If we take world history, the marines have existed almost since the same time as the ancient states have appeared military fleets. It is known that the first detachments of warriors on ships appeared from Phoenicians and the ancient Greeks. In ancient Greece, the Marines were called "epibats". Strictly speaking, all the people who were aboard the ship and did not belong to the ship's command were ranked as epibats, however more often this word meant sea soldiers. In Athens, epibats were recruited from representatives of fets, the lowest social stratum of Athenian society. Epibats fought on the decks of ships, and also landed from ships on land. In ancient Rome, marines were called liburnarii and manipularies. They were recruited from among the freedmen, that is, as in Ancient Greece, the military craft of the marines of the Romans was not considered socially prestigious. At the same time, although the liburnaria were well armed and trained at the level of regular legionnaires, they received less payment.
The formation of the Marine Corps in its modern form - as a separate kind of troops took place already in modern times. The first country to acquire its own regular formations of the Marine Corps was Britain. The presence of numerous overseas colonies and constant colonial wars and uprisings in the subordinate territories created the need for the formation and gradual improvement of special military units that could conduct combat operations on land and at sea during naval battles. In addition, an important function of the marines at that time was to ensure internal security on ships. The fact is that sailors of warships were a very specific contingent, recruited not only voluntarily, but also by deception from representatives of the lower classes. The conditions of service in the fleet were very difficult and ship riots, with the subsequent killings of the captain and officers and the transfer to the pirates, were not uncommon. To prevent riots on ships and housed detachments of naval soldiers. On large ships, there was usually a company of marines numbered in 136 people, commanded by a captain of marines, assisted by a lieutenant, a senior sergeant and sergeants. The marines played the main role during the boarding battles, and when disembarking the coast, it was strengthened by the sailors of the ship under the command of the ship officer. In this case, the officer of the Marine Corps served as deputy commander of the expeditionary force.
"Sea Soldiers" "company Peter Alekseev"
Although the decree on the creation of a regiment of naval soldiers Peter the Great signed in 1705, in fact, military units, which can be considered a prototype of the national marines, appeared much earlier. In the second half of the 16th century, on the orders of Ivan the Terrible, a flotilla was created, the crews of which included special groups of archers. When the first Russian military sailing ship, the Orel, was built in 1669, its crew also included a team from 35 of the Nizhny Novgorod archers commanded by Ivan Domozhirov. The ship archers were assigned the task of carrying guard duty and participation in boarding battles. However, besides the fact that the archers were serving on the ship, they were no different from the other parts of the archers. However, the service of the ship "Eagle" was short, so the detachment of naval archers remained only an episode in domestic naval history. The need for the formation of the marines as a special kind of troops realized only Peter I, who studied the European military experience. The need to create a marines was explained by the struggle of Russia for access to the seas - the Azov and Baltic. Initially, detachments from among the specially seconded soldiers and officers of the army infantry regiments, Ostrovsky, Tyrtov, Tolbukhin and Shnevetsov, began to serve on Russian ships. Almost immediately after the start of the combat use of "naval soldiers", their effectiveness in boarding battles was proved. Thanks to the actions of the soldiers, several victories were won over the large ships of the Swedish fleet. In May, 1703 was captured at the mouth of the Neva by two Swedish ships.
Peter the Great, who was a participant in the battle, was finally convinced of the need to form special military units that could act in boarding and amphibious battles. In the autumn of 1704, Peter the Great decided to “fix the regiments of naval soldiers (looking at the fleet) and divide them by captains forever, to which corporals and sergeants should be taken from old soldiers for the sake of better training in order and order”. Initially, on the ships of the Russian fleet, soldiers from the Preobrazhensky and Semenovsky regiments were used as marines. It was from among the soldiers and officers of these most combat-ready units of the Russian army that the formation of the Marine Regiment (regiment) began. After the decree of 16 (27) in November 1705, Admiral Fedor Golovin, whom the king commissioned to form a regiment, gave the appropriate order to the Norwegian-born Russian Vice-Admiral Cornelius Cruys: “One Marine Regiment should have one, according to the Decree of His Majesty, and I ask you, please, write this in order to be in 1200 soldiers, and what belongs to that, how in the gun and in other matters, if you please, unsubscribe to me and do not need to leave others; and how many of them all have a number or a great score has been added, then we will find recruits for the trails. ” Thus, in addition to Peter the Great, Fyodor Golovin and Cornelius Cruys were at the origins of the creation of the Russian marines.
