Military Review

"The unit of political longevity is one Mikoyan"

20
120 years ago, 25 November 1895, was born the Soviet statesman and political figure Anastas Ivanovich Mikoyan. Mikoyan had an amazing political longevity - having begun his public career with V. I. Lenin, Mikoyan completed it with the coming to power of L. I. Brezhnev. The main sphere of his activity was the foreign trade and food industry of the USSR, to the development of which Mikoyan made a great contribution.


In addition, during Khrushchev, Mikoyan was called abroad "the man №2 in the USSR", as he served as the first deputy chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers and was the most active member of the Presidium of the Central Committee (Politburo). It is at this time that most of his foreign missions fall. Mikoyan was even considered abroad as the unofficial minister of foreign affairs of the USSR. The fact is that N. S. Khrushchev, like Stalin, had a very high opinion of Mikoyan’s abilities, including diplomatic ones. Mikoyan’s mission in China began under Stalin. And Khrushchev preferred to send him in especially important cases, and not the Minister of Foreign Affairs. The geography of his travels is extensive: Austria, Afghanistan, Burma, Bulgaria, Hungary, Vietnam, Ghana, Guinea, GDR, Denmark, India, Indonesia, Iraq, China, Cuba, Mali, Morocco, Mexico, Mongolia, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Romania , USA, Finland, France, Germany, Yugoslavia and Japan. In some countries, Mikoyan visited more than once. For example, Mikoyan in 1962 was actively involved in resolving the “Caribbean Crisis”, leading in person talks with leaders of the United States and Cuba Kennedy and Castro.

Anastas Ivanovich Mikoyan was born 13 (25) in November 1895, in the village of Sanahin, Tiflis Province, in an Armenian family. After graduating from the village school, he entered the seminary in Tiflis. He fought on the Caucasian front against the Turks. Returning to Tiflis, he joined the RSDLP (b) there. In 1916, he entered the Theological Academy in Echmiadzin. From 1917, he led the party work, from March 1919, he headed the Baku Bureau of the Caucasian Territorial Committee of the RCP (b). Anastas Mikoyan was the editor of the Social Democrat and the News of Baku Council newspapers. In October, 1919 was called to Moscow; member of the Central Executive Committee.

From 1920, Mikoyan was again in the Caucasus. With the occupation of Baku by the Bolsheviks, he entered the city as an authorized Revolutionary Military Council of the 11th Army and then headed the Nizhny Novgorod provincial committee until 1920. As a representative of the group t. "Caucasians" (former members of the Transcaucasian organization) Mikoyan supported Stalin in the inner-party struggle. On the recommendation of Stalin, Mikoyan was appointed secretary of the South-Eastern Bureau of the Central Committee of the RCP (B.), And then chairman of the North Caucasian Regional Party Committee. In the Caucasus, Mikoyan led a rather moderate policy towards the Cossacks and the peasantry, offering to deal with the grain procurement crisis not with emergency measures, but with increasing industrial supplies to the village.

"The unit of political longevity is one Mikoyan"

Anastas Mikoyan, Joseph Stalin and Grigory Ordzhonikidze, 1924 Year

On the recommendation of Stalin, Mikoyan was a candidate member of the Politburo since 1926, as well as the people's commissar of commerce. Becoming the youngest Commissar. From 1930, he was Commissar of Supply; from 1934, the People's Commissar of the Food Industry. With 1935, he became a member of the Politburo. In 1938 — 1949 — Commissar of Foreign Trade. Mikoyan made a great contribution to the development of the Soviet food industry. Famous fish days were introduced in the USSR precisely at his insistence: in September 1932, the decision of the USSR People's Commissar of the USSR “On the introduction of the fish day at catering establishments” was issued. Much later, in 1976, the fish day was set for Thursday.

There is an opinion that Mikoyan should also be considered one of the founders of Soviet advertising. The People's Commissar invited famous poets to come up with catchy advertisements, like Mayakovsky: “Nowhere except in Mosselprom”. And on the roof of the Polytechnic Museum there was a motley advertisement: “It’s time for everyone to try, how crabs are tasty and tender,” “I eat jam and jam,” “Do you need a gift in your house? Buy Don Hall. All this was the idea of ​​Mikoyan, who also oversaw domestic trade.

