Portrait of Elizabeth Petrovna. Hood Ivan Vishnyakov. 1743 year
And after all, it cannot be said that the award was the same and there is nothing. Just the opposite. During the reign of Anna Ioannovna, the Russian army more than once proved that it has no equal, at least in Eastern Europe. Particularly convincing was the defeat of the Turks at Stavuchans during the Russian-Turkish war of 1735 – 1739, which ended with the fall of the Khotin fortress, whose cyclopean walls are known to most of us from Soviet adventure films about knights and musketeers.
Rumors of a Russian victory quickly scattered, and the “sudden delight” captivated the mind of a certain Russian studiosus, who at that time was in the German Freiberg.
In addition to outstanding abilities to science, studiosus also possessed a considerable poetic gift. According to the apt remark of Vladislav Khodasevich, “the first sound of the Khotyn ode became our first cry of life”. “Us”, that is, Russia, inseparable from its literature, from Russian poetry, which was largely due to this Lomonosov ode on the straight and lasting syllabic-tonic path.
Noise with brooks and dol:
Victory, Russian victory!
But the enemy that left the sword,
Afraid of his own trail.
Then seeing your run,
The moon was ashamed to shame them
And in the gloom face, darkened, hid.
Glory flies in the darkness of the night,
Sounds in all lands by the trumpet,
Kohl Rossky terrible power.
In addition to the “Russian terrible force”, merit in the capture of Khotin belongs to Field Marshal and the oldenburg native Burchard (in the Russian manner - Christopher Antonovich) Minich, now almost forgotten. Invited to Peter the Great by Tsarist ambassador in Warsaw, Grigory Dolgorukov, Minich presented his own plan for the fortifications of Kronstadt, for which he won Peter's indirect praise: "Thanks to Dolgorukov, he delivered me a skilled engineer and general." Christopher Antonovich built the Ladoga Canal and generally proved himself to be a talented hydraulic engineer. In the end, after all, it is precisely to his professional foresight that we owe to the inexhaustible fountains of Peterhof.
Having risen to the highest positions under Peter's successors, Minich made extensive changes in the Russian army. He organized two new Guards regiments, Izmaylovsky and Equestrian, established a new branch of the army - sappers, created hussar regiments, with his participation in 1731, the first Russian cadet corps was opened. Struggling with the dominance of foreigners in the army, the German Minich limited their admission to the Russian service and equalized all the officers in the rights: henceforth, the Russians and foreigners were justly paid the same salary. A major commander, he crushed the Crimean Tatars on their own territory, restored Russia's prestige in the south, for the first time after an unsuccessful Prut campaign, successfully fighting against the Turks, and thus paving the way to Peter Rumyantsev, Alexander Suvorov, Ivan Dibich, Ivan Paskevich, Mikhail Skobelev. And yet it was they who received the punishment with fuchtels from their fellow German compatriots, and in cavalry, with flat sabers. Ratuya for training soldiers in handicrafts, Minich at the same time relegated them to the role of weak-willed cogs in the army mechanism and was the first to introduce boules and scythes, so hated by the Russian soldier.
With such a view of discipline, there was no reward for any soldiers, but simply respect for them was out of the question. Is it any wonder that the Guard rebelled first, taking advantage of the confusion after the death of Anna Ioannovna, literally on her shoulders lifted to the throne the youngest daughter of Peter, who immediately displaced Minikh and sent him to Siberian exile for twenty years.
The descendants formed a contradictory opinion about Elizabeth Petrovna. Speaking of her, the autocrat's passion for masquerades, the notorious “metamorphosis”, is often commemorated, where she liked to appear in a man's dress, which favorably emphasized her seductively curvaceous forms. And the empress’s excessive passion for the opposite sex, manifested in far from maternal custody of the young men, one of whom, the singing Little Russian Cossack Alexei Razumovsky, made her still a semi-opaque princess, and later, after gaining power, showered money and orders, made her a graph and general Field Marshal ... And fifteen thousand dresses and an empty treasury left after her death ...
Medal in honor of the conclusion of the Abos Peace. 1743 year
Less often they remember the piousness of the empress who repeatedly made pilgrimages to the monasteries near Moscow - New Jerusalem on Istra, Savvino-Storozhevsky in Zvenigorod and especially often in Trinity-Sergievsky, it was in her reign that received the status of a laurel and decorated with new buildings, among which still turns to attention of the original look Smolensk Church (architect - Prince Dmitry Ukhtomsky; the tall five-storey Lavra bell tower - his own creation), where, according to a stable legend, Elizabeth secretly married I'm with Razumovsky.
