaganda found a response from a significant part of the Khmer, who traditionally had a very cool attitude towards the Vietnamese, and recently were very unhappy with the interference of Vietnam in the internal affairs of the country and, in fact, the complete control of the government of the People’s Republic of Kampuchea by the Vietnamese leadership. What played a role was the fact that, in a single bundle with the Khmer Rouge, Norod Sihanouk, heir to the royal dynasty, was considered by many Khmers to be the only legitimate ruler of the Cambodian state.

The decline of the Khmer Rouge and the death of Pol Pot

But by the second half of the 1980's. The Khmer Rouge gradually began to lose their positions. This was due to the beginning of the withdrawal of Vietnamese troops from the country and the transfer of the role of the main opponent of the Khmer Rouge to the Kampuchean army. In 1987, the formations of the coalition government of Democratic Kampuchea numbered about 54 thousand people, including 39 thousand people - in combat units. Over 20, thousands of militants operated on the territory of Kampuchea, the rest were deployed in Thailand. The Kampuchea armed forces numbered over 100 thousand people in regular units and 120 thousand people in the militia units. Gradually, the parties to the conflict came to realize the need for peace negotiations. The leadership of the Soviet Union was inclined to this opinion. Mikhail Gorbachev turned to a policy of constant and unjustified concessions to his political opponents, which ultimately contributed to undermining the political influence of the Soviet Union and strengthening the US position. Kampuchea was no exception - it was Moscow who was pressing hard on the Heng Samrin government with the goal of pursuing a policy of “reconciliation”. The Soviet Union actually became a mediator between Vietnam and People’s Kampuchea on the one hand, and Democratic Kampuchea, China and the United States on the other, while in the USSR negotiations actually lobbied the interests of the Chinese and American sides. US Secretary of State J. Schulz sent a letter to USSR Minister of Foreign Affairs Eduard Shevardnadze in Moscow, stating the need for international observation in Cambodia and the proclamation of head of state Norodom Sihanouk. The Soviet leadership forwarded this letter to Hanoi and Phnom Penh without comment, which in fact meant support by the Soviet Union of American proposals. At the same time, the USSR continued the policy of providing military assistance to the government of the People’s Republic of Kampuchea. However, the Cambodian leadership was forced to make concessions. The new Prime Minister Hun Sen in April 1989 renamed the People's Republic of Kampuchea to the State of Cambodia. In September, the last units of the Vietnamese army were withdrawn from Kampuchea’s 1989, after which an armed invasion of the opposition began from Thailand. However, the Cambodian army managed to repel the attacks of the Khmer Rouge. In 1991, the International Conference on Cambodia in Paris signed the Agreement on a Comprehensive Political Settlement of the Cambodian Conflict, the Agreement Concerning Sovereignty, Independence, Territorial Integrity and Immunity, Neutrality and National Unity, and the Declaration on Rehabilitation and Reconstruction. 21 September 1993. The National Assembly adopted a new constitution of the country, according to which Cambodia was proclaimed a constitutional monarchy, and Norodom Sihanouk returned to the royal throne.

These political events in the life of the country dealt a decisive blow to the positions of the Khmer Rouge and contributed to a serious split within the partisan movement itself. After China finally refused to support the Khmer Rouge, the latter received funds only from smuggling timber and precious metals to Thailand. The number of armed forces controlled by Pol Pot has decreased from 30 thousand to 15 thousand people. Many "Khmer Rouge" went over to the side of government troops. However, at the end of January 1994, Mr. Khieu Samphan called on the people to revolt against the illegitimate authority of Cambodia. Bloody battles between government forces and Khmer Rouge formations began in a number of provinces of the country. The government’s decree on amnesty for all the Khmer Rouge fighters who surrendered within six months became a successful government move, after which 7 thousand people left the ranks of the Polkot people. In response, Pol Pot returned to the policy of harsh repression in the ranks of the Khmer Rouge, which alienated even former supporters. In August, 1996 took the entire Pailinsk Khmer Rouge group under the command of the closest ally of Pol Pot Ieng Sari to the side of the government. Having lost all connection with reality, Pol Pot ordered the destruction of his Secretary of Defense Son Sen, who was killed by 15 on June 1997, along with 13 by members of his family, including babies. Pol Pot’s inadequacy led to the separation of his last supporters, Khieu Samphan and Nuon Chea, who surrendered to the government forces. Pol Pot himself was deposed and placed under house arrest. In fact, the command of the Khmer Rouge was taken over by Ta Mok, once the favorite and closest henchman of Pol Pot, who after twenty years led him to overthrow and arrest.

