On this site on November 22 1941, Lisa Chaikin was executed
Elizaveta Ivanovna Chaikina was born on September 10 (August old style 28) 1918 in the village of Runo of the Zalessky volost (later the village council) of Ostashkovsky district, which also included the territory of the present Penovsky district of Velikoluksky, then Kalininsky, and now the Tver region.
Her parents are farmers, with 1932 year - farmers. Little is known about his father, Ivan Ivanovich. He was an invalid of the First World War. And, although he worked - both on the collective farm and at home - he was a sick person, he barely moved. He died in 1947 year, before reaching retirement.
The main concern for the maintenance of the family lay on the mother of Ksenia Prokofievna. She worked, as they say, from dawn to dusk. Housekeeping led grandmother. There were four children. Before Liza Stepan (1911), Maria (1914), after - Alexander (1933). Ksenia Prokofievna died in 1961 year.
Lisa went to school late, in 10 years. Sometimes they ask: “Why?”. Yes, just there was no school. In 1928, teacher Raisa Alexandrovna came to the village of Zalesie and organized a four-year elementary school at the village council. Let's go to study everyone who wanted and could, regardless of age. For example, sister Maria sat with her at the same desk, and at that time she was 14 years old. She graduated from only two classes to be able to sign, because she was already working. In all, 40 went to that school from all villages of the Zalessky Village Council.
After elementary school, Lisa did not go on to study. The closest seven-year-old is in Peno, far away. We had to either live there, or every day somehow get there and back. Both turned out to be impossible. Together with her mother went to the farm.
BEFORE THE WAR
In 1933, Lisa joined the Komsomol. And immediately she was appointed head of the reading room. Who does not know what it is, I will say: the union of the library with the club. Hut reading room at Lisa became the cultural center of the village council. Lisa and the reaper, and on the pipe igrets. He leads a circle of current politics, amateur activities. Involves a knowledgeable person in teaching the basics of agronomy. He works on himself, reads a lot, studies the tractor. Eyewitnesses lead this episode. The chairman of the village council for some reason did not pay for the next receipt of books, so Liza bought them for her modest salary.
Lisa is praised not only in the area, but also in the area. At the same time heads the territorial Komsomol organization. The number of Komsomol members in it until the end of 1936, increased from 12 to 15 people, which made it possible to create five Komsomol organizations on collective farms. For two years, until the middle of 1938, he worked as the accountant of the Red Zalesie agricultural artel.
Another year, from August 1938-th to August 1939-th, in the direction of the RK VKP (b) she is already a party member, she worked in two places: four months as an instructor of the district newspaper “Leninsky drummer” (her assignee today is Zvezda weekly) and eight months - as the head of the distribution and forwarding department of the press of the Penova communications company. And 28 August 1939, she was elected secretary of the Komsomol district committee.
Liza Chaikina Museum in the town of Peno, Tver Region
The last 27 months of her life were the most responsible, difficult and tense, with no days off. The working day began at 7: 00, and usually ended after midnight. Often came to Penovskaya high school, attended a literary circle there, took homework lessons. On the shelf of her small, neat 50 room of books: the writings of Lenin, Pushkin, Lermontov, Gorky, Mayakovsky, Chekhov ... The voices of the youth are ringing outside the window, and she reads everything, writes. However, she loved sports and was engaged in it willingly. And the first in the area received three badges: TRP, PVCO (air defense and chemical defense) and "Voroshilovsky shooter".
And then she only 21-th year went. Mother used to ask: “Lizanka, you should get married. Will there be anybody in mind? ”He answers cheerfully:“ Yes, mother, there is, only I have no time to engage in family now. ” So, life is on the verge of asceticism. And these self-restraints and self-education made her a purposeful person, collected, erudite, ready for any tests. The friends were joking: “We will see you at the head of the Komsomol regional committee, you will go to the Komsomol Central Committee.”
At the district Komsomol asset, held in April 1941 of the year, Lisa named the numbers that impressed everyone in the hall. The report went on the work of the committee for ten months. So, during this period, about 500 people joined the Komsomol. And in the year and a half, which she had by then headed the district committee, the Komsomol organizations of the district doubled. By the beginning of the war there were more than 1000 people in them, 50 of them became party members.
In the detachment of the party
To reproduce the feat of our heroine, it is necessary to at least briefly tell about the Penov partisan detachment. Because her fate at the final stage of life is inextricably linked with him.
The formation of the detachment began long before the occupation of the area, in July 1941, when the decision of the highest authorities on the organization of the partisan movement in the rear of the enemy appeared. We prepared in advance a central base in the forest and dug a dugout on 40 people. At first, the squad existed as a fighter battalion of about 70 men.
