Military Review

The development of small-sized nuclear power plants has begun.

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In the foreseeable future, the Russian armed forces should expand the fleet of auxiliary equipment. To support the troops and, if necessary, civilian objects, it is proposed to create new mobile power plants suitable for quick transfer to the required areas. A project for the development of such equipment has started, its first results should appear by the end of this decade.


According to the TASS news agency, several research and design organizations are involved in the development of promising mobile power plants, and the Engineering Project of Innovative Projects is responsible for the overall coordination of the project. It was her leadership who recently talked about ongoing work in a promising direction. According to the company's general director, Yuri Konyushko, the work is being carried out in accordance with the order of the Minister of Defense. The military department wants to get new small-scale nuclear power plants. Apparently, such equipment is planned to be used for power supply of remote garrisons, troops at test sites, etc.

To date, domestic industry experts have already begun preliminary research work on a promising project. The first conclusions should be made as soon as possible. It is reported that the preliminary data on the new project will be transferred to the Ministry of Defense before the end of this year. In the future, it is planned to begin full-fledged work with the creation of a technical project, according to which new-type power plants will be built.

The development of small-sized nuclear power plants has begun.
One of the blocks of the power station TES-3


The next stage of the project, according to Yu. Konyushko, will last for about a year or two. The next stage of development work, as well as the manufacture of an experimental power plant will be carried out before the end of this decade. According to existing plans, a prototype of a promising small-sized nuclear power plant should be submitted to 2020 year.

It is noted that over the next four to five years, Russian specialists will have to not only develop a new project, but also prepare production facilities for mass production of promising power plants. Such equipment is not being manufactured in our country at the present time, so a number of critical issues will have to be addressed.

Technical requirements for promising small-sized power plants have not yet been announced. The Director General of the Engineering Company for Innovative Projects mentioned only the modular architecture of the stations and the possibility of installing their equipment on various basic chassis designed to provide the required mobility. In addition, the intention to build equipment with different dimensions and power was announced.

A promising power plant, according to current plans, will be able to be installed on various types of wheeled chassis manufactured by the Minsk and Kama automobile plants. In addition, a power plant based on a towed sleigh is being considered. In a similar configuration, it can be operated in the Arctic. It was also mentioned in the context of mobility that promising power plants could be transported by air or helicopter. Using transport aviation they are proposed to be delivered to remote areas of the North.

An important feature of the new project should be the maximum autonomy of power plants. They will have to work for a long time without the active participation of a large number of specialists. To monitor the work, it is planned to create remote monitoring and control systems that will work, including using communication satellites.

The approximate construction volumes of the first power plants of the new type have already been determined. Initially, at least three dozen of such complexes are required, which will be distributed between various objects of the Far North, including those located on the archipelagoes of the northern seas.

Specific characteristics of promising small-sized nuclear power plants for the Arctic and other areas have not yet been announced. Moreover, from the available information it follows that such parameters have not yet been determined. Apparently, at present, specialists are busy with a preliminary study of promising systems and are not yet ready to make a final verdict. At the same time, approximate construction volumes are already known. To solve existing problems requires at least three dozen power plants.

Nevertheless, the first conclusions about the principal realizability of new projects will be made in the very near future. According to Yu. Konyushko, preliminary data on current works will be transferred to the customer by the end of the year, after which new development stages can be started. If further work goes without significant problems, the first systems of the new type can be tested by the 2020 year.

Published information about the new project suggests that it is being created as part of the current program for the return of armed forces to the Far North. When restoring old bases and building new ones, power supply acquires particular importance. In the absence of the possibility of obtaining electricity from the "big land" builders and garrisons have to rely on existing diesel power plants, etc. equipment, which, however, is not without flaws. His main problem is the need for a constant supply of fuel.

In order to provide builders or troops with electricity without the need to supply fuel, small-sized nuclear power plants of required capacity can be used, but at the moment there are no such systems in our country. The new project is designed to fill this gap and provide power to remote sites.

