Military Review

Battle of the Young: a repetition of the Kulikov victory

31
Battle of the Young: a repetition of the Kulikov victory



As governor of Ivan the Terrible, they managed to stop and destroy the Krymchak horde, six times superior in strength to the Russian army
В stories Fatherland, the first Russian autocrat, Ivan IV the Terrible, remained above all as the conqueror of Kazan and Astrakhan, the oprichnina ideologue, limiter of the boyar freemen, and cruel ruler. In reality, the years of the first Russian tsar's rule were not only gloomy, but also constructive: it was with him that Russia doubled and doubled! - expanded its territory, grew by many important lands and forced Europe to reckon with Russian interests and Russian politics.

A huge role in this was played by the battle, about which, alas, they began to speak seriously only at the very end of the twentieth century. But it was in the history of Russia since the times of Ivan the Terrible, the same as the Battle of Kulikovo two centuries earlier. At stake, then, the question was whether Russia would remain as an independent state, or, after getting back to victory, would return to a yoke like the Horde one.

The Russian warriors gave their answer to this challenge of time at the turn of the summer of 1572. Five days - from July 29 to August 2 - about fifty versts from Moscow, the capital of the Russian kingdom, they crushed the troops of the Crimean khan Devlet Giray I, supported by the Ottoman Turks, much larger than them and crushed. This battle entered the history of Russia under the name of the battle of Molodi: this was the name of the village in the vicinity of which the main events of those days took place.

To be Russia - or not to be?


The Russian ruler became aware of the upcoming campaign of the Crimean Khan Devlet Giray against Moscow, apparently at the beginning of 1572.

Since the end of the 15th century, the warriors of the Crimean Khanate, who broke away from the disintegrating Golden Horde in 1427, constantly engaged in predatory campaigns against Russia. And Khan Devlet Girey, who came to power in 1551 year, not only robbed Russian lands - he consistently sought to weaken the emerging Russian state, knowing full well what danger it poses to Crimea. This was evidenced by the Astrakhan and Kazan campaigns of Ivan the Terrible, as well as the numerous attempts of Russian raty to inflict a preventive strike on the Krymchaks. And therefore, Devlet Giray repeatedly made forays into Russia, on the one hand, not to allow her to concentrate forces and respond to him in the same way, and on the other, to plunder and seize captives for sale in Istanbul.

And at the beginning of the 16th century 70, the Crimean Khan had a completely unique chance to turn Russia into a vassal. Russian troops got bogged down in an unlucky Livonian war for them, the forces defending the center of Russia were small, and the country itself was weakened by internal problems, crop failure and plague — there was no reason to expect serious resistance. And this was fully confirmed by the campaign of Krymchaks in May-June 1571 of the year. The forty-thousand-member army of Devlet Giray easily reached Moscow, ravaged and burned the suburbs and suburbs: only the Kremlin and China-City, hidden behind stone walls, remained intact. Along the way, the Krymchaks destroyed another 36 of Russian cities; about 80 thousands of people became victims of that attack, 60 thousands more were captured, and the population of Moscow decreased threefold - from 100 to 30 thousands of inhabitants.

How could it not repeat this success, finally taking the weakened Russia under his arm! In addition, the Ottoman Empire supported the Khan's claims, interested in the disappearance of a new geopolitical adversary - the Russian Empire. So the Russian troops had to prepare as quickly as possible to repel the aggression. That's just to do it was not easy: the entire cash composition of the Russian army near Moscow at that time totaled the entire 20 034 person - yes, the number was established according to the documents of that era with an accuracy of one fighter! In addition to them, there were still about 5 thousands of Don Cossacks under the command of Colonel Mikhail Cherkashenin and a certain number of militiamen. Devlet Giray, in turn, led six more troops to Russia: 80 thousands of Krymchaks and Nogais, 33 thousands of Turks and 7 thousands of Turkish janissaries.


Tsar John IV is awarded trophies taken from Devlet Giray by Prince Vorotynsky, 1572 year. Photo: wikipedia.org

It was probably ridiculous to count on long-term resistance with such a balance of forces - no one expected him to do so. The question was: how to defeat a six-fold superior Russian army in order to permanently alienate the threat of new enslavement from Russia? Ivan the Terrible laid the search for the answer on Zemstvo voevode Prince Mikhail Vorotynsky, in whose assistance the young prince Dmitry Khvorostinin was assigned to the oprichnny voevode.