We went to the shooting range, trained in throwing grenades. Liza, together with her comrades, is learning military affairs. In addition, at this time she sends Komsomol members to be called up to the front. First, volunteers, and then the rest. In the military office speaks at rallies, at the station gives the last parting words on the road.
The final list of the squad was approved in 85 people, of which 54 is a communist and 23 is a Komsomol member. Most of them are restricted to military service or who have not reached military age. Even the first head of the partisan detachment, secretary of the Penov RK of the Komsomol Andrei Filimonov was a sick man and for this reason was soon replaced. The commander of the detachment was Nikolai Mikheyev, the commissioner was Yakov Shevelev, before the war both secretaries of the district party committee.
They told: on the collective farms, at the enterprises, and at the station, from where the foam members of the Komsomol left for the construction of defenses, everywhere her ringing voice sounded, calling people for selfless labor in the name of Victory to fight bravely with the enemy. It is unknown whether she slept in those days.
The front approached the boundaries of the district. There were still uncared breads on the fields, it was necessary to save the harvest. Only the quick and agile hands of the young could do it. And they did! The agricultural detachment organized by Liza removed and threshed tens of tons of grain on the collective farms of the Zayevsky and Mizinovsky village councils, which served as the basis, I stress, for the food supply of the partisan detachment. Only yesterday she was seen at the harvest, and today she is in a hurry to the other end of the district - helping to evacuate collective farm property, primarily livestock, in the artels of Voroshilovsky, Grylevsky and Zalessky village councils.
The gathering of the squad personnel in the forest was scheduled for October 11, the day after the Germans occupied Peno. On this day, Lisa led a Komsomol squad to the 23 squad and became the secretary of the underground district Komsomol committee. In addition, she left underground Komsomol cells of 19 – 2 each in 3 villages. There were, however, single posts. They conducted reconnaissance of the movements of the German troops and liaised with partisan groups, acted with their eyes and ears in the villages. There were five such groups in the Penov detachment. In the second, the so-called Mizinovskaya group, where Dmitry Nikandrov was the commander, Lisa Chaikin was also listed.
Penov detachment originally existed as an independent combat unit, then became part of the 2-th special partisan brigade, whose headquarters, by the way, was also located in Penovsky district, in the village of Bolshaya Perevoloka. This brigade was formed at the beginning of November by Nikolai Vatutin, chief of staff of the North-Western Front, and A.M. was appointed commander. Litvinenko, "the brave father," as soon began to call him among the people.
Information about the combat activities of the detachment and brigade in Penovskiy district for three months and a little, that is, before 22 in January 1942, when the district was completely liberated, is contained in the report on “the fighter of the partisan detachment Chaikin Elizaveta Ivanovna” signed by the secretary of the Kalininsky regional committee of the CPSU (b ) Ivan Boytsov, in connection with the paperwork for the title of Hero of the Soviet Union.
These figures are based on the reports of Nikolai Mikheev and A.M. Litvinenko. So, the Germans were destroyed by partisans in the Penovskiy district, including the 170 officer, the 22 man was injured, the 105 vehicles were destroyed, one of them was a headquarters bus, the 58 carriage with horses, three large bridges were blown up, hundreds of meters of wires were tied connecting German parts headquarters, deployed across the front line to 25 soldiers and commanders of the Red Army, leaving the encirclement.
Here are the lines from the letter of a German soldier killed by partisans of the Upper Volga region, possibly Penovsky detachment, since a letter was found somewhere in the Great Bow area: “We are leading the most terrible war of all wars. Better to be at the front than here. There I know that the enemy is at such a distance. Here he is everywhere, around us. Because of every shelter, the partisans are tracking us down. ”
I cite this information only to emphasize: Liza for 42 of the day of her stay in the detachment (from October 11 to November 22) directly, as stated in the reports and party characteristics, participated in combat operations. In any case, the three combat episodes with her participation are described in detail. One of them - the explosion of the bridge and the launch of the German echelon with ammunition - almost ended in tragedy for her. In that battle, Lisa captured a tablet with valuable documents and maps from a German officer. This trophy is now stored in the Central Museum of the Russian Army in Moscow.
On their last raid on the villages, Liza went on November 12, like the other partisans who were part of the propaganda group. She collected leaflets with Stalin's report on the 24 anniversary of the October Revolution, newspapers with his speech at the November 7 parade, which was transferred to the partisan detachment across the front line, recorded the latest Sovinformburo reports.
