Military Review

Ribbentrop Plan

13
Ribbentrop Plan



75 years ago, in November 1940, negotiations were held in Berlin on the division of the world and the accession of the USSR to the Tripartite Pact. Western literature has introduced the idea that this was the turning point of Hitler’s policy, the point of his choice whether to maintain friendship with the Soviet Union or defeat it. But such assertions are just a juggling of facts. Hitler's ideas from the very beginning were a modification of the Schlieffen plan, which was played out in the First World War. Crush Western opponents, and then transfer all forces to the east. But Schlieffen and Moltke based their plans on calculating the timing of mobilization in different countries, the carrying capacity of railways. Hitler found more reliable means - diplomatic frauds. He spoke to successive blows first to the west and then to the east to those close to him at the beginning of the 1930s.

Before the start of the war with Poland, having signed a treaty with the USSR, he again explained at a meeting of military leaders: after the victory over the Western powers, the turn of Russia would come. Almost immediately after the capitulation of France, 31 July 1940, Hitler set the General Staff the task of developing an attack on the USSR with the aim of "destroying the life force of Russia." The term of the operation was determined - spring 1941 of the year. Halder's diary testifies: the German generals seized upon the preparation of a new war with great enthusiasm. Already on 9 in August 1940, the Head of the Operational Directorate of the OKV Warlimont issued the first directive on the preparation of a strike against the USSR, codenamed Construction in the East. 14 August Goering instructed General Thomas, head of the economic department of the OKV, that deliveries to Russia should be considered only until next spring. On August 26 began to move divisions to the East from France.

But the Nazi victories changed the situation around the world. European borders shifted. The Soviet Union, taking advantage of the agreement with Germany, annexed Western Ukraine and Belarus, the Baltic republics, and Bessarabia. Overpowered Finland, forced to cede a number of areas. Finns then sharply reoriented to Berlin. And the difficulties and serious losses of the USSR in the war with the Finns played a cruel joke with the Germans. They concluded that the Russians are a weak opponent, they will be easily broken. They themselves swallowed state after state. Fears of war with the Soviet Union were not expressed by any German military leader.

The situation in the Balkans also escalated. When Russia returned Bessarabia, taken from her during the Civil War, Hungary and Bulgaria were aroused. After the First World War, their areas were also given to Romania. Now they set out to fight, to recover their losses. In Berlin, they were alarmed: what if the USSR intervenes, undermines the whole of Romania with its oil fields. On 28 August, the crisis deepened so much that Hitler ordered five tank, three motorized divisions, paratroopers.

Still, the situation was resolved by the world. Germany has joined forces with Italy, have exposed themselves as supreme arbiters. At the talks in Vienna, they dictated a compromise solution to three countries: Romania gives half of Transylvania to Hungary, South Dobrudja Bulgaria. The Romanians were forced to agree, but their cost to the throne to their king Carol. Public outrage rose, he otrёksya in favor of his son Mihai, grabbed his mistress Magda Lupescu, 10 wagons of values ​​and drove off to Switzerland. The real ruler was General Antonescu, who was very sympathetic to the Germans. They immediately sent a military mission, to prepare the Romanians, "if war is imposed on Russia." And Hungary and Bulgaria, having received generous handouts, entered the channel of German policy.

In addition, the collapsed France and England were gigantic colonial empires. Their possessions spread across the globe. In Berlin, they were aware: Germany itself cannot simply “digest” such volumes. Here it was necessary to somehow share with the allies. Oh, they were willing to connect. With an appetite, Mussolini squinted at the French colonies in Africa, drove to the Führer, begged. But in this case, Hitler refused. Italy in the war proved to be disgusting, did not contribute to the victory. And the French government of Petain - Laval became obedient puppets of Germany. To repel such useful slaves away from oneself was unreasonable. Therefore, Hitler hinted to the Duce that the British had many rich colonies. If the Italians want it, let them win them themselves.