Governors vs Khan


In this pair of outstanding Russian military leaders of the XVI century, the main role was played by Prince Vorotynsky - as the older and more experienced. By his time, 30 had been years of the military service of Russia: both in the Coast Guard Service on the Oksk frontier and on long-distance hikes. Voevoda Mikhail Vorotynsky was one of the main heroes of the Kazan campaigns, heading whole regiments in them. And he became particularly famous during the capture of Kazan in 1552: it was the regiment under the command of Vorotynsky that was able to first repel the daring counterattack of the city’s defenders, and four days later, at the head of his warriors, seize the wall adjacent to the Arsk gate and hold it for two days.

Dmitry Khvorostinin was younger than Vorotynsky for a decade and a half and became famous a little later. The first major military feat he accomplished during the siege of Polotsk during the Livonian War, freeing the townspeople, who were driven by the enemy into the castle as a human shield, and one of the first to enter the borders of the Upper Castle. Shortly thereafter, the young commander, highly appreciated by the tsar, became one of the oprichnich governors. It was the regiment of Khvorostinin who was the only one of all the oprichnich regiments in May-June 1571 of the year who fought the hordes that attacked Moscow, Devlet Giray, while his other colleagues ran away, leaving the capital to the mercy of fate.

These two commanders became the main opponents of the Crimean Khan, Devlet Giray, a man who spent almost twenty years of his life fighting the Russian kingdom.

Forerunners of the Generalissimo Suvorov


We are accustomed to the fact that the commanding maxim "Win not by number, but by skill" is not only formulated, but also for the first time applied by Generalissimo Alexander Suvorov. Meanwhile, long before the brilliant Russian commander, this principle was often and successfully used by his predecessors. Including - and the governor Vorotynsky and Khvorostinin. Their only chance of victory was to turn the strength of the Krymchak army — its size — into its main weakness. And they successfully achieved this.

When the vanguard of the Devlet Giray detachment was already approaching the Pakhra River, in the area of ​​present-day Podolsk, overcoming the Oka and dispersed the few Russian barriers (the governor in full accordance with the strategic plan!), The rearguard had just passed the small village of Molodi. It was here that he was attacked by the guardsmen Khvorostinin. Their task was simple, but very important: to ensure that the Khan, frightened by the attack from the rear, began to deploy an army from Moscow and transfer it to the battlefield chosen and equipped by the Russians at its discretion. And the suicide attack of the guardsmen was a success. Krymchaks really turned around, suspecting that too lightly crossing the Oka was just a red herring, and the main Russian forces were waiting behind. So it was, with one small exception: these forces waited for Krymchaks not in an open field, but in Gulyai-town - a mobile wooden fortification, a kind of fortress on wheels, armed to the teeth with cannons and foodstuffs.

It was about the walls of this Walk-city that the first, most fierce throw of the Krymchak cavalry, the main force of the attackers, crashed. Yielding to the "panicky" retreat of the guardsmen of Khvorostinin, the warriors of Devlet Giray rode right under the roars of the Vorotynsky warrior. Nomads couldn’t take Gulyai-gorod with a swoop and began to waste energy in new and new fruitless attacks.


Gulyai-city (Wagenburg) from the engraving of the XV century. Map: wikipedia.org

However, the calculation of the attackers on the fact that sooner or later, the small Gulyai city, small in size and quickly assembled to surrender because of the famine, was almost true. The Russian guards were left far behind: Vorotynsky could not risk the speed of the troops moving to prevent Devlet Giray from breaking through to unprotected Moscow. But when in the Krymchak camp they found out that the Russians began to slaughter and eat their horses, this played an unexpected role for the governor in the events. Delighted by the fact that the enemy began to starve and deprives himself of maneuverable forces, the Krymchak military leaders decided to take a mad step: they hurried their horsemen and threw them into a foot attack on the walls of Gulyai-town without any fear of the Russian cavalry. And this predetermined the outcome of the battle.