It must be recalled that the project currently being developed for a mobile nuclear power plant is not something new. In the late fifties, work in this area began in our country. The first result was a mobile power plant of the TES-3 type on a tracked chassis, the trial operation of which began in the 1961 year. In the future, several other projects of similar technology were developed. In addition, the first domestic floating nuclear power plant, made in the form of a dumb ship, is currently being built.

Upon successful completion, the existing projects will expand the fleet of special equipment intended for power supply in remote areas. In this case, floating nuclear power plants will be able to provide electricity to coastal areas, and mobile land intended for use at the facilities of the Far North, including those located on islands. In accordance with the current plans of the industry and the military, the operation of such equipment can start as early as the beginning of the next decade.


On the materials of the sites:
http://tass.ru/
http://ria.ru/
http://ippe.ru/
http://русская-сила.рф/
Author:
Photos used:
Russian-power.
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  1. Volga Cossack
    Volga Cossack 24 November 2015 07: 02 New
    +8
    good - current article !!!! I knew about the developments - but now it's time to see them.
    1. qwert
      qwert 24 November 2015 08: 53 New
      +6
      As usual, the new Russian is the well-forgotten Soviet old. Well, I’m glad that at least not everything is forgotten, as for example, the technology for the production of heat-resistant flashlights for three-swing fighters.
    2. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I 24 November 2015 09: 26 New
      +3
      Yes, a lot was written about small-sized nuclear power plants in the 80-90 years (especially when the problem arose: what to do with nuclear power plants on "retired" submarines?). And the prospects were "outlined" impressive ..... but something died out. .. Most likely due to the general collapse and chronic lack of money that "arose" as a result of the predatory criminal-oligarchic "privatization" .... Now they are again returning to the previous topic within the framework of the general revival of Russia.
    3. unclevad
      unclevad 24 November 2015 11: 44 New
      +4
      Such a power unit is now very necessary in Crimea. Would relieve an acute shortage of electricity while the cable is pulled.
      1. alex86
        alex86 24 November 2015 19: 40 New
        +3
        Quote: unclevad
        Would take off

        I wouldn’t take it off. Thermal power of TPP-3 is 8,8 MW, electric 1,5 MW, i.e. 1500 kW, to be closer to understandable figures - for Crimea this is nothing, the energy bridge involves about 800 MW of electric power, the Crimean NPP assumed 4 blocks of 1000 MW each, 2 blocks were built. Therefore, fit pr 1144 - conditionally - it would be a good idea, but even that only 18 MW of electric power, and mobile nuclear power plants would not be enough. And the efficiency is less than 20% (at stationary nuclear power plants - about 30%). Here is a floating nuclear power plant (if there was one) - yes, at least 100 MW - and then only urgent loads - hospitals, kindergartens, schools.
        So you need to build (and quickly) combined cycle power plants, pull the gas pipeline along the bottom, pull the power bridge.
        And at the same time thinking about water - with water, the problem did not resolve ...
        And the bridge is not for Rotenberg’s earnings, but for the people.
  2. sa-ag
    sa-ag 24 November 2015 07: 14 New
    +1
    Machineless energy conversion? I read a long time ago in a scientific study about such a project 750 kW of electric energy
  3. apro
    apro 24 November 2015 07: 28 New
    +1
    Looking at the power of devices most likely for Amy-based weapons or powerful lasers, we’ll hope so somehow.
    1. sa-ag
      sa-ag 24 November 2015 08: 23 New
      0
      Quote: apro
      Looking at the power of devices most likely for Amy-based weapons or powerful lasers, we’ll hope so somehow.

      Well, why bother with an atom in this case, the ancient diesel 2D100 gave out 2000 hp, which is much simpler and safer
      1. vostok68
        vostok68 24 November 2015 12: 41 New
        +2
        If at one time, then yes, but if it’s a long-term point (and we are not going to retreat!), Then the atom is better
      2. i80186
        i80186 24 November 2015 14: 46 New
        +1
        Quote: sa-ag
        Well, why bother with an atom in this case, the ancient diesel 2D100 gave out 2000 hp, which is much simpler and safer

        And how much fuel did he eat per day with rated power? How to deliver this fuel to an inaccessible area? winked
        1. sa-ag
          sa-ag 24 November 2015 19: 54 New
          0
          Quote: i80186
          How to deliver this fuel to an inaccessible area?