Well, Japan rolled its lips to French Indochina (it included Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia). I turned to my German friends, and Hitler treated her more favorably than Italy. He judged that Japan should be tied to a stronger alliance, drawn into a war with the Western powers. And Indochina is located far away, no matter how the local authorities spread to the British. Let it be better supervised. German and Tokyo diplomats together appealed to the Vichy government of France, and it did not dare to object. Signed an agreement - in Vietnam were allowed to place 6 thousands of Japanese soldiers. The official pretext was to guard the railway so that cargoes for Chiang Kai-shek’s Chinese troops were not transported through Vietnam.

The Japanese sent more troops than agreed, took control of not only the railway, but also cities and ports. The Vichy government said there was a protest. However, the Japanese did not listen to him, and he needed only to accept it. The commanders of the occupation units began to behave in Vietnam in much the same way as in Manchuria or in China. French colonial officials assigned their advisors, whose instructions became binding.

These changes inspired the neighboring kingdom, Thailand. At the end of the XIX century, the French took away Laos and Cambodia. Now Thailand is on fire, too, to take advantage of the defeat of the colonialists, to return their lands. Not here it was! The French in their homeland stood at attention before the Germans, in Vietnam in front of the Japanese, but they perceived the claims of the Thai people as a national insult! The colonial command mobilized their units. Serious battles began at the border. A squadron of French ships remaining in the Vietnamese ports, rushed to the Thai and sank their entire fleet - two old battleships of coastal defense.

But ... the peacemakers stood up. None other than the Japanese. Slipped at those and others, told to sit at the negotiating table. And the Japanese themselves determined the results: they ordered to give Laos and Cambodia to Thai people. The French had nowhere to go, they gave. In Thailand, the first stories victory over the European power. The local dictator Plec Pibunssongram, in joy, produced himself from the major general right to field marshals. And he paid for the support of Japan, concluded a secret union with her.

Even more interest than Vietnam in the Tokyo caused the Netherlands East Indies (Indonesia). There were oil fields, so necessary for Japan. The Netherlands no longer existed, why not seize their colony? But in this case the situation was different. The fleeing Dutch queen and government sat in London, and the colonial administration continued to obey them. England became the patroness of the Dutch and their possessions. Next door were the British colonies: Singapore, Burma, and behind her huge India.

Now the British were in an unenviable position, collecting all the forces to defend their own islands. In Tokyo, they thought it was possible to thoroughly pluck them. But Japanese politicians were sure: in this case, the United States will inevitably intervene. And how will the Soviet Union behave? If you turn to English and Dutch possessions, you will turn the rear to him.

In Japan, unlike in Germany, the Red Army’s combat power was very respectfully evaluated - they tried it out on their own skin on Hasan and Khalkhin Gol. Therefore, they came to the conclusion: for the development of the “British heritage”, the military resources of the USSR would have come in handy. In the summer of 1940, at a meeting of the Japanese leadership, Prime Minister Konoe, Foreign Minister Matsuoka, Tojo, Oikawa, and others, a project was put forward that seemed to promise a tremendous gain. Engage Stalin in an alliance against England. And in order to interest him, to allocate for the USSR an independent sector of interests.

1 August this project was handed over to German Ambassador Ott. It proposed "to try to force the Soviet Union to extend its influence in a direction in which it will have the smallest direct impact on the interests of Japan, Germany and Italy, namely in the direction of the Persian Gulf (it is possible that, if necessary, you have to agree with the expansion of the Soviet Union towards India) ”. In another version, it was expressly provided for “to recognize India for the purposes of the present moment as part of the living space of the Soviet Union.
In Berlin, I liked the project; it received the name Ribbentrop Plan in historical literature. Although viewed from a different angle than in Tokyo. The project was provided in a great way to fool Stalin when an attack is being prepared. A wedge was driven in, preventing the USSR and Great Britain from coming closer, they were pushed together with their heads together. Soviet armies would be transferred to Central Asia. In Afghanistan and India they would be stuck for a long time. Russian defense in the west weakened, as required. In general, there was clear benefit from all sides.