Disconnected nomads succeeded in cutting out the few surviving archers from among the three-thousand field barrier to come close to the walls of the Walk-city and literally cling to them with their hands, chopping and shaking the protection of the Russians. At the same time, Vorotynsky, with his large regiment, managed to bypass the attackers in a wide arc, hiding in the ravines, and at the crucial moment strike them from the rear. At the same time, because of the walls of the Gulyai-city, a rapid outbreak was launched — Russian artillery, which the warriors had already mastered very well by that time. This came as a complete surprise to lightly-armed Krymchaks: until now, the gunners were silent, obeying the tactical plan of Vorotynsky.

The outcome of the five-day battle was terrible. The Crimean army, according to some, lost a total of about 110 thousand people. Including all Ottoman cavalry and all seven thousand selected Janissaries died. The losses of the Krymchaks themselves and the Nogai were so severe that only after a decade and a half the Crimean Khanate was able to restore the former male population. After all, on the march to Russia, which promised to be so victorious, according to tradition, almost all young men and men set off, and no more than 10 thousand people returned back ...

Victory to remember

Victory at Molody actually put an end to the protracted Russian-Crimean wars. In addition, the defeat of the Krymchak army, and even had such a substantial numerical advantage, demonstrated the advantage of armed weapons and the Russian army passing to the unity of command over the steppe. Finally, the outcome of the battle forever deprived hopes of liberation from dependence on Moscow both the Kazan and Astrakhan khanates (who considered the Krymchaks as their main allies and the last chance to change the situation), and the Siberian Khanate encouraged them to confirm their vassal dependence before the Russian throne.

It is not surprising that historians call the battle of Molodyah the “second battle of Kulikovo”. And it is just as natural that now, when there is no need to adhere to the previous ideologies about the uniquely negative influence of the reign of Ivan the Terrible on the history of Russia, one can recognize that the events of the summer of 1572 have changed the history of our country forever. And we all need to remember this.
Author:
Originator:
http://rusplt.ru/society/bitva-pri-molodyah-povtorenie-kulikovskoy-pobedyi-19847.html
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  1. Now we are free
    Now we are free 30 November 2015 09: 28 New
    17
    Finally, a full-fledged article about such an important battle in the history of Russia on the pages of VO!
    Despite the fact that according to the first higher education, the historian had only a vague idea of ​​this battle, and yet it was one of the decisive factors for the formation of the Russian state. Moreover, the majority of Ivan the Terrible knows about the oprichnina, the capture of Kazan, the conquest of Siberia (Ermak) and the not very successful Livonian War BUT for some reason modern Russian historians do not raise such worthy accomplishments of Ivan the Terrible as the Battle of Molody ...
    A very worthy plot both for a full-fledged book and for a film, all the more so now at the moment when Russia is so in need of the glorification of its ancestors on which it should be equal! I really hope that the Battle of Molody and the Battle of Kulikovo will be filmed as they filmed Alexander Nevsky and Danila Galitskiy as filmed “Young Russia”.
    1. Vend
      Vend 30 November 2015 09: 32 New
      +5
      Quote: Now we are free
      BUT for some reason, modern Russian historians do not raise such worthy accomplishments of Ivan the Terrible as the Battle of Molody on the shield ...