The officers of the regiment were formed from non-commissioned officers of the Life Guards Preobrazhensky and Semenovsky Regiments who had combat experience of the Northern War. It is noteworthy that the commander of the 4 Company of the Marine Regiment was listed under the name of Peter Alekseev Peter the Great himself. The regiment carried service on the Baltic Sea and included in its composition two battalions of five companies each. The regiment consisted of 45 officers, 70 non-commissioned officers and 1250 privates. The first Russian Marines were armed with shotguns with bagnets (bayonet prototype), sword cutters and sabers. Soon after its creation, the Marine Regiment took part in the Northern War, during which it was used primarily for boarding and landing operations. Already in 1706, the Marine Regiment received its first baptism of fire. The team of captain Bakhtiyarov succeeded in capturing the Swedish bot "Espern" in a boarding battle.
In 1712, the decision was made to form five separate battalions instead of a naval regiment. The decision to switch to the battalion structure was made on the basis of an analysis of the experience of the combat employment of the Naval Regiment during the Northern War. The regimental organization seemed too cumbersome, making it difficult to use the marines in combat conditions. Therefore, the Marine Regiment was decided to form, and on its basis to create five naval battalions. The admiral's battalion served on the ships of the squadron center, the vice admiral's battalion was stationed on the boarding assault ships, the rear admiral battalion on the rearguard squadron ships, the galley battalion on the combat galleys, the admiralty battalion served the military naval bases guard, admiralty battalion coastal institutions of the Russian fleet. Each such battalion included the 22 officer and the 660 non-commissioned officers and privates. Shipboard boarding teams led by their commanders were under the operational control of the ship commanders, but in daily service and training were subordinate to the squadron chief of the marine corps, which was usually assigned to the commander of the marines battalion. After participating in naval campaigns and battles, shipboard boarding and landing teams carried the service of guarding naval bases and engaged in combat training in the disposition of their battalions. The ship's crew consisted of 80 to 200 soldiers, that is, roughly a company of marines. In the galley fleet, naval soldiers made up 80-90% of ship crew members, being, at the same time, galley rowers. 150 people served on the scamps, of whom only 9 people were sailors and the rest were Marines. Scampaway was also commanded by a Marine officer. In addition to the Marine Corps itself, an airborne corps of thousands of servicemen were formed in the 18-26. In 1713, the strength of this compound reached 29. The 860 man, combined into 18 infantry regiments and a separate infantry battalion. In 1714, the marines took part in the Gangut battle. It was attended by two guards, two grenadiers, eleven infantry regiments and a galley battalion of marines - about 3433 military personnel of the Russian army. An important part of the Northern War was the conduct of amphibious operations against Sweden, in which the main role was played by the Marines. So, only in 1719, the landing corps, which was then commanded by General-Admiral Apraksin, conducted 16 landing operations in the area from Stockholm to Norrköping. Another 14 operations were carried out between Stockholm and Gefle.
From the Northern War to the First World War
After the end of the Northern War, the marines were already an integral part of the Russian army and navy. The next campaign, in which Russian marines participated, was the Persian campaign 1721-1723. It involved the 80 company of the Marine Corps, which later became part of the 10 regiments, along the 2 battalion in each regiment. It was thanks to the Marines that the Russian positions on the Caspian Sea were strengthened. Later, from among those who took part in the marines, two naval regiments were formed in the Baltic Fleet.
Since the Northern War, Russian naval soldiers have fought in almost all the major wars waged by the Russian Empire. They were used for amphibious assault operations to seize coastal fortresses, conduct reconnaissance and organize sabotage, boarding battles. Often, marines were thrown onto land — to reinforce land infantry regiments. On account of the Russian marines - Seven Years' War, Russian-Turkish wars. During the Russian-Turkish war 1735-1739. the combined battalion of marines numbering 2145 soldiers and officers recruited in two Baltic sea regiments participated in the siege and capture of the fortress of Azov. During the Seven Years' War 1756-1763 the marines successfully acted during the assault on the Prussian fortress of Kolberg. She was taken by a detachment of marines and sailors under the command of captain 1, rank GA. Spiridov. The Marine Corps also proved itself well during the 1769-1774 Archipelago Expedition, when the Russian fleet blocked the Dardanelles, and airborne units were landed on the islands of the Archipelago, the Greek and Turkish coasts. Over the course of the campaign, more than 60 landing groups formed from soldiers and naval officers of the Baltic Fleet were landed from ships of the Russian fleet. Five squadrons of 8 000 marines and officers on board were transferred to the Mediterranean from the Baltic Sea to the Mediterranean. In addition to the marine regiments of the Baltic Fleet, the troops of the Guards and Army infantry regiments - the Life Guards of Preobrazhensky, Kexholm, Shlisselbur, Ryazan, Tobolsk, Vyatsky and Pskov were also included in the landing squad.