27 September 1940 of the Year within the framework of the proposed redivision of the world between Germany, Japan and Italy was signed by the Tripartite Pact, providing for the creation of a "new order" in Europe and Asia. The Soviet Union was invited to join the pact. In principle, Moscow did not object - but only on condition that it will be an equal partner in the coalition. In addition, the Russians wanted to clarify and clarify what “new order” means.
In the meantime, new circumstances have become superimposed that have complicated the relations between our country and Germany. In October, the Germans made an agreement with Finland and sent their troops there. Stalin was alarmed and outraged. Through Molotov, he pointed out to Berlin the violation of previous agreements on spheres of influence, demanded the withdrawal of the German contingents. And October 28 Mussolini attacked Greece. True, the Italians in just a week smashed to smithereens. But Hitler joined, he moved additional forces to Romania, negotiations began with Bulgaria and Yugoslavia on the introduction of German units and a joint war with the Greeks. Hitler mastered the Balkans more and more intensively, and in the USSR this was also perceived as extremely painful.

Finally, we agreed to meet to resolve the accumulated issues, and on November 12 of 1940, a delegation led by Molotov arrived in Berlin. But on the same day, Hitler issued a secret directive for his generals. He informed them that "political negotiations with the aim of finding out the position of Russia for the near future have begun." It was explained with utmost frankness: they must continue to prepare for an operation against the USSR, regardless of the results of the negotiations!

And before Molotov, the Führer unfolded the “Ribbentrop plan” to transform the “pact of three” into a “pact of four” with the corresponding projects for partitioning the “bankrupt estate” of Great Britain. A four-party treaty was proposed with Germany, Japan and Italy for a period of 10 years. The parties pledged not to join "any combination of powers" directed against any of them, promised to provide each other with economic assistance. A secret protocol on spheres of influence was attached to the contract. For Japan, East Asia is to the south of the Japanese Islands, for Italy, North and Northeast Africa, for Germany, Central Africa, for the USSR, to the south of the national territory in the direction of the Indian Ocean. And the final territorial redistribution of Europe was postponed until the end of the war.

Although the Soviet side on the "cranes in the sky" is not flattered. Molotov again raised the issue of German troops in Finland and Romania. He said that the Soviet Union had not yet received all the desired territorial concessions from the Romanians - in addition to Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, he pointed to Southern Bukovina. Hitler and Ribbentrop tried to convince them that all this “trifles” had no meaning compared to the emerging global perspectives. But Molotov stood his ground firmly. He said that "the great problems of tomorrow cannot be separated from the problems of today and from the implementation of existing agreements." They argued for a long time, repeatedly and agreed only on what Germany confirmed: Finland belongs to the zone of Russia's interests, the Fuhrer in this country will not interfere with Stalin’s policy (this agreement remained purely declarative, Hitler did not intend to execute it).

A draft treaty on the division of the world was sent to Moscow for further study and coordination. Stalin treated him very carefully. He realized that the German proposals very much smacked of large-scale provocation. On his instructions, Molotov handed over an evasive answer, without refusing and disagreeing, asked for extra time for work.

26 November through the German ambassador in Moscow Schulenburg, the Soviet government transferred its counter-project. It was indicated that the USSR was ready to join the Tripartite Pact, but conditions were offered somewhat different. First of all, the immediate withdrawal of German troops from Finland was required. Bulgaria was recognized as the sphere of Russia's interests, and for several months the USSR was to conclude a “mutual aid pact” with it - with the right to deploy military units on its territory. In addition, on the basis of a long-term lease, the Soviet Union was required to provide a base in the area of ​​the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles. Japan had to give up its rights to the oil and coal deposits of Sakhalin. And the center of the Soviet claims was supposed to recognize the regions to the south of Baku and Batumi, and in the direction not of India, but of the Persian Gulf.