However, even here the empress did not build herself a nun - she did not like to be bored at all. This is how the Polish historian Kazimir Waliszewski, a great connoisseur of many intimate secrets of that era, describes Elizabeth’s pastime: “She willingly left the ball for the matins, gave up the hunt for a pilgrim; but during these times, praying mantis did not prevent her from indulging in worldly and very vain entertainment. She knew how to turn these godly journeys into pleasure trips. ” At the same time, “on a journey on foot, she used weeks and sometimes months to go sixty miles away separating the famous monastery from Moscow. It happened that, tired, she could not walk for three, four miles to the stop, where she ordered to build houses and where she rested for several days. She was then arriving at the house in the carriage, but the next day the carriage drove her to the place where she interrupted her foot walk. In 1748, the pilgrimage took almost the entire summer. ”
Unfairly depressed from the throne after the death of the mother and against her last will, unloved and eternally suspected by the reigning cousin, although not explicitly disgraced, captured and never married (the bridegroom, Karl August Golshtinsky, arrived in Russia, died here after One of the Homeric booties tripled in his honor by Peter), from her childhood, Elizabeth learned to stand aside her passionate nature by nature in modesty (when Anna Ivanovna preferred moderation in everything, even in dress), and a sharp and wide mind s father - hide under the guise of frivolity. She got so well into the role of a pretty fool who “did not know that Britain is an island”, that English Ambassador Edward Finch reported to her bosses in London with impressive confidence: “Elizabeth is too full to be a conspirator”.
Elmaveta Petrovna managed to powder her eyes not only to contemporaries, but also to descendants. One of them, our great satirist Mikhail Yevgrafovich Saltykov-Shchedrin, captured her very impartially in the form of one of the six self-appointed mayors of the city of Glupova (which of them Elizaveta is difficult to figure out, but Catherine II is definitely Amalya Karlovna Shtokfish). If our assumption is still true, and Elizabeth in the novel is Clementinka de Bourbon (at one time the young tsesarevna was persistently wanted to be married to Louis XV or, at worst, to the Duke of Orleans, for which they were specially trained in French and turned into an ardent gallomete) It includes the following words: “... the new challenger was tall, loved to drink vodka and rode like a man. Without effort, having inclined to his side the four soldiers of the local invalid team and being secretly supported by the Polish intrigue, this idle pro-ramite captured the minds almost instantly. ”
Meanwhile, the “homeless traveler”, who did not receive a systematic education, opened the first gymnasiums in Russia - in Moscow and Kazan, founded the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts and the Moscow University.
Russia's foreign policy during the reign of Elizabeth was also extremely successful. The first 1741 – 1743 war ended with a complete victory - with Sweden instigated by the French, who tried to get revenge for the fatal loss to Peter. Having forgotten about the Poltava defeat, the scammers heirs of Charles XII and his aggressive policy must have mentally already marched around Ingermanland, trampled Petersburg into the marshland! However, all these feverish dreams dispelled reality: the Swedes in Finland received from the Russians a few sensitive zubotychin and kicks, their army was surrounded and surrendered. The enemy's panic reached such proportions that the Baltic fleet barely noticed at Sutton only the receding silhouettes of the Swedish ships: the Swedes were scooping under all the sails!
Soon the Abos peace treaty was concluded, under which Sweden, in exchange for Finland seized from it, recognized all other territorial acquisitions of Russia in the Baltic States.
The medal “In Memory of the Abos Peace”, minted in the same year, was given to every Russian veteran. Its author was the Scottish master Benjamin Scott, who worked at that time at the Moscow Mint. On the obverse of the medal, the breastplate of the empress with curls falling on her chest and shoulders, in a crown and mantle, with a sash over her shoulder, was knocked out. The inscription on the circle (by the way, it is called a legend at the medal) is as follows:
“B. M. ELISAVET I THE IMPERAT I THE SELF OF ALLER ”.
There is another stamp (speaking of the medals of the Peter's epoch, because of their abundance we did not linger on the descriptions of the variants), where the order of the Holy Apostle Andrew the First-Called is also depicted on the chest on the ribbon.
On the reverse, a bridge passes across the river flowing between the fields with the inscription “THE RIVER OF KIMES” (this Finnish river passed through); Above, two arms emanating from the clouds hold a wreath of two bound laurel branches; in the field, formed by a wreath; in the same place, a double-headed eagle crowned with an imperial crown with a scepter and power in its claws holds two shields with the emblems of Sweden and Denmark on a ribbon; under the wreath on the tape inscription:
“Strong Union” (the result of a complex family and political intrigue, to explain which here would mean too far to deviate from the topic).