During the Russian-Turkish war 1787 — 1791, the naval assault force participated in the assault and capture of the Turkish fortress Ishmael. The assault flotilla under the command of Major General Osip Deribas, a Russian officer of Spanish origin, who was actually called José Ribas, was sent to attack Ishmael. The landing force, commanded by his brother, Colonel Emmanuel de Ribas, included Cossacks of the Black Sea Cossack troops, battalions of the Kherson grenadiers and Livonian rangers, who, after disembarking, occupied coastal fortifications. The Marines of the Black Sea Fleet originate from the assault of Ishmael. In 1798-1800 Marines took part in the Mediterranean campaign of Admiral Fyodor Ushakov, during which Russia managed to seize the Ionian Islands, occupy the island of Corfu, land on the Italian coast. In the storming of the island of Corfu participated battalions of marines under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Skipor, majors Buasel and Brimmer. The actions of the Marine Corps were subsequently highly appreciated by Admiral Ushakov, who reported the bravery and combat readiness of the marines to Emperor Paul I.
It should be noted that the officers and soldiers of the marine corps of Russia differed from their European counterparts primarily in moral character - they served in their country and considered it as their military duty, while the marines of European states were recruited from mercenaries - people of an adventurous warehouse, for whom the main value was the reward for the service. The most important distinguishing characteristic of the Russian marines was their excellent ability for bayonet attack and for aimed shooting. Constant readiness to face the enemy face to face remains one of the key skills of the Marines up to the present. That is why the enemies, even in the wars of the twentieth century, were afraid of the Marines, calling them both the "black death" and the "sea devils".
In 1803, another organizational transformation of the Russian marines took place. On the basis of individual battalions, four naval regiments were formed, three of which were subordinate to the command of the Baltic Fleet and one was part of the Black Sea Fleet. The marines participated in the second Archipelago expedition of Vice Admiral Senyavin in 1805-1807. The 1805 Hannover Expedition in 1811 created the 25 Infantry Division, which included two brigades of marines. This division fought well on the land fronts of World War 1812 of the year. On Borodino field, a monument to the Life Guards Egersky Regiment and the sailors of the Guards Marine Crew It was the Marines who performed the tasks of building bridges and crossings for the movement of the Russian army and the subsequent destruction of bridges and crossings when the French troops approached. Order midshipman M.N. Of the thirty Marines, Lermontov had to destroy the bridge over the Koloch River and, in the case of the French approaching, prevent the crossing of the river. When the 26 of August the French attacked the village of Borodino, the Russian huntsmen, after fierce resistance, were still forced to retreat. After that, the marines set fire to the bridge, but the French rushed to the burning bridge and the marines had to engage in hand-to-hand combat with the French. Barclay de Tolly threw two Jaeger regiments to help the thirty marines, after which, by joint efforts, they succeeded in destroying the advancing French regiment. Michman Lermontov received the Order of St. Anne 3 degree for this battle.
However, after the end of World War 1821, in 1813, the marines were handed over to the army department, after which the Russian marines ceased to exist for almost a century. Obviously, this was an unforgivable mistake of the Russian high military command and the emperor. The result of this miscalculation was the numerous problems that the Russian army and navy encountered in the wars of the second half of the XIX - early XX centuries. So, during the defense of Sevastopol in 1854-1855. there was an obvious need for marine units. It was necessary to form the 17 naval battalions from among the sailors of the Black Sea Fleet, who went down in history with their indomitable courage and valor shown during the defense of Sevastopol. Nevertheless, the situation could have taken a different shape, if at that time there were regular regiments or, at least, battalions of marines in the Black Sea Fleet. However, the Russian authorities did not draw the appropriate conclusions from the Crimean War - the marines were never reconstructed. During the Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905 The need for marines felt defended by the Japanese troops Port Arthur. He was defended by seven naval battalions formed from the personnel of the ships, a separate landing squad of sailors, three naval rifle companies and machine-gun crews.