Pay attention to the fundamental differences between the project and the counter-project. If the German version was aimed at pushing the USSR and England, then in the Soviet version Stalin retained the ability to maneuver and avoided entering into a big war. At the same time, Joseph Vissarionovich returned to the geopolitical and strategic tasks that the Russian Empire was trying to solve before the revolution. Bulgaria dredged out from under German patronage under Russian. This would affect the situation in Romania, it would also slip under the control of the Soviet Union, and our country would begin to play a dominant role in the Balkans. The base on the Bosphorus secured such a situation, opened the way to the Mediterranean, to the Middle East. The interests of Japan on Sakhalin were limited. And the strategic claims of the USSR shifted from India to Northern Iran, the eastern part of Turkey, Iraq, Syria - to the very direction in which the Russian empire had previously spread its influence.

However, such conditions could not please Berlin. They have already attributed Romania and Bulgaria to their own “asset”, and hoped to establish themselves thoroughly there soon. They set their sights on Iran, Iraq and the Middle East. Numerous pro-German organizations were already operating there, and agents were widely operating. Negotiations were held with local leaders willing to cooperate with the Nazis, they bribed someone, they played ambitions from someone, they promised help. But Turkey, due to which Soviet interests should be satisfied, Berlin diligently courted. He threw fishing rods about the alliance, the Turkish government met them more than favorably, expressed readiness for further rapprochement. Surrounded by Hitler, she was already considered an actual ally, they were sure that she would join Germany just as in the First World War.

But the Soviet Union agreed to be an equal partner in the Tripartite Pact. If he is truly recognized as equal, let the other parties “make room”, give up some interests for the sake of supposed friendship, Moscow’s consent to the realization of other plans and its support. However, our government probably requested “to the maximum” - it believed that the usual diplomatic mechanisms would work, the Germans and their allies would not agree with something, it would be possible to bargain.

Although Hitler saw the matter differently. If Stalin, joining the fallen national suburbs and pondering geopolitical demands, restored the former empire and its spheres of influence, then the Führer set himself the same goals that the German Empire pursued in the First World War. Hegemony in Europe, the colonization of the Balkans, the invasion of Turkey into the orbit, with its help expansion in Asia. The very goals that once led to the clash between Germany and Russia. However, the idea of ​​“Lebensraum”, that is, “living space” in the East, in Russia, was common among the ideologues of Kaiser Germany and the Nazis.

There was no response to the sent draft at all. But Moscow’s proposals in fact did not interest Hitler too much. It remained only to regret that it was not possible to fool the heads of the Soviet leadership and hold him by the nose. Now the Führer used Russian conditions in order to once again justify the need for a blow to the USSR before his subordinates. From this angle, he undertook to comment on the document: “Stalin is clever and cunning. He demands more and more. This is a cold-blooded blackmailer. The victory of Germany has become intolerable for Russia, so it is necessary to bring it to its knees as soon as possible. ”

But the military, according to the Führer directive, continued to prepare for the coming war, regardless of any Ribbentrop plans, negotiations, or Soviet answers. In November 1940, General Paulus had already completed the development of a plan for an attack on our country. At the same time, Goering approved a plan for the deployment of the Air Force for the upcoming war. Hitler studied them, discussed with his advisers. 18 December 1940, he signed the directive No. 21, which received the symbol “Otto Plan”. Later, it was considered necessary to invent a louder, as if a historical name - the plan "Barbarossa".
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  1. avvg
    avvg 1 December 2015 09: 15 New
    +3
    It was never easy for anyone to collect everything from the native Russian land under one roof.
    1. Finches
      Finches 1 December 2015 09: 20 New
      +5
      Barbarossa plan - in vain the Germans did not pay attention to their history, otherwise they would not call a grandiose, bloody adventure in the name of a man who simply ... drowned! Laying in advance, as if gradually, than all for Germany it will end! Yes, and to hell with them, but even here, in the events described, behind the back of Hitler you can feel the fetid breath of the Anglo-Saxons ....
      1. Zoldat_A
        Zoldat_A 1 December 2015 10: 28 New
        +4
        Quote: Finches
        but even here, in the events described, behind the back of Hitler the fetid breath of the Anglo-Saxons is felt ....