          And how was fuel normally delivered to such areas?
  4. Griboedoff
    Griboedoff 24 November 2015 07: 52 New
    +4
    Oh, something is somehow sycotic :) In the existing, and even more so under construction, stationary nuclear power plants there are many design features that minimize the consequences of accidents, or even allow them to be avoided. How much can they be replaced with designs in such a limited volume?
    It seems to me that this is a very difficult design task, and the consequences of errors can be very dangerous :(
  5. Sergey-72
    Sergey-72 24 November 2015 08: 17 New
    +2
    From the network: TES-3 is a transportable nuclear power plant transported on four self-propelled caterpillar chassis based on the T-10 heavy tank. TPP-3 went into trial operation in 1961. Subsequently, the program was minimized. In the 80s, the idea of ​​transportable large-block small-capacity nuclear power plants was further developed in the form of TPP-7 and TPP-8.
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. gjv
      gjv 24 November 2015 09: 07 New
      +2
      Quote: Sergey-72
      TPP-3 - a portable nuclear power plant transported on four self-propelled tracked chassis



      Machine complex TES-3 in Kamchatka. 1988 g

      The thermal power of a double-loop heterogeneous water-water reactor installed on two self-propelled guns is 8,8 MW (electric, from generators - 1,5 MW). Two other self-propelled units housed turbines, a generator and other equipment. The total weight of the equipment installed on self-propelled guns is about 210 tons.
      To protect against radiation during operation around the first two self-propelled guns an earthen shield is constructed at the place of operation. In addition, the reactor self-propelled gun is equipped with transportable biological protection, which allows for installation and dismantling work several hours after the reactor shutdown, as well as transporting the reactor with a partially or completely burned-out core.

      On-site reactor self-propelled guns were connected by pipelines
      1. Evrepid
        Evrepid 26 November 2015 15: 07 New
        0
        Wow! What a loss! Efficiency 17% ...
  6. qwert
    qwert 24 November 2015 09: 03 New
    +3
    Quote: sa-ag
    Well, why bother with an atom in this case, the ancient diesel 2D100 gave out 2000 hp, which is much simpler and safer

    Nuclear does not require fuel supply. TPP-3 was planned to operate in the northern regions. And for diesel engines, how much solariums are needed for a year to drive. And if you can deliver there only within the monthly navigation? And the duration of continuous operation of TPP-3 was 250 days.

    In the 1961 - 1963 years, two small nuclear power plants were built: TPP-3 with a water-cooled reactor and the Antarctic reactor block installation ARBUS, with a nuclear reactor with an organic moderator. The weight and size of the platforms facilitate their transportation by rail. The operation of the power plant of the TES-3 plant in the 1961 year proved its reliability, good controllability and easy maintenance.
    There was also a variant on a wheeled chassis.
    1. gjv
      gjv 24 November 2015 09: 35 New
      +1
      Quote: qwert
      with water-water reactor

      Here - to find in the Arctic a sufficient amount of water for safe use in the reactor cycle is a problem, no less, and maybe even greater, than transporting diesel fuel for diesel power plants.
      1. The comment was deleted.
    2. gjv
      gjv 24 November 2015 09: 35 New
      +1
      Quote: qwert
      There was also a variant on a wheeled chassis.

      This is not an option. This is another project of a mobile nuclear power plant - Pamir-630D.