If you try to identify the causes of "flooding" and the unprecedented political longevity of Mikoyan, you can bring his own words to a foreigner: "In short, I was just lucky." Indeed, Mikoyan many times was on the verge of ruin or career wreck. He really was lucky all his life. He could have been killed on the Turkish front in 1915. - Anastas Mikoyan enlisted in the Armenian volunteer squad of Andranik Ozanyan, after which he fought with the Ottomans. He could have been killed in Baku in 1918, when during the shootout two of the four soldiers of his squad who fought alongside him were killed, and he himself was wounded. Death bypassed him several times during the defense of Baku from the Turkish troops in the fall of 1918. He could have been killed by the Social Revolutionaries in Krasnovodsk or Ashkhabad after the fall of the Baku commune at the end of 1918. He could be handed over to Denikin counterintelligence as a result of two arrests in Baku and one in Tiflis in 1919. .

It should be noted that Mikoyan did not rush into the leaders. Often, on the contrary, stubbornly refused to raise, and agreed, only submitting to party discipline. As a result, they did not see the enemy in him. And he was a good performer. Mikoyan was devoted to work, had a unique memory, was an excellent organizer, always finding a way out of a difficult situation, was a leader who coped with all the tasks that he received. He was tactful, flexible, and avoided confrontation. In the 20s, he sincerely treated Stalin well, respected and appreciated him, and he, as an excellent psychologist, saw it. To other leaders showed loyalty, not intriguing, trying to substitute. Thus, in Mikoyan, they did not see a competitor and an enemy, they considered it a good helper.

Therefore, Mikoyan survived the struggle for power and the repression of the 1920-1930-s. In 1920, Mikoyan occupied a moderate line, and the time of the “great breakthrough” was supported by Stalin. He also behaved during the repression of the 1937 of the year, that is, he did not take the initiative, but did not resist them either. At the same time, Mikoyan authorized the arrest of many employees of the People's Commissariat of Food Industry and the People's Commissariat of Foreign Trade of the USSR

In 1942, a Red Army deserter who took over Anastas Mikoyan’s car for Joseph Stalin’s car tried to shoot him, but failed. During the war, Mikoyan was the chairman of the food and clothing committee of the Red Army, as well as a member of the Council for Evacuation and the State Committee for the Restoration of the Economy of the Liberated Regions, since 1942, he was a member of the State Committee of Defense. Throughout the war years, Mikoyan was intensely engaged in the development of catering. A large number of canteens were opened at industrial enterprises and institutions. For many workers and employees, public catering became the main form of food during the war years and saved many people from starvation. In 1943, Mr. Mikoyan was awarded the title Hero of Socialist Labor. In 1953, Mr. Mikoyan could have fallen under the new wave of cleansing that Stalin planned to launch. However, the death of the leader kept Mikoyan on the Soviet Olympus.

In sensitive matters, Mikoyan usually took an evasive position. At the same time, he generally supported Khrushchev against Beria and regarding the exposure of the "personality cult" of Joseph Stalin. Thus, during the congress, he actually made an anti-Stalinist speech (although not naming Stalin by name), declaring the existence of a “personality cult”, stressing the need for peaceful coexistence with the West and the peaceful path to socialism, criticizing Stalin’s works: “Short Course stories VKP (b) ”and“ Economic problems of socialism in the USSR ”. Following this, Mikoyan headed the commission for the rehabilitation of prisoners. At the plenum of the Central Committee 1957, he strongly supported Khrushchev against the anti-Party group, which he secured for himself a new rise in his party career.

Supporting Khrushchev, Anastas Mikoyan reached the peak of his career. In 1955 - 1964 served as first deputy chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR. From 15 July 1964 to 9 December 1965 - Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, which was the highest state post in the USSR. The fall of Khrushchev was the end of Mikoyan’s career. During the October (1964) plenum of the CPSU Central Committee, he tried to carefully defend Khrushchev, emphasizing his foreign policy achievements. As a result, in December 1965, Mikoyan was dismissed as having reached the 70 age and was replaced by the loyal Brezhnev Nikolai Podgorny. At the same time, Anastas Mikoyan remained a member of the Central Committee of the CPSU and a member of the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet (1965 — 1974), and received the sixth Order of Lenin.

He died on October 21 1978, at the age of about 83-s. Anastas Mikoyan caught a cold, then the pneumonia began, which passed into the pulmonary edema, and the body could not stand it.
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  1. inkass_98
    inkass_98 25 November 2015 07: 18 New
    +6
    Yes, there was an interesting figure (without irony). "From Ilyich to Ilyich" is about him. And in general, their family was talented, which is their brother - the famous aircraft designer, son Stepan - a test pilot, lieutenant general and Hero of the Soviet Union.
    Perhaps only Molotov and Kaganovich were more monumental than him, and even survived almost all of their enemies.
    1. venaya
      venaya 25 November 2015 09: 52 New
      -2
      Quote: inkass_98
      ... their family was talented, which is worth a brother - a famous aircraft designer, son Stepan - a test pilot, lieutenant general and Hero of the Soviet Union.