        Here's how specially the pruflink lay for such a case
        The main sponsors of Hitler and his party were the financiers of Great Britain and the United States. From the very beginning, Hitler was a "project." The energetic Fuhrer was a tool for uniting Europe against the Soviet Union, other important tasks were also solved, for example, they passed the polygon tests of the "New World Order", which they planned to spread throughout the planet.

        Jews and Hitler - this is one of the most closed topics in the world media. Although it is no secret that the Fuhrer and the NSDAP were sponsored by such influential Jewish industrialists as Reynold Gesner and Fritz Mandel. Hitler was greatly assisted by the famous Warburg banking dynasty and personally Max Warburg (director of the Hamburg bank MM Warburg & Co.).

        Personally, thanks to Hitler, a category of more than 150 “honorary Aryans” appeared, which included mostly large Jewish industrialists. They carried out the personal assignments of the leader for sponsorship of various political events. The Nazis divided the Jews into the rich and all the rest; there were privileges for the rich.

        Among Jewish bankers who spared no means for the NSDAP, Berliners Oscar Wassermann and Hans Privin should also be mentioned. In 1936, when information about the persecution of Jews in Germany had already spread around the world, Wasserman telegraphed to the New York Stock Exchange, begging his colleagues and fellow tribesmen to do everything possible to “stop the spread of harmful and completely unfounded rumors.”
        http://holeclub.ru/news/kto_finansiroval_gitlera/2012-03-13-1425 - here it is written in more detail.

        Hitler is a tool. Customers are bankers. Moreover, the Jews, the Anglo-Saxons, who else - it does not matter. Only money, nothing personal. And again, as 100 years ago, as 75 years ago - Russia interferes with them by the very fact of its existence. Well, there would be some kind of smacking show like Laos or Liechtenstein - well, let them be independent. They are not visible on the map either. So no - spread from ocean to ocean ... 100 years ago, 75 years ago, the mind was not enough to stop - let's see if it is enough now ...
      2. Shick
        Shick 1 December 2015 12: 51 New
        -4
        The Germans just remembered how they, fighting on two fronts, defeated our country in the First World War. This is, note uropatriots.
        1. Zoldat_A
          Zoldat_A 1 December 2015 14: 23 New
          +2
          Quote: Shick
          The Germans just remembered how they, fighting on two fronts, defeated our country in the First World War.

          You dear Shick, Germany’s victory over Russia in the First World War and the Brest Peace (essentially a separate peace treaty between Soviet Russia and the so-called “Central Powers”, signed on 3 on March 1918 of the year) are not confused? I remember the peace of Brest, but for some reason Germany did not win Germany over Russia in the First World War ... But I remember the Osovets fortress as a very small episode of TOY war. And Brusilovsky breakthrough. Already not a small episode.

          Please recall the time and place of signing the act of unconditional surrender of Russia in the First World War. If there is anyone who knows such an event ....
          1. voyaka uh
            voyaka uh 1 December 2015 15: 36 New
            +1
            Not all wars end in an act of unconditional surrender.
            The war is won or lost upon the result of the outcome, without formal
            document at all or was concluded (most often) - a peace treaty.

            Example: numerous Russian-Turkish wars. Russia won them - yes.
            Was there at least one act of unconditional surrender of Turkey? - no.
            1. Scraptor
              Scraptor 1 December 2015 22: 37 New
              0
              Is there even one monument to the victory of Germany over Russia in WWI? Well, at least a little?
        2. Finches
          Finches 2 December 2015 10: 18 New
          +1
          In the First World War, our country was defeated by the Cadets and another liberal rabble generously funded by the Anglo-Saxons and Jews!
          1. Scraptor
            Scraptor 2 December 2015 17: 01 New
            0
            Minute now here
  2. The comment was deleted.
  3. bashkort
    bashkort 1 December 2015 09: 26 New
    +1
    It is a pity that the strategic field acquired in the 1940 year was not really able to use it. The Wehrmacht slipped through the western territories at the pace of a waltz.
    1. Vikings
      Vikings 1 December 2015 11: 40 New
      0
      And let it be a lesson to us in the future.
      Yeshe is not too late to return. Look at the map of Europe, how it
      borders have changed over the past 1000 years.
    2. your1970
      your1970 1 December 2015 12: 33 New
      +1
      and if he were at the same pace of the waltz, but without forefoot? the number of commercials on 2 of July would be near Leningrad? Just those forefields rendered invaluable service to the Red Army and slowed down a little, otherwise Hitler would have overcome 160 km from the border with Estonia in a week .. And Leningrad’s readiness for defense at that moment was low ..
    3. MrK
      MrK 3 December 2015 13: 44 New
      0
      Quote: bashkort
      It is a pity that the strategic field acquired in the 1940 year was not really able to use it. The Wehrmacht slipped through the western territories at the pace of a waltz.