      This is also incomprehensible to me. However, as far as I know, there is an academic history that was laid under Peter I and the USSR. Scientific minds with regalia sit on topics and continue to cultivate them.
      1. Umnichka
        Umnichka 30 November 2015 16: 02 New
        +6
        Your naivety surprises! .. Peter 1 was ROMANOV, the followers of Ivan the Terrible lost the battle for the Russian throne to the Romanovs, and all who were not Romanovs were blackened. Recall, for example, the fact that Peter the Great was transported to St. Petersburg of all then known chronicles and lists and their disappearance. The Romanovs vilely occupied the Russian throne and history, I think, rightly took revenge on the hands of the Bolsheviks. One of the questions that I can’t understand is for what exactly, for what deeds, which brought something weighty good-needed-useful to our people and the state, the cohort of Nicholas 1 was declared saints ??? Not justifying the Bolsheviks, - nevertheless, Nikolai, the 2 rd.s.p.s.r.a.l, Empire, cowardly following the liberals of that time, in short - for which the Romanovs (and how) fought, ran into it. I can’t say anything about the family, of course, and Nicholas 2 deserved a more severe execution. And Ivan the Terrible is one of the greatest Russian rulers, here is his blessed memory and gratitude of his descendants, and his role and significance in the history of Russia remains to be overestimated. And Nicholas 2 - an anathema instead of holiness should be. This, most likely, is some kind of tactical trick, temporary, in the short-term policy of the Kremlin and the Russian Orthodox Church.
      2. Umnichka
        Umnichka 30 November 2015 16: 02 New
        0
        Your naivety surprises! .. Peter 1 was ROMANOV, the followers of Ivan the Terrible lost the battle for the Russian throne to the Romanovs, and all who were not Romanovs were blackened. Recall, for example, the fact that Peter the Great was transported to St. Petersburg of all then known chronicles and lists and their disappearance. The Romanovs vilely occupied the Russian throne and history, I think, rightly took revenge on the hands of the Bolsheviks. One of the questions that I can’t understand is for what exactly, for what deeds, which brought something weighty good-needed-useful to our people and the state, the cohort of Nicholas 1 was declared saints ??? Not justifying the Bolsheviks, - nevertheless, Nikolai, the 2 rd.s.p.s.r.a.l, Empire, cowardly following the liberals of that time, in short - for which the Romanovs (and how) fought, ran into it. I can’t say anything about the family, of course, and Nicholas 2 deserved a more severe execution. And Ivan the Terrible is one of the greatest Russian rulers, here he has a blessed memory and gratitude of his descendants, and his role and significance in the history of Russia remains to be overestimated. And Nikayu 2 - an anathema instead of holiness should be. This, most likely, is some kind of tactical trick, temporary, in the short-term policy of the Kremlin and the Russian Orthodox Church.
        1. Secta haki
          Secta haki 30 November 2015 16: 26 New
          -3
          Peter 1 was not Romanov. The family of Grozny plagued or killed one by one the same heresy that killed Nikolai the 2nd and his relatives in the basement. Judging by everything, you have something to do with this heresy ...
    2. Spnsr
      Spnsr 30 November 2015 12: 22 New
      +2
      But in the light of the events that are happening today, it is very much like the Turkish attempts to expand its empire!
      and in view of the fact that Constantinople was taken a century earlier, and the cleansing of the gay union is taking place, from its dishonesty (as it is now, there’s nobody to clean it up now, but the moral conflict is on the face), it’s very similar to that the chieftains ran into intriguers from the geo-union who redirected them to the Golden Horde, although the alliance of the Blue and Golden Hordes was in the face, the Livonian War ... which led to the conflict.
      and the small number of Ivan the Terrible’s troops consisted precisely in fulfilling allied obligations to restore order in the morally fallen White Horde ....
      and the Turks, in the sense in which we see him now then it wasn’t and just in view of the fact that the basis of the army, and the most combat-ready units were Janissaries ...
      and Islam, in the sense in which it is now interpreted, the more radical movements in Islam, then there was not, in view of the fact that attempts to Islamize, i.e. a ghost to their power, begins to occur after this battle, and if we take the history of the Republics of the North Caucasus as a basis, then this is somewhere around the 17th century ...
      then an attempt to subjugate the Balkans, which led to the opposition of both a more or less established Europe and an expanding Russia, which also frightened Europe and was an occasion to pit the Ottoman Empire and Russia among themselves ...
      1. Vend
        Vend 30 November 2015 13: 25 New
        +2
        Of the 12 Russian-Turkish warriors: 9 - victory for Russia, 1 - for the Ottoman Empire, 2 - draw. Whatever feelings the Turks swear, they hate Russia, especially those who hold power. Although the Ottomans themselves are to blame for the collapse of the empire, as are the Poles.
  2. The comment was deleted.
  3. Nick
    Nick 30 November 2015 09: 43 New
    11
    It is not surprising that historians call the battle of Molodyah the “second battle of Kulikovo”. And it is just as natural that now, when there is no need to adhere to the previous ideologies about the uniquely negative influence of the reign of Ivan the Terrible on the history of Russia, one can recognize that the events of the summer of 1572 have changed the history of our country forever. And we all need to remember this.
    Author Sergey Antonov

    Yes, biased historians in our history have piled a lot of lies. Grozny was groaned, Stalin was spat on. They spat on everyone who defended independent Russia.
  4. solovey
    solovey 30 November 2015 09: 54 New
    +3
    And why haven't they done a blockbuster yet - they would have shut up mythical films like "Saving Private Rhine" !!!!!
    1. avt
      avt 30 November 2015 10: 08 New
      +4
      Quote: solovey
      And why haven't they done a blockbuster yet - they would have shut up mythical films like "Saving Private Rhine" !!!!!