Under the leadership of Ta Mok, few Khmer Rouge troops continued to operate in the jungles of Cambodia. 15 April 1998 d. Pol Pot passed away - according to the official version, which was voiced by Ta Mok, heart failure caused the death of 72-year-old Khmer Rouge leader. Pol Pot's body was cremated and buried. In March, 2000, the government leader, arrested the last Khmer Rouge leader, Ta Mok. He died in 2006 at the age of 80 years in prison, without waiting for a court sentence. In 2007, Ieng Sari and his wife Ieng Tirith were arrested and charged with the genocide of the Vietnamese and Muslim population of the country. Ieng Sari died in 2013 in Phnom Penh at the age of 89. His wife Ieng Tirith died in 2015 in Pailin at the age of 83. Khieu Samphan is still alive. He was 84 of the year, and 7 on August 2014, he was sentenced to life imprisonment. Life imprisonment is currently serving and 89-year-old Nuon Chea (born 1926) is also one of Pol Pot's closest associates. 25 July 2010 Mr. Kan Kek Iue, who was in charge of the Tuolsleng prison, was sentenced to 35 years in prison. Currently, the 73-year-old "Brother Blow" is in prison. The first wife of Pol Pot Khieu Ponnari back in 1996 received an amnesty from the government and quietly lived out her life in Pailin, where she died in 2003 from cancer at the age of 83 years. Pol Pot has a daughter from her second marriage - Sar Patchada, she is Sita. Sita leads a secular lifestyle in one of the cities in the northwestern part of the country. 16 March 2014 was announced the wedding of the daughter of the leader of the Khmer Rouge. Many ordinary "Khmer Rouge" preferred to continue political activities in the ranks of the National Salvation Party of Cambodia, acting from the standpoint of Khmer nationalism.

“Brother number two” Nuon Chea (pictured in the courtroom), sentenced to life imprisonment, turned his word into a statement of the official position of the Khmer Rouge. According to the politician, Vietnam is to blame for all the troubles of Cambodia with the python and the deer neighborhood. The second culprit in the tragedy of Cambodia, Nuon Chea, called the United States and their imperialist policies that led to the deaths of millions of people. killing only those who actually collaborated with the Americans or was a Vietnamese agent.
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  1. pv1005
    pv1005 30 November 2015 07: 41
    As if written about hohlostan.
    1. Reinhard
      Reinhard 3 January 2017 21: 50
      Yes ! I definitely have this perception! Directly one to one! laughing
    2. Sturmflieger
      Sturmflieger 23 November 2018 16: 12
      Yes, it seems. In Cambodia, savages from the "Mountain of Gems", in the former Ukrainian SSR, Seluk from the Carpathians. In the former Ukrainian SSR, they were encouraged, in Cambodia, the Chinese (although they were noted). The only difference is that Thailand played the role of Poland in Cambodia. And the Vietnamese gave the brains to the local skakuas (and, just like with Ukroreikh, they did not finish the job - because of the betrayal in the Kremlin).
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 30 November 2015 07: 57
    Yeah ... the country had to survive .. Thank you, Ilya .. it was very interesting ..
  3. mishastich
    mishastich 30 November 2015 09: 41
    Very interesting and informative.
    Especially when the United States and Thailand began to support, and the PRC exported only forest and drag. metals. Very familiar. Very similar.
    1. Scraptor
      Scraptor 30 November 2015 12: 00
      They began to support because they liked genocide, and not because they were constantly against socialism ...
      1. Sturmflieger
        Sturmflieger 23 November 2018 16: 15
        They began to support those who organized genocide, because "did not like genocide" ??? !!! Original! )))
  4. aviator1913
    aviator1913 30 November 2015 10: 14
    Traveled to Cambodia. A good country, good people, everyone is tired of the war, there is access to the sea. If everything is calm, there will be development to the level of Thailand I think. A lot of money is being invested there now, since there is a lot of land, it will not be difficult to develop tourism and industry due to the cheapness of labor and the availability of resources.