      And almost the whole of Europe, did the Germans go at what pace?
      The whole campaign in France took them only 14 days. From May 10 to May 24, May 1940, and in Poland - 18, four days more. From 1 of September to 18 of September of 1939 of the year.
      And the rest of Germany’s opponents can’t be called persistent. Denmark was conquered in 24 hours, Norway in 13 days, Holland in 5, Belgium in 18, Yugoslavia in 12, Greece in 21 and Crete in 11 days.

      Germany was expecting from her Fuhrer, and the Fuhrer from her Wehrmacht - a blitzkrieg.
      At the end of July 1941, a month after the start of the war, the German command hoped that the goals of the Barbarossa would be achieved in the near future. Moscow and Leningrad, according to plan - 25 of August. Volga - the beginning of October. Baku and Batumi - early November.
      These plans were not destined to come true neither 25 of August, nor 25 of December. Never. For I am convinced: Hitler lost the war of the Red Army - and I do not separate her heroic soldiers from her leadership - already in August 1941, when the "Operation Barbarossa" was disrupted. The greatest misfortunes, sacrifices and sufferings of the Soviet people were ahead. More than once it will seem that Russia is hanging by a thread. But nothing could be changed. Germany could not wage a protracted war in Russia.
      Quote from the book of Alexander Kurlandchik: “Damned Soviet power” ... on Prose. RU.
  4. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 1 December 2015 11: 59 New
    0
    There are protocols of these negotiations.
    Negotiations broke when Molotov asked
    Bulgaria and the straits under Russian control.
    And Rippentrop offered the USSR all British
    colonies from Iran and to the East (India, etc.) after
    the joint defeat of the British Empire.
    Which (according to Rippentrop) is "almost on his knees."
    And then Comrade Molotov joked unsuccessfully (negotiations
    walked in the bomb shelter, as the British bombed Berlin):
    "If Britain is almost on its knees, why are we sitting in a bomb shelter? Haha."
    Rippentrop did not answer, but conveyed the words of Molotov to the Führer.
    The Fuhrer with a sense of humor has always been bad. "Ah at the bomb shelter, ah the straits want? am "
    And he went straight to his General Staff and blurted out: "Barbaross’s plan is for execution!"
    Negotiations were terminated. Molotov returned to Moscow, deservedly received by
    a hat from Stalin for stupid jokes. Stalin urgently wrote a letter to Hitler
    with a request to continue negotiations.
    But the leader of the Third Reich was a stubborn fellow wassat , and did not like to back up ...
  5. Ivan Tartugai
    Ivan Tartugai 1 December 2015 12: 25 New
    0
    “Hitler’s intentions from the very beginning were a modification of Schlieffen’s plan, which was played out in World War I. Crush Western opponents, and then transfer all forces to the east. ”
    The author wants to present the "Hitler's plans" invented by him as reality.
    The author is not embarrassed by such a fact, the Wehrmacht lost only about 100 thousand soldiers to the crushing of the multimillion-dollar armies of the West. The largest losses of the Wehrmacht were in France - about 45 thousand people. The losses of the French Armed Forces amounted to 112 thousand people. As a result, 112 thousand soldiers were killed, more than 1500 thousand were taken prisoner from more than three million army of France, and more than 1600 thousand fled to their homes. The ratio of those killed was 1 to 2,5 in favor of the Wehrmacht. For the attacking side in the conduct of real hostilities, such a ratio is impossible. As a result, it turned out that out of every 30 fighters of the French army, the Germans killed only one, and the remaining 29 fighters, officers and generals threw rifles, pistols, machine guns, guns, tanks, planes and someone surrendered, and someone escaped home.
    With the “crush” of the rest of the countries, the Wehrmacht’s losses are much less, so with the capture of Denmark, the Wehrmacht’s losses are calculated as two killed. Czechoslovakia and Austria are generally without losses, only with the help of "diplomacy".
    For comparison, fighting the USSR, only in the Battle of Stalingrad, the Wehrmacht's irretrievable losses amounted to about 1500 thousand soldiers, officers and generals, which would be enough to “crush” as many as 15 Europe.
    This suggests that in the West there was no war, but there was a staging of the war, a military show according to the scenario of the elites of the West. The purpose of this show of war, which Western elites call the Second World War, was to maximize the Wehrmacht’s military-industrial potential at the expense of factories in France, Czechoslovakia and other countries; creating a reliable food base for supplying Wehrmacht troops and satellites at the expense of agriculture in France, Poland, Denmark and other countries and increasing the draft contingent mainly at the expense of Austria, Czechoslovakia and other countries. And all this was done only for the war with the Soviet Union. What was achieved by the beginning
    already a real war with the USSR.
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 1 December 2015 13: 07 New
      +1
      "This suggests that there was no war in the West" ///