It was only in 1910 that the royal warlords again began talking about the need to form the marines as a separate branch of the navy. In 1911, the Main Naval Headquarters developed a project for the creation of infantry units at the country's main naval bases. It was planned to create an infantry regiment as part of the Baltic Fleet, as well as the Black Sea and Vladivostok battalions. In August, 1914 in Kronstadt was formed by two battalions from among the sailors of the Guards naval crew and one battalion from among the sailors of the 1 of the Baltic naval crew. 1 August 1914 began the creation of naval battalions in the Black Sea Fleet. The commander of the fleet was signed "Regulations on the temporary separate Kerch Marine Battalion." Two more battalions were sent to the military commander of the Batumi fortress. A separate company of marines in the Caspian Sea was formed, and a separate assault detachment from among the marines of the Black Sea Fleet was stationed in Baku. In March, 1915, already during World War I, a separate naval battalion of the 2 Baltic fleet crew was transformed into a special-purpose naval regiment, which included rifle companies, a mine company, a machine-gun command, communications command, regimental artillery, technical workshop, wagon train, teams of the steamer "Ivan-city" and boats. In 1916, the fleet command came to the conclusion that it was necessary to further develop and strengthen the forces of the marines, for which it was decided to form two divisions - the Baltic and the Black Sea. The Baltic Division was created on the basis of a brigade of marines, and the Black Sea was formed as a result of the connection of naval battalions that existed with 1915. However, the final formation of the Baltic and Black Sea divisions of marines was not to be.
The first steps of the Soviet marines
As a result of the February Revolution, the divisions were disbanded. Nevertheless, the sailors played a crucial role in the events of both the revolution and the Civil War, speaking primarily as units operating on land. It can be said that it was precisely the sailors who, owing to the spread of revolutionary views in the navy, became the shock force of the 1917 revolutions of the year. The directive of the People’s Commissariat for Military Affairs, dated January 1918, emphasized the need to include volunteers in the platoon of "fellow sailors" in each formed echelon. In the battles of the Civil War on the land fronts, about 75 thousands of sailors fought. The most famous among them, of course, were Pavel Dybenko, Anatoly Zheleznyakov, Alexey (Thomas) Mokrousov. In 1920, in Mariupol, for the defense of the Reds occupied the coast of the Azov Sea and conducting amphibious operations, the 1-I Marine Expeditionary Division was formed, which was not officially called the Marine Corps Division, but in fact it was it. The division consisted of four regiments of two battalions in each, a cavalry regiment, an artillery brigade, and an engineering battalion. The number of divisions reached 5 thousand people. It was the naval division that made an important contribution to the liberation of the Kuban from the “whites”. After the end of the Civil War, the units that fought on the fronts, staffed by sailors, were disbanded. In 1920 - 1930 - s. parts of the marines in the fleets were absent. The Soviet Navy before World War II did not have a single landing ship of special construction, since in the 1920-e - 1930-e. The world’s armies and fleets did not pay due attention to amphibious operations, but rather focused on the development of coastal anti-amphibious defense.
Only at the end of the 1930-ies, in connection with the growth of military-political tensions in the world, work began on the creation of the first Soviet units of the regular marines. 17 June 1939, the commander of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet ordered "in accordance with the instructions of the People's Commissar of the Navy to begin the formation of a separate special time for peacetime temporary states! rifle brigade with a deployment in Kronstadt ... ". 11 December 1939, the People's Commissar of the Navy of the USSR, ordered the special rifle brigade of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet to be considered a coastal defense unit and subordinate it to the Fleet Military Council. A special rifle brigade of the Baltic Fleet took an active part in the Soviet-Finnish war, landing in the landing force on the islands of the Gulf of Finland. In the Soviet-Finnish war, a special maritime ski detachment and special purpose battalions participated. 25 April 1940, the People's Commissar of the USSR Navy signed an order to reorganize a separate special rifle brigade into the 1-th special brigade of marines. Thus, it is the 25 day of April 1940 of the year that can be considered the starting point in the history of the Soviet marines.
"Black Death" during the Second World War
However, right up to the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, the Soviet military and naval commanders were not concerned about the development of marine infantry. There was only one brigade of marines in the Baltic Fleet, although the remaining fleets felt the need for such compounds, first of all the Black Sea Fleet. The mistakes of Soviet military leaders and naval commanders began to be felt already in the first days of the war. Therefore, the formation of units and formations of the marines at the expense of the naval crews began to be carried out in the first months of the war at an accelerated pace. At the very beginning of the war, the command began to form naval infantry brigades - they acted on land fronts and were recruited from the personnel of the navy and marine infantry brigades - they participated in amphibious operations, defense of naval bases and conducting reconnaissance and sabotage operations.