      Well, NykytA Sergeevich took off the Citadel wassat Well, it’s not Ryan who saved himself — his beloved and his daughter — the right thing for the country. laughing But as a matter of fact, I believe that the question was, despite the three exclamation points, and so the 28 Panfilovites undertook to do it and how much stench rose! By the way - when will you get out that! ?? request
  5. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 30 November 2015 10: 06 New
    +4
    Thank you for the story. He always treated Ivan the Terrible with sympathy and respect. He did so much for the Glory of Russia.
    Among those who were with Yermak, the ancestors of my father also came to Siberia.
    1. Lenin
      Lenin 30 November 2015 10: 13 New
      0
      Quote: Reptiloid
      Thank you for the story. He always treated Ivan the Terrible with sympathy and respect. He did so much for the Glory of Russia.
      Among those who were with Yermak, the ancestors of my father also came to Siberia.

      Are you from the Don ones? So Russia and Siberia grew. There were strong people, their kingdom was heaven.
  6. Lenin
    Lenin 30 November 2015 10: 06 New
    +3
    Thank you for the article. Well, it happened so from time immemorial that the stronger the ruler in Russia, the more tales in the West they write about him and the more they smear with dirt. One story with the murder of his own son, Ivan the Terrible, is worth what, the Russian Orthodox Church fought for the triumph of truth for a long time. Well, nothing, God willing, we will survive the modern turmoil, Russia will shake off slander and dirt and blossom, because the truth is behind us, and since the truth is behind us the enemy will be defeated. It’s a pity that not everyone will see this. hi
  7. beer-youk
    beer-youk 30 November 2015 10: 06 New
    +4
    Many thanks for the article! It’s time to say loudly about the victories of our ancestors!
  8. Dryulea
    Dryulea 30 November 2015 10: 16 New
    +6
    Oprichnina, Terrible such, Terrible such! But really, during the oprichnina period, I died if my memory serves me, or maybe 4500, or 2500 people! And in enlightened Europe, 450000 burned at the stake of the Inquisition! All these myths about Grozny back in those years were invented by our sworn friends from foggy albion.
    1. Scraptor
      Scraptor 30 November 2015 11: 57 New
      +1
      Would have burned in Russia as much or at least 20-45 thousand, they would not have arranged the Nikonian-Petrine "revolution" later, but on the contrary, all the spoiled near-homosexual evil spirits that survived from the Inquisition from Europe slipped down, rewrote Church books, closed the baths and even began to dress soldiers in feminine, not like dressing like that myself ...
  9. AlexTires
    AlexTires 30 November 2015 10: 18 New
    +4
    An interesting point: Devlet-Gerey once overthrew Sahib-Gerey, whose troops, in 1534, at the tract Krasnaya Gorka, which is not far from one of the regional centers of the Ryazan region, was defeated in a three-day battle from the Moscow forces led by princes Pupkov and Gatev .
    1. Chiropractor
      Chiropractor 30 November 2015 10: 36 New
      +2
      the battles led by the two princes on our part are just like the battles of the Roman legions led by the two consuls ....
  10. Halfunra
    Halfunra 30 November 2015 11: 22 New
    +2
    Good! I am glad even now to learn about the glorious history of my homeland.
    More such historical discoveries. And widely promote them in the media and on TV. hi
  11. spiriolla-45
    spiriolla-45 30 November 2015 11: 30 New
    +1
    I don’t know, I have never reacted negatively to Ivan Vasilich. Strong sovereigns always only strengthened the country, and the fact that the henchmen of thieves and zapadentsev - traitors were slaughtered, it could not be otherwise, neither then nor now. GDP needs to be learned from him, how to behave with liberals.
  12. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 30 November 2015 11: 50 New
    +1
    ☆☆☆☆☆ TO LENIN ☆☆☆☆☆ My father at that time under Soviet Power did not tell my mother about it, he was a member of the Komsomol, early became a communist. It can be seen that much has not been said before. When my mother came to visit me as a little girl to get to know her, she was told. About the fact that this is a large Cossack family, which "moved" more and more east and east. And then parents to work, and then father early in another world, and mother Then home. So the connection with that family was interrupted. And I often think about those people, also about the fact that, probably, my ancestors absorbed many peoples into themselves.
    But geographically - I am very far from those places. That's something like that. You asked - I deviated from the topic of the article.
  13. Obolensky
    Obolensky 30 November 2015 13: 03 New
    +1
    Thank you for the article. Most recently I heard about this battle. And today I read here a more complete version. Indeed, it is not entirely clear why nothing is really known about this battle.