      This suggests that at first the latest blitzkrieg tactics
      worked in the West. Until the Luftwaffe broke off over England.

      She worked in the East in 1941 against the Red Army.
      And partially in 1942. How did the Wehrmacht end up on the Volga?
      But everyone learns from mistakes. The Red Army also learned to fight in a new way.
      And Stalingrad (after Moscow) became the second place where the “blitzkrieg”
      stopped working. Finally.
      1. Ivan Tartugai
        Ivan Tartugai 1 December 2015 16: 40 New
        +2
        This suggests that the latest Blitzkrieg tactics worked in the West only when the command intentionally surrenders its troops and countries to the enemy.
        She also worked in 1941 in the East against the Red Army, for example, on the Western Front, where the command was led by the army general, Hero of the Soviet Union, cavalier of the 5 highest orders of the USSR, deputy of the Supreme Council of the USSR, candidate member of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) , a member of the CPSU (b) since 1919, Pavlov surrendered the front, i.e. deliberately substituted troops under Wehrmacht attack, deprived them of communication, deliberately lost control of the troops.
        Similarly, on the Southwestern Front, under the command of Colonel General, Hero of the Soviet Union Kirponos, as well as Generals Purkaev, Khrushchev, Marshals Budyonny and Tymoshenko.
        The same thing happened partly in the 42nd year, for example, in the Kharkov disaster under the leadership of Marshal of the Soviet Union, Hero of the Soviet Union Timoshenko, generals Baghramyan, Khrushchev.
        1. Scraptor
          Scraptor 1 December 2015 22: 43 New
          0
          Khrushchev then sawed the sun in peacetime, enlarged villages, and all that ... surpassed him, not counting Trotsky’s life’s, only "speckled".
        2. voyaka uh
          voyaka uh 2 December 2015 11: 15 New
          0
          for Ivan Tartugai:
          You see, the conspiracy hypothesis, about the total
          betrayal of generals and marshals (both in the West and in the East!)
          arouses respect in its scope ... but not very serious.
          So you can wrap it in the other direction: in 1943, the USSR simply
          bribed all the German generals and they began to retreat,
          betraying the interests of the Reich. Why did Paulus surrender Stalingrad? -Bought,
          traitor to the Reich. etc. Why did the Germans suddenly begin to retreat after
          Kursk? - the betrayal of the generals ...
          Do you understand the absurdity of such a conspiracy thesis? laughing
          1. Scraptor
            Scraptor 2 December 2015 17: 50 New
            +1
            But why be sure to bring to the point of absurdity? bully

            A group of interested under-cleaned comrades in 1937 framed all Soviet aviation at the airdromes as in 1967, after which the war went back to the West only after the backlash broke out in front of the Kursk Dug in the Air Battle over the Kuban.