By October 1941, the 25 Marine Brigade was formed. The marines played an important role in the defense of Leningrad and Moscow, Stalingrad and Odessa, Sevastopol, and the Arctic naval bases. But the Marines fought most actively on the Black Sea coast. There was a higher efficiency of the marines in comparison with the infantry units and formations of ground forces. But the losses marines carried much more tangible even compared with the infantry. During the war years, the marines were not only used on land as ordinary infantry units, but also participated in airborne, reconnaissance, sabotage operations on all fronts. The most active part of the marines acted in the Black Sea region, on the Crimean and Caucasian coast. In the battles near Sevastopol, only sniper riders of the infantry were destroyed 1050 Nazi soldiers. The Nazis were afraid of the Marines as fire and called them the "black death". During the war, one division, 19 brigades, 14 regiments and 36 battalions of marines, totaling over 230 thousand soldiers, fought on various fronts and at different times. At the same time, the organizational structure of the marines during the Great Patriotic War was characterized by a lack of orderliness. First, three types of units and formations could be attributed to the marines: 1) naval infantry brigades operating on the land front; 2) the actual brigade of marines, performing the functions of amphibious assault and defense of naval bases and coast; 3) rifle units and formations that did not have the official name of “sea”, but were staffed on the basis of the personnel of the Navy and, in fact, were also marines.
Secondly, a single structure of such units was not developed. Most often, marines were reduced to brigades, and the regimental structure during the Second World War was not widespread. As historians emphasize, due to the lack of artillery and machine guns. Thus, the 384 th Separate Nicholas Red Banner Battalion of the Black Sea Fleet Marine Corps included two rifle, machine-gun companies, a company of anti-tank guns, a company of machine gunners, a reconnaissance platoon, an engineer platoon, a communications platoon, a sanitary unit and an economic department. There was no artillery in the battalion, which adversely affected the ability to conduct independent military operations in coastal areas. The number of battalions was 686 people - 53 officer, 265 foremen and 367 privates.
However, there were far better armed parts of the marines. Thus, the 31 th separate Petrozavodsk Marine Corps Battalion of the Onega Military Flotilla consisted of three rifle companies, one machine-gun company, one company of machine gunners, one 76-mm cannon battery and one 45-mm weapon, mortar battery, reconnaissance, sapper and anti-aircraft guns. machine-gun platoons, armored platoon, diving platoon, sanitary and economic platoons. With such a structure, the performance of independent combat missions already seemed quite possible. During the Great Patriotic War, the Soviet marines showed miracles of courage, courage and determination. Two hundred marines received the high title of Hero of the Soviet Union, the famous intelligence officer VN Leonov became the Hero of the Soviet Union twice. The large part of the Marine Corps was played in the Soviet-Japanese war in August 1945. It was thanks to the landing operations of the Pacific Fleet that the Soviet troops were able to rapidly occupy South Sakhalin and the Kurile Islands, gain a foothold in the Korean ports and finish off the resisting Kwantung Army.
The post-war period. From dissolving to flourishing
It would seem that the success of the marines during the Great Patriotic War, the heroism of the marines should have convinced the Soviet leadership and military command of the need for the existence of this unique kind of troops. But in the post-war period, units and formations of the marines in the Soviet Union were again eliminated. In no small degree, the decision of the Soviet leadership was promoted by the rapid development of nuclear missile weapons. In the middle of 1950's. Nikita Khrushchev openly spoke of the uselessness of marines in modern conditions. Parts and formations of the Marine Corps were disbanded, and the officers were sent to the reserve - and this despite the presence of a unique combat experience and excellent training. In 1958, the production of amphibious ships was discontinued in the Soviet Union. And this is against the background of global political events related to the decolonization of Asia and Africa and the beginning of a number of local wars and conflicts. While the USSR refused to use marines and paid little attention to the development of the Navy as a whole, the United States and Great Britain were developing their navies, improving the training and arming of parts of the marines. In the United States, the marines have long become one of the most important tools to protect American political interests outside the country, to some extent becoming a symbol of the American armed forces (it’s not by chance that the marines serve to protect American embassies and representative offices abroad).