      There was a problem with his brother an aircraft designer - putting Polikarpov (remember P-2 and others) into a sharashka it was Brother Mikoyan who headed his design bureau, which affected the development of a high-speed, record-breaking fighter for his time. It is believed that the replacement of the chief designer caused a delay in the development of this aviation design bureau for at least six months, not counting many other difficulties.
      1. Andrey591
        Andrey591 25 November 2015 17: 05 New
        +2
        Polikarpov was imprisoned from 1929 to 1931. A. Mikoyan headed the Design Bureau in 1939. At least read the biography of the designer. Before writing like that!
        1. venaya
          venaya 26 November 2015 04: 20 New
          -1
          Quote: Andrey591
          Mikoyan headed the Design Bureau in 1939. At least read the biography of the designer. Before writing like that!

          We read together: "In his absence (Polikarpova), plant director Pavel Voronin and chief engineer P.V. Dementyev singled out part of the design bureaus and some of the best designers (including Mikhail Gurevich) and organized a new Experimental Design Department, and in fact a new design bureau under the leadership Artyom Mikoyan, brother of the People's Commissar of Foreign Trade of the USSR Anastas Mikoyan. At the same time, Mikoyan was handed over the project of a new I-200 fighter (future MiG-1), which Polikarpov sent to the People’s Commissariat of the Aviation Industry (NKAP) for approval before his trip."Something is not clear? After a business trip abroad, where Polikarpov illegally purchased a home refrigerator for his wife, they put it again, but they do not want to write anything about it. Further:"Nevertheless, the designer managed to create at another site the best experienced fighters of the Second World War - I-180 and I-185"- You didn’t know that either? And again:"at the end of 1941, by the sum of the characteristics in the prototypes, it exceeded all serial Soviet and foreign piston fighters of those years. Aircraft with LTX (flight performance), comparable to I-185 (La-7), was released only by mid-1944. However, fighters with the worst LTH were launched into the series instead of this aircraft: Yak-1, MiG-1, LaGG-3". Now something has become clear about the activities of some dignitaries, or not? Is this not a sabotage? Please criticize more closely, there are those who know a little more than you expect.
    2. Asl
      Asl 25 November 2015 13: 25 New
      -1
      The Novocherkassk execution was also his merit. One of the agents of the West, which was introduced by the West at the dawn of Soviet power (like Latsis, etc.) Perhaps the co-author of the report of the 20th Congress. E. Prudnikova claims that there was a mole in the Central Committee under Stalin that was not revealed still. I think it’s him. And it worked well, otherwise it would have failed. But the words that Mikoyan will pass between the raindrops were said by Stalin during his lifetime. Judging by how his son hates Stalin and the Stalin period, I I think so. This is my opinion.
      1. venaya
        venaya 25 November 2015 16: 47 New
        0
        Quote: Asl
        Novocherkassk execution is also his merit.

        The Novocherkassk execution was needed by these figures in order to remove the not very adequate and poorly managed Khrushchev, with the replacement of a more flexible Brezhnev (by the way from Dnepropetrovsk - doesn’t this mean anything to you?). After that, the KGB, through Brezhnev’s wife, managed to lead Andropov with a very suspicious past, and the job can be done, the methodical rout of the USSR began. For example: during the reign of Brezhnev, the consumption of alcohol per capita increased tenfold! Yap Gorbachev only completed then they started the business. And now in Dnepropetrovsk the largest religious building in Europe has been built, look, it’s very impressive, the "third temple" is right.
        1. Asl
          Asl 26 November 2015 09: 52 New
          0
          with a very suspicious past, Andropov, who brought the humpback to power, regularly came to the Stavropol Territory for a marked one and was gradually promoted by some of the Central Committee, while the humpback was already recruited while resting on the line of the Communist Parties in the mid-70s, through his wife Rakhima Maksutovna from an ancient family of Khazar slavers. And how they removed the Leningrad secretary Romanov, Akhromeev, to clear the path for the humpback.
    3. Aleksander
      Aleksander 25 November 2015 13: 36 New
      +4
      Quote: inkass_98
      Son Stepan is a test pilot, lieutenant general and Hero of the Soviet Union.