    Angka has a future, they deserve it after so many years of civil strife.
  5. Nikolay71
    Nikolay71 30 November 2015 11: 11
    I remember watching the dock in childhood. a film about genocide in Kampuchea. He made a very difficult impression on me (the Soviet child). Over time, much has been forgotten. But after reading this series of articles I remembered almost everything, and also learned a lot of new things (about the beginning of Pol Pot and the end). Thanks to the author!
  6. saygon66
    saygon66 30 November 2015 17: 55
    - Yeah ... This is what the ideas of freedom, equality and brotherhood "embedded" in the brain of a primitive man can lead to ... Cut out three million people under "bright ideas" ...
    1. Sturmflieger
      Sturmflieger 23 November 2018 16: 21
      The usual peasant war (only under the Maoist "communist" sauce - in the spirit of the times). Read about the peasant uprisings in medieval China from the Han dynasty to the Taiping - there was the same, if not cooler (and without any hints of socialism and communism). When Pushkin wrote about the Russian revolt, he had not yet seen an Asian revolt ...
  7. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 30 November 2015 19: 44
    Thank you very much, Ilya, for sharing with us such important and little-known historical facts about the political parties of distant countries.
    Also from this story I learned about one more side of Gorbachev’s treacherous course, which increased his meanness for the World and the Revolutionary Movement.
    1. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 30 November 2015 20: 39
      I wanted to write “what increased his (Gorbachev’s) meanness, in my understanding.” After all, someone didn’t know about this side of his policy, didn’t even think about it. Or maybe there are other “topics” of his, just as mean. Or all one topic - support for the interests of the United States, It is also written that assistance continued, but it is not clear in what form (less? Or also?)
      1. Sturmflieger
        Sturmflieger 23 November 2018 16: 27
        It’s also our fault that for too long we endured this talking scarecrow and allowed him to betray the interests of the country. And then they put the same freaks on their necks (if not worse).
  8. skeptic31
    skeptic31 1 December 2015 02: 40
    Everything seems to be correct, but at the same time, the author tried, as it is now fashionable, to remain in a seemingly neutral position. So it turns out like on Wikipedia, it seems to be killed, but it seems to be not. In fact, this was quite easy to verify by visiting Cambodia in the mid-80s. There, then, many museums were created where you could clearly see what the Polpot did. They destroyed at least a third of the country's population, and would have destroyed even more if not for the Vietnamese. That there is an intelligentsia or a former military, not a single dancer has survived. But these beautiful dances, which are so famous for Southeast Asia, began precisely with Cambodia. I had to do everything, start absolutely everything from scratch.
    And what is very significant, this is the similarity of the fighting in the 80s in Cambodia and Afghanistan. It is a miracle that the war is over. It could go on indefinitely, since at first the Vietnamese and then the Cambodian forces had to conduct military operations in a difficult situation. They attacked, defeated the enemy. The enemy fled abroad, which simply was not in the jungle, but as soon as the troops left, and it was simply impossible to control all the jungle, the half-soldiers returned and everything started from the beginning. The fact is that the real bases were not in Cambodia, but in Thailand, where, given the political and military realities, they could not get there. There were only field camps in Cambodia. In a climate where the whole year is about 40 degrees, this is entirely possible.
    Cambodia was lucky to a certain extent, since the real power since the mid-80s gradually passed to Hun Sen, who gradually pushed Keng Samrin out and was able to slip between Vietnam and his opponents.
    1. Sturmflieger
      Sturmflieger 23 November 2018 16: 58
      In fairness, from the second half of the 2s to 60 in Cambodia there was a civil war (especially flared up after the arrival of Lon Nol in 1975). Nobody considered the victims of this war, but given the intervention of the Yankees and South Vietnam (as well as briefly the North) and especially the American bombing, the losses were most likely comparable to the Vietnamese. So the figure of a million or more killed by a number of researchers may very well be real. In addition, many people fled to neighboring countries from the war or were afraid of the arrival of polpototsev until 1970. Not all of them were registered and here too many could be recorded in these 1975 million. Like many of those who fled the country under the Pol Pot regime and also chose not to shine. Although, undoubtedly, the Polpot soldiers in the Maoist-nationalist rage also killed a lot of people.
      As for the protracted war in Cambodia on the Afghan model, this could have been avoided by putting pressure on Thailand, which was also not invulnerable at all. It was possible to support the Malay separatists in southern Thailand and their allies from the KPM, as well as the separatism of national minorities living in the border areas in western Thailand (through their fellow tribesmen in Burma) and Lao living in eastern Thailand in the Isan region. Yes, and the Thai Communist Party could be outbid after Beijing betrayed them, and began to actively sponsor and train their partisans. And put Bangkok in front of a choice: if you don’t want problems at home - stop mischief to others. Only for this was necessary the joint efforts of the SRV, Lao PDR and NRC with the support of the USSR. And the Labeled Judas betrayed all.
      PS About the ballerinas. The Blackshirts didn't kill everyone. Some survived and even later taught the students. But not enough ... "The best use for a ballerina's feet is to knead clay!" such was the view of Pol Pot's "revolutionaries" on art ... True, it should be noted that many dancers who made their careers in the beds of kings and princes (like the same relatives of Pol Pot) did not arouse much sympathy for many Khmers (well, about as we did before 1917 all sorts of Malechki Kshesinsky and Eliza Barletta). Imperial theaters in Russia before the revolution were perceived as a high society brothel. In Cambodia, apparently, too.