Commissioner Ya.E. Shevelev recommended starting the hike with Zalesya, where she had once studied at school and worked in the reading room. She first objected, citing her doubt that everyone there knew her and that failure was possible. But then agreed. Fame among the population, of course, contained a certain risk, but it was in fact a huge advantage. Conversation among friends is always more frank, and therefore intelligible. Although now objected Ya.E. Shevelev: in case of failure, the family of Lisa would certainly be shot. However, the Commissioner summed up, act on your own, you are known everywhere, and the danger will be waiting at every turn.
Shivering, risking an ambush every minute or just hearing a deadly shout: “Stop!” Liza made her way from the village to the village in extremely cold frosty nights by secret forest paths. Having met the patrol, I went into the forest and waited there for hours in the snow, when the danger had passed. And then again on the road.
She was extremely careful. If there were Germans in the village, under the cover of night, she would come to the hut where one of her members of the Komsomol liaisoners lived, pass on propaganda materials to him and request that they be distributed further into reliable hands. Well, something conveyed in words. If there were no Germans, then she gathered people in a house and held something like a meeting. Short report, questions and answers, counter speeches. It turned out convincing, inspiring communication.
Monument of Lisa Chaikina in Peno
Her trip lasted ten days. During this time, she visited 14 villages. The last meeting was held in the large village of Zhukop. Then she went to the so-called cordon Red Ride, where she spent the night with her friend and secretary of the underground Komsomol cell Maria Kuporova. The next morning she was going to return to the dugout of her partisan group, which was very close, in a large forest. But in the morning, the traitor Kolosov and his son, having tracked down the partisan, led a German detachment, a 30 man, to the farm. The Kuporovs' house was set on fire, the family was shot, and Liza was arrested. It happened on November 21.
However, she had the opportunity to run. Taking advantage of panic, under the cover of smoke from a burning house, Lisa retired quite far from the place of the fire. She was already at the edge of the saving forest. Lisa was a strong, physically trained girl. Another jerk - and she could leave. However, at that time a German called her and warned that if she did not return, all the people of the hamlet would be destroyed. And Lisa returned. She remained faithful to her countrymen and did not stain her honor.
On the same day, Lisa, under escort, was brought to Peno. She was tortured all night by the Gestapo, sophisticated and cruel. The building where it was located has been preserved. Only looks gloomier than gloomy. Wicked seal stories oppresses him and does not remove someone else's guilt. Lisa was beaten with steel bars. She was silent. Lomali ribs - no sound.
According to Peno, there was a rumor about the torture of a partisan. Many residents of the village in the detachment were fathers, husbands, brothers, loved ones. And everyone thought: it will not stand, a lot of blood will be shed.
The Gestapo man poked his face with a pistol and shouted:
- Tell me where the guerrillas are, and free!
In the morning, Lisa, beaten and maimed, was taken to the bank of the Volga to the water tower. There is now an obelisk of her memory and 23 birches - in the designation of the years she lived. Worth and pumping station, only dilapidated to the limit, almost collapsed. Along the way, the Germans drove 30 – 40 people to the place of execution, demonstrating a demonstrative massacre of the partisan.
Once again promised life in exchange for the issuance of comrades in the squad. But she threw sternly:
- Dying for the Motherland! She revenge!
A German officer, trying somehow, apparently, to influence Lisa through the gathered people, asked:
- Who knows the name of this partisan?
Perhaps the Nazis had doubts. Indeed, in the Gestapo, when asked who she was, Lisa answered: "Ivanova from Leningrad." Only Kolosov Sr., bustling there without measure, insistently repeated:
- Chaikin is, Chaikin, believe me, Mr. Officer.
People were silent, although many certainly recognized her. And suddenly a drunken voice:
- But who does not know her ... This is Lizka, the most important local Komsomol member.
This was said by Irka Kruglova, Penov's prostitute, about whom fame was long in the village. Lisa talked with her more than once, urging her to take hold of the mind. She usually kept silent because she had completely different interests. Now in a drunken stupor spoke, revenge, so to speak. Lisa only smiled sarcastically. Now she decided not to hide her name. I was in a hurry to say the most important words:
- Yes, I am the secretary of the district committee. You believed me, believe this time too. Love Russia, take care of her. She lives and fights. With her you will be happy ...
The enraged officer shot Lisa from the revolver in the chest. And he made another control shot in the temple. Like modern killers.
And Lizanka fell, bright head and clear eyes, in pure sparkling snow, arms spread wide as if she wanted to embrace her native land and protect it.
Suffering, dying, she could not sacrifice her principles.
And she knew, according to the recollections of Ya.E. Sheveleva, many things: safe flats, bases, villages where the Komsomol-liaisons were, their names, the names of the commanders, the locations of partisan groups, plans for the next operations. Liza, despite the cruel torture, did not cross the fatal line, thereby saving dozens of lives of her comrades in the fight.