“IN THE MEMORY OF THE PRISONER OF SWISS OF THE EXTERNAL WORLD IN THE ABN 1743 FOR THE YEAR AUG 7 OF THE DAY”.
And below, under the river and the edge:
"SIA EAST BORDERS OF THE STATE OBEIH".
The medal was minted without an ear, in the amount of a ruble coin. The ear was added twenty years later under Catherine, at the same time it was ordered to wear a medal around his neck, on the blue ribbon of the Order of St. Andrew.
A good medal tradition, barely continued, stopped again for a long time, with the exception of a few memorable trifles, then for seventeen years. However, the large-scale Seven Years War, which began in 1756, changed everything.
She was led by Prussia and England against Austria, France and Russia (the so-called union of three women - the Austrian monarch Maria Theresa, Jeanne-Antoinette Poisson, better known as Marquis de Pompadour, influential favorite of the weak-willed King Louis, and his frustrated Russian bride Elizabeth, famous gallomanches). The fighting took place not only in Europe, but also in India, and - moreover, rather energetic - in North America, where France lost, for example, its Canadian possessions, and these days are far from being subdued.
Award medal "For the victory at Kunersdorf. 1 August 1759
At first, things were more than successful for Prussia: her king Frederick II, a gifted strategist and theorist of military art, whose commanding genius was, however, excessively exaggerated by contemporaries and descendants, German historians like Hans Delbrück, scored several striking victories. But in 1757, the Russian army appeared on the European theater, and from that moment on, the vaunted Prussians began to suffer one setback after another.
Under Gross-Egersdorf in East Prussia, Frederick felt for the first time the strength of a Russian weapons. When Zornorf next year, the Germans were still trying to fight on equal terms, and only the unsuccessful command of Willim Fermor deprived Russia of victory and led to gigantic senseless bloodletting from both sides. But 12 August N. with. at the Silesian Kunersdorf, four miles away from Frankfurt an der Oder, Frederick's army was crushed to smithereens. Of the 48, thousands of Prussians remained in the ranks, about three thousand, the rest fell or fled. The king himself almost died in battle and, fleeing persecution, lost his hat, taken as a trophy and still kept in St. Petersburg, in the State Memorial Museum of A.V. Suvorov.
The medal "For Victory at Kunersdorf" was established on August 11 of the following, 1760 year. The decree read: “Like last summer, namely, on 1, the day of August (old style. - M.L.) was won by the weapons of Her Imperial Majesty over the King of Prussia near Frankfurt, such a glorious and famous victory, which in recent times there are almost no examples then, Her Imperial Majesty, in memory of this great day, in difference with those who had taken part in it and as a sign of His royal favor, ordered to make a decent medal to this incident and distribute to the soldiers of that battle.
Now the stamp is already ready and is sent to the Governing Senate for this, so that 31000 medals can be immediately pressed on it and sent to the Conference, which, in the event of a lack of silver, can be used. At this, one should notice that the 30000 numbers are attached to be wearing on the tape, and 1000 medals without ears. " The soldiers were handed silver medals, really perechekannye of rublevikov, officers were “squeezed” gold, the same design for all.
On the obverse - the portrait and title of Empress Elizabeth Petrovna. On the reverse is an ancient Roman legionary with a Russian banner in one hand and a spear in the other. He steps over the dead vessel with the river Oder flowing from it, as is evident from the inscription placed right there. In the background is a view of Frankfurt, in front of it - the battlefield, corpses, abandoned weapons and standards with the monogram of Friedrich. The inscription is Caesarian laconic: "WINNER". Below, under the edge: "OVER the Prussians". And the date is the old style.
So, Prussia was on the verge of disaster. But then circumstances of a higher order intervened. It happened that in German historiography it is customary to call the “miracle of the Brandenburg house”, namely the Austrians and the Russians failed to quickly take advantage of the Kunersdorf victory due to mutual contradictions. While they hesitated and sparred, Empress Elizabeth died. Her nephew, crossed in Peter Fedorovich, the Holstein duke Karl Peter Ulrich, betrayed Russia and concluded a separate peace with Frederick’s idolatry in exchange for all sorts of trinkets like the Prussian Order of the Black Eagle. Incidentally, he returned Minikh from Siberia. However, the main thing is that Peter III refused all the lands he had gained at the cost of Russian blood, including Königsberg, who swore allegiance to Russia, where Immanuel Kant lived at that time, which some people call on this basis not only German but also Russian philosopher. However, it is already completely different. история.