    And about Ivan the Terrible, I changed my mind when I read several historical novels. There he just showed not as a satrap and a murderer, but as a statesman.
  14. sibiryak10
    sibiryak10 30 November 2015 13: 07 New
    +1
    Yes, of course, the battle is heroic and one of the most important for our country. And it is not clear why in Soviet times in the school curriculum she was passed over in silence.
    But the article does not say that a few months later, by order of Ivan the Terrible, Mikhail Vorotynsky was arrested, accused of intending to "bewitch the king" and tortured in dungeons.
    1. Secta haki
      Secta haki 30 November 2015 13: 36 New
      0
      Well, maybe heresy deceived him ...
    2. Pomeranian
      Pomeranian 2 December 2015 11: 40 New
      +2
      Prince Vorotynsky died of a wound received in the battle on June 12, 1573. He was 63 years old, practically Methuselah for the 16th century. After his death, the king ordered to build a church over his grave. And about "tortured in dungeons" wrote the forerunner of the current liberals, political emigrant Andryusha Kurbsky. Should you believe him?
      1. sibiryak10
        sibiryak10 2 December 2015 13: 32 New
        0
        Thank you, I didn't know about the church. About "tortured in dungeons", yes, everywhere I came across "from the words of Andrei Kurbsky" or refer to the memoirs of another tsarist guardsman - Heinrich von Staden, which raised doubts about this version, but on the Internet I did not find another version, everywhere they write or "tortured" or "died on the way to exile from wounds in dungeons"
        1. Secta haki
          Secta haki 2 December 2015 15: 02 New
          +2
          One of the millions shot by Ivan the Terrible personally ...
    3. The comment was deleted.
  15. sibiryak10
    sibiryak10 30 November 2015 13: 48 New
    0
    Most likely, Ivan the Terrible was very jealous of the fact that Mikhail Vorotynsky, after the victory at Molodi, was everywhere honored and called "the savior of Russia."
    1. Secta haki
      Secta haki 30 November 2015 15: 18 New
      +3
      Most likely, this heresy of John the Terrible, not only the youngest but also the eldest son, was killed, and then they composed a legend about the staff. Well, in general, they destroyed the whole family, as it is done at a loss for them. And there was such a heresy in Russia then, and this Tsar was engaged in the fact that he plagued it specifically, under the root ... They could seduce the governor with worldly glory, maybe even little panel some kind.
    2. Pomeranian
      Pomeranian 2 December 2015 11: 36 New
      +2
      Do not forget that the prince was under 70 years. Vorotynsky was wounded at Molody and died, not recovering from a wound after 10 months. He was buried in the Kirillo-Belozersky monastery. At the behest of Ivan Vasilyevich, a church was erected over his grave. What is jealousy here?
      1. Secta haki
        Secta haki 2 December 2015 15: 04 New
        +2
        Here it is ... sad At this age, they do not even get into politics.
        1. Pomeranian
          Pomeranian 2 December 2015 22: 14 New
          +1
          And the then parliament (boyar duma) appointed him. Moreover, a special "Order".
  16. Bosk
    Bosk 1 December 2015 19: 59 New
    0
    That's what you need to make a movie about, but the fact that no movie is a tragedy .. but no comedy ...
  17. Pomeranian
    Pomeranian 2 December 2015 11: 33 New
    +1
    To be precise, Mishka Cherkashenin (by the way, a real person, spoken from bullets, predicted his death in advance and died in the war with the Poles) brought only a thousand Don Cossacks, not 5000. And about "how many militias are there" - 7 thousand foreigners- oprichnikov (pikemen and riflemen), commanders captain Yuri Frantsbek and the Suzdal boyar Temir Alalykin, (the mercenaries proved that they did not eat the royal bread for nothing: Temir Alalykin personally captured Divey Murza, and the mercenaries killed the leader of the Nogai " shot the last contender for the Astrakhan throne), a thousand Ukrainian mercenaries "with two heads, with Yuriy Bulgakov and Yvan Fustov" ;, "Vyatka residents in struzekh on the rivers 900 people." - personal army of industrialists Stroganovs. The general leadership was entrusted to Vorotynsky, the oprichnina army was commanded by Khvorostinin, the zemstvo militia was led by Prince Ivan Sheremetev.
  18. Fei_Wong
    Fei_Wong 2 December 2015 21: 25 New
    +1
    In fact, not everything in the Battle of Molodi was as well planned and planned as the author wants to show. No, in fact it was a very successful combination of MANY accidents (well, and the unsurpassed Russian improvisation, of course). Let's just say it was a kind of Tsushima on the contrary - yes, and our military leaders made mistakes then, but the self-confident opponent was mistaken much more fatally, and God in those days was clearly on the side of the Russians.
    1. Pomeranian
      Pomeranian 2 December 2015 22: 11 New
      +1
      Let me disagree. It seems to me that this was a carefully planned operation: to lure the army of Devlet-Girey inland, depriving maneuver, and then destroy it. Remember, a year ago, in 1571, the Zemstvo army rushed headlong to Moscow
      where it disappeared. And then 200 people defended the crossing and the guard detachment was successfully set up, so much so that Devlet-Girey believed that the army was fleeing to Moscow again. And Vorotynsky hid the cannons while "standing on the Oka" and forbade the German guardsmen to fire their guns. And it was not in vain that the Donets burned all the grass in the fall, disrupting the campaign, and the Volga Cossacks burned the capital of the Nogai Saraichik, the Cossacks landed amphibious assault forces along the southern coast of Crimea, which distracted considerable forces of the Tatars. If there were improvisation, there would be no concerted actions.
  19. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 11 December 2015 14: 38 New
    0
    As governor of Ivan the Terrible, they managed to stop and destroy the Krymchak horde, six times superior in strength to the Russian army
    Unfortunately, the exact numbers on the strength of even the Russian army have not been preserved, and the Tatars are out of the question ...