Only by the beginning of the 1960's. The Soviet leadership became aware of the need to revive the national marines. Moreover, the Soviet Union played an increasingly active role in world politics, including in remote regions - Tropical Africa, South and Southeast Asia, and the Caribbean. The need for special troops, which could be deployed by sea and used for landing and reconnaissance-sabotage operations, increased. In 1963, in accordance with the directive of the USSR Ministry of Defense on 7 June 1963, the 336 th Belostok Order of Suvorov and Alexander Nevsky Guards Separate Marine Regiment, stationed in Baltiisk, Kaliningrad Region of the RSFSR, was formed. The first commander of the regiment was appointed Guard Col. PT. Shapranov. As early as December 1963, the 390 th Separate Marine Regiment in the Pacific Fleet was established, based at Slavyansk, six kilometers from Vladivostok. In 1966, on the basis of the 61 th motorized rifle regiment of the 131 th motorized rifle division of the Leningrad Military District, the 61 th separate Red Banner Kirkenes Marine Regiment was formed, subordinated to the command of the Northern Fleet. In the Black Sea, the Marine Corps was revived in November 1966. After the Baltic Marine Regiment took part in joint Soviet-Romanian-Bulgarian exercises, one of its battalions remained in the region and was included in the Black Sea Fleet as the 309-th separate battalion marines. In the following year, 1967, on its basis, was formed the 810th Separate Regiment of Marine Corps of the Black Sea Fleet. Given the operational environment in East and Southeast Asia, the first compound of the Marine Corps was created in the Pacific Fleet. On the basis of the 390-nd separate regiment of marines stationed near Vladivostok, the 55-division of marines was created. A separate battalion of marines was also formed in the Caspian flotilla. That is, by the beginning of 1970's. the Soviet Navy consisted of one division, three separate regiments and one separate battalion of marines.
From 1967, units of the USSR Marine Corps regularly served in the ocean, taking part in a number of major military and political conflicts during the Cold War. Soviet marines visited Egypt and Ethiopia, Angola and Vietnam, Yemen and Somalia, Guinea and Sao Tome and Principe, Benin and the Seychelles. Perhaps it was the marines in the 1960-th - 1970-s. remained the most "belligerent" branch of the USSR. After all, the Marines took part in numerous local conflicts abroad, defending the strategic interests of the Soviet Union. So, the Soviet marines had to assist the Egyptian army during the Egyptian-Israeli war. In Ethiopia, a company of marines landed in the port of Massau and led the fighting with local separatists. In the Seychelles, Soviet marines under the command of Captain V. Oblogi prevented a pro-Western coup d'état.
By the end of 1970's The Soviet leadership finally realized the importance and necessity of the existence of naval units and units in the country's Navy. In November 1979, individual regiments of the marines were reorganized into separate brigades of marines, which led to a change in the status of the formations from the tactical unit to the tactical unit. The battalions that make up the brigades are called separate and the status of tactical units. In addition to the brigades created on the basis of the regiments, an additional 175-I separate marine brigade of the Northern Fleet was also created. Thus, by 1990, the Marine Corps, which was part of the Coastal Forces of the USSR Navy, included: 55-I Mozyr Red Banner Marine Corps Division (Pacific Fleet, Vladivostok), 61-I Kirkines Red Banner Separate Marine Brigade (Northern Fleet, Sputnik near Murmansk), 175-I separate brigade of marines (Northern Fleet, Serebryanskoe near Murmansk), 336-I Guards Belostok Order of Suvorov and Alexander Nevsky separate brigade of marines (Baltic Fleet, Baltiisk in the Kaliningrad region i), 810-I separate brigade of marines (Black Sea Fleet, Kozachye village near Sevastopol), a separate battalion of marines of the Caspian Flotilla. The number of naval infantry of the USSR Navy in the specified period reached 12,6 thousand soldiers, in the case of mobilization the number of marines could be increased 2,5-3 times.
Marines new Russia
The collapse of the Soviet Union did not affect the marines. All parts of the marines remained in the Russian armed forces. Currently, the Coastal Forces of the Russian Navy includes 4 separate brigades of marines and several separate regiments and battalions. Training of officers is carried out, first of all, in the Far Eastern Higher All-Arms Command School in Blagoveshchensk and in the Ryazan Higher Airborne Command School (from 2008). Russian marines honorably fulfilled their constitutional duty to combat terrorism in the Chechen Republic, participated in a number of other armed conflicts in the post-Soviet space, and now take part in ensuring security in sea waters not only in Russia, but also abroad - Including in the Indian Ocean, where operations against Somali pirates are conducted. Currently, the Marines remains a highly capable branch of the military, service in which is very prestigious. The marines have repeatedly reaffirmed their necessity and high significance for the Russian state and the protection of its interests. On Marine Day it remains to congratulate all marines and veterans of the marines and to wish them, above all, victories and accomplishments and, most importantly, the absence of combat losses.