            In Stalingrad (as well as near Moscow, and then in the Ardennes) the counterattack was in bad weather so that superior enemy aircraft would not work.
          2. Ivan Tartugai
            Ivan Tartugai 2 December 2015 18: 46 New
            +2
            The Wehrmacht with its satellites for the Red Army is not such a big rival. The quantity and quality of weapons of ammunition of the Red Army surpassed the Wehrmacht and its satellites. In training personnel also excelled. And in order to motivate the struggle for their home, their family, their homeland, it makes no sense even to compare.
            All victories of the Wehrmacht in 1941 and in the 1st half of 1942 are provided only by the betrayal of generals and marshals from the Red Army. It was they who ensured the surprise attack, and the defeat of most of the aircraft, and the delivery of all crossings across the border and border rivers, and the withdrawal of artillery from units and formations, and the destruction of the mechanized corps with useless blank marches, and the delivery of warehouses with weapons, ammunition , property and even fuel and lubricant warehouses safe and sound to the Wehrmacht.
            Therefore, when the help of the Wehrmacht from the side of the traitor generals was reduced, because Pavlova and his team were shot, the others were removed, the third were placed in secondary posts, the fourth were frightened and quiet, then the German army and its generals rolled down to the West. Without the help of our traitor generals, the German generals didn’t have to bribe, they themselves ran nach Hause.
            1. Scraptor
              Scraptor 2 December 2015 23: 56 New
              0
              The little Rusachks had to fill up some “elites” more, at the same time to thin out the Germans. And in the concentration camps from the ghetto, almost entirely genetic garbage and "good-natured" fell, which the American Rockefellers destroyed by the hands of the Nazis, among whom the Germans, by the way, were in the minority ...
              1. Scraptor
                Scraptor 3 December 2015 00: 33 New
                0
                These rockefellers, morgans, Truman and other bastards delivered to the Reich through neutral countries represented by Spain, Sweden and (attention) Turkey strategic materials and motor oil without which the Wehrmacht could not have fought. Meanwhile, while on the eastern front and in the rear, on both sides of it, Russians were dying, all those who did not leave and did not work were dying behind the thorn. Also, through neutral countries, their food, unlike motor oil, the so-called "enemies" was not supplied, either on a common basis, or even through the Red Cross.
      2. your1970
        your1970 1 December 2015 21: 19 New
        +2
        they handed over the Czechs absolutely without any Blitzkriegs, the Scandinavians, yes, they stubbornly defended ... tanks were dragged to Austria by cars, due to the poor quality of roads and the weakness of the tanks themselves ... Poland? remind me when the government escaped? the army still tried to fight ...
        Surrendered, politicians of the army and the state simply surrendered ...
        It’s just such a fact - in France the police were armed on the territory of the unoccupied territory, not policemen from different scum - but the regular police service, and the municipalities (and not the commandant’s office) acted.
        They didn’t make any fundamental difference to whom to serve: Hitler, Petain, de Gaulle ..
  6. Ivan Tartugai
    Ivan Tartugai 1 December 2015 13: 00 New
    +3
    "The Soviet Union, using the agreement with Germany, annexed Western Ukraine and Belarus, the Baltic republics, Bessarabia."
    The Soviet Union, regardless of the existence of an agreement with Germany, under the prevailing international situation of that time, would return Western Ukraine and Belarus, the Baltic republics, Bessarabia, which were torn away from Soviet Russia by bourgeois countries, taking advantage of the military weakness of Soviet Russia and the betrayal of senior officials, such like Tukhachevsky, Trotsky.
  7. Fei_Wong
    Fei_Wong 2 December 2015 20: 52 New
    0
    Quote: voyaka uh
    Example: numerous Russian-Turkish wars. Russia won them - yes.
    Was there at least one act of unconditional surrender of Turkey? - no.

    It is possible, soon it will be. If the Turks didn’t stop messing up.