    And forget that shortly before Molody in the 1571 year, the Crimeans burnt Moscow, and tens of thousands (if not hundreds of thousands) of inhabitants died in a monstrous fire ... And this happened precisely because of the shameful strategic miscalculations of the commanders of the Russian troops and a king who did not agree to a general battle and fled to Zalesye. The country simply could not endure the repetition of shame, even though in this case the tsar had gone away from the battlefield and from Moscow.

    In reality, the years of the reign of the first Russian Tsar were not only gloomy, but also creative: it was under him that Russia doubled - doubled! - expanded its territory, grew by many important lands and forced Europe to reckon with Russian interests and Russian politics.
    The gloom of the regime and the depletion of the forces of the people often have a strong correlation with the growth of territories. When a country lives in peace and tranquility, then prosperity just happens and the standard of living of the people and their numbers increase. The reign of Ivan the Terrible resulted in the monstrous victims of the Russian people, and not because of the Oprichnina, namely because of the constant wars (Kazan alone was taken only on the third attempt, not to mention the monstrous defeats of the Russians in Poland, Lithuania and the Baltic states - in general, the Livonian War , which he himself began, is apparently the main mistake of Ivan the Terrible).

    And unfortunately, Ivan the Terrible was really very jealous of the glory of his best generals — whom he later killed; and Mikhail Vorotynsky repeated the fate of many Russian heroes; in the end, the tsar brought the Russian army to a very deplorable state: at the end of the Livonian war, our troops consisted of crowds of untrained serfs, with almost no professional boyars and nobles, most of whose old families were destroyed or emigrated. And with these forces, Ivan the Terrible demanded and demanded victories over the professional armies of Europe ...