      There was another son, Vladimir, a military pilot, dead in battle near Stalingrad. Fought and Stepan. For which I respect the leadership of the USSR (not all, but many) - they sincerely served the idea (as they understood it) - not sparing for this even their children.
    4. The comment was deleted.
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 25 November 2015 07: 35 New
    +4
    tried to carefully protect Khrushchev, emphasizing his foreign policy merits. Here I made a mistake ... You won’t refuse in his mind ... hesitated along with the party line, without irony ..
  3. oracul
    oracul 25 November 2015 08: 25 New
    +2
    At one time I heard such a saying about him: the most cunning of the Armenians - Anastasik Mikoyan. It seems that the people, as always, were not mistaken in their assessments. He survived everyone and knew everything about everyone. But it seems that he himself was not fully known.
  4. bionik
    bionik 25 November 2015 08: 44 New
    +8
    In the USSR, a war was declared on the stoves and pans, giant kitchen factories were erected, and from everywhere there were calls to break out of the musty world of household chores. And this was understood literally - in the country they began to build houses without kitchens! In 1936, after Stalin announced that “life has become better, life has become more fun,” the foundations of catering have been revised. On the instructions of the leader, Mikoyan went for excellence in the United States, where he spent two whole months. He got acquainted with the method of quick freezing vegetables and fruits, the production of ice cream, saw self-service enterprises, visited the General Electric Company factory that produces refrigerators, food packaging factories. The impression, of course, was strong. The energetic commissar set out to transplant many American ideas on Soviet soil. For example, he began to persuade Stalin to organize the production of home refrigerators. But he waved away: they say that the winter is long, and in the summer "the population is used to keeping food in glaciers and cellars." The question was “thawed out” only after many years - in 1950, when “refrigerated cabinets” began to be produced in Moscow.

    “Hamburgers,” as he called them, were particularly struck. He decided to introduce them into the Soviet public catering. And the hot Moscow meatballs, “packed” in a bun, didn’t really appear on the Moscow streets before the war, though not for long. It was Mikoyan who initiated the publication of the Book on Tasty and Healthy Food, a colorful volume filled not only with recipes for many dishes, but also historical essays, the advice of nutritionists.
    1. Cruel beaver
      Cruel beaver 25 November 2015 09: 46 New
      +6
      Yes, it was a serious uncle. They say that the “doctor’s” thanks to him was so tasty ... But the “Book about tasty and healthy food” I left from my mother. And my wife and daughter and daughter-in-law are still no, no, and they use recipes from this book.
  5. Villiam wolf
    Villiam wolf 25 November 2015 09: 33 New
    +2
    Thanks for the post. Short and capacious. wink
  6. knn54
    knn54 25 November 2015 10: 46 New
    +1
    "From Ilyich to Ilyich without a heart attack and paralysis."
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 25 November 2015 11: 55 New
      +2
      Quote: knn54
      "From Ilyich to Ilyich without a heart attack and paralysis."

      There is a downpour on the street, you need to go outside after the meeting, and Mikoyan does not have an umbrella. But he calmly goes to the door.
      “How are you, Comrade Mikoyan?” asked Khrushchev.
      - And I, as always, between the drops.
  7. Kim Klimov
    Kim Klimov 25 November 2015 11: 22 New
    0
    Tricky, sensible and dodgy.
    1. Wii
      Wii 26 November 2015 20: 40 New
      0
      The Armenian is still .....
  8. Engineer engineer
    Engineer engineer 25 November 2015 11: 31 New
    +2
    -Anastas Ivanovich, take an umbrella, rain ...
    -Nothing! I'm between the trickles ...
  9. moskowit
    moskowit 25 November 2015 20: 45 New
    +2
    A man with the highest sense of duty. During the settlement of the Caribbean Crisis, one can say of the possible start of the third World War, Anastas Ivanovich, his wife Ashkhen Lazarevna, whom he loved very much, died. Mikoyan, despite the pain of loss and the deepest personal grief, successfully negotiated. Later, at the funeral of US President D. Kennedy, he represented our country, which indicates his position in the world political elite of that time.
  10. Manul
    Manul 26 November 2015 00: 15 New
    +1
    I respect this person very much. I had long wanted to read something capacious about him. But the article was started for health, and then as usual. The personality was very fundamental. And here it is - a sketch. By the way
    He also behaved during the repressions of 1937, that is, he did not show initiative, but he did not resist them either. At the same time, Mikoyan authorized the arrest of many employees of the People's Commissariat of Food Industry, the People's Commissariat of Foreign Trade of the USSR.
    I dare to challenge this point. I heard that when Stalin invited him to lead the food industry, he set the condition for his people to never touch. And it was as if Stalin kept his promise and did not call anyone from his team for any reason.