      In the fall of 1963, Belarusian scientists submitted their draft mobile nuclear power station to the Scientific and Technical Council of the USSR State Committee for the Use of Atomic Energy. At the same time, similar projects of the IPPE and IAE named after Kurchatov and OKBM (Gorky). Preference was given to the Belarusian project, but only ten years later, in 1973, a special design bureau with pilot production was set up at the INS AN BSSR, which began designing and bench testing the assemblies of the future reactor.
      One of the most important engineering tasks that the creators of the Pamir-630D had to solve was the development of a stable thermodynamic cycle with the participation of a coolant and a working fluid of an unconventional type. For this purpose, for example, the Vikhr-2 stand was used, which was actually a turbogenerator unit of the future station. In it, nitrogen tetraoxide was heated using a VK-1 turbojet aircraft engine with an afterburner.
      A separate problem was the high corrosiveness of nitrogen tetroxide, especially in places of phase transitions - boiling and condensation. If water, N2O4 would get into the circuit of the turbogenerator, reacting with it, immediately give nitric acid with all its known properties. Opponents of the project sometimes said that, they say, Belarusian nuclear scientists intend to dissolve the reactor core in acid. Partially, the problem of the high aggressiveness of nitrogen tetroxide was solved by adding 10% of ordinary nitrogen monoxide to the coolant. This solution is called "nitrin".
      Nevertheless, the use of nitrogen tetraoxide increased the danger of using the entire nuclear reactor, especially if we recall that we are talking about a mobile version of a nuclear power plant. This was confirmed by the death of one of the KB employees. During the experiment, an orange cloud burst from the torn pipeline. A person nearby was inadvertently inhaling poisonous gas, which, having reacted with water in the lungs, turned into nitric acid. It was not possible to save the unfortunate.
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. gjv
        gjv 24 November 2015 09: 45 New
        +4
        Quote: qwert
        There was also a variant on a wheeled chassis.


        However, the Pamir-630D designers introduced a number of design solutions into their project that were designed to increase the security of the entire system. Firstly, all the processes inside the installation, starting from the start-up of the reactor, were controlled and monitored using on-board computers. Two computers worked in parallel, and the third was in a “hot” reserve. Secondly, an emergency reactor cooling system was implemented due to the passive flow of steam through the reactor from the high-pressure part to the condenser part. The presence of a large amount of liquid coolant in the process circuit made it possible, in the case of, for example, de-energization, to efficiently remove heat from the reactor. Thirdly, the moderator material, which was chosen as zirconium hydride, became an important "safety" element of the design. When the temperature rises abnormally, zirconium hydride decomposes, and the released hydrogen puts the reactor in a deeply subcritical state. The fission reaction is terminated.
        The first reactor was launched on November 24, 1985, and Chernobyl happened five months later. No, the project was not immediately closed, and in total the experimental model of the PAES worked at 2975 hours under different load conditions. However, when in the wake of radiophobia that swept the country and the world, it suddenly became known that a nuclear reactor of experimental design was located 6 km from Minsk, a large-scale scandal occurred. The Council of Ministers of the USSR immediately created a commission which was to study the question of the desirability of further work on the Pamir-630D. In the same 1986, Gorbachev dismissed the legendary head of Sredmash, 88-year-old E.P. Slavsky, who patronized the projects of mobile nuclear power plants. And there is nothing surprising in the fact that in February 1988, according to the decision of the Council of Ministers of the USSR and the BSSR Academy of Sciences, the Pamir-630D project ceased to exist. One of the main motives, as stated in the document, was the "insufficient scientific validity of the choice of coolant."
        1. vostok68
          vostok68 24 November 2015 12: 57 New
          +1
          Thank you, recalled, read about it all in the old days!
  7. guzik007
    guzik007 24 November 2015 09: 05 New
    +1
    ... under the slogan: “Add the Russian Arctic!” ... passed already in due time, how many atomic lighthouses were left unowned, and from them recessed? With our crucifixion ... blame, carelessness and sloppiness, in the event of a change in the vector of development of the North due to various circumstances, everything can happen. Very slippery technology. I agree with the previous author, the diesel engine is more environmentally friendly and economical.
    1. The comment was deleted.
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. guzik007
        guzik007 24 November 2015 09: 56 New
        0
        It is necessary to make mobile gas turbine power plants.
        ---------------------------------------------------------

        And it's even better !! +
        But agree. Each vegetable has its own place, in wintering camps and camps, diesel engines will certainly be more economical and practical. Well, in the fields and large enterprises, here you are right.
  8. qwert
    qwert 24 November 2015 09: 05 New
    0
    Something like that.
  9. guzik007
    guzik007 24 November 2015 10: 05 New
    +1
    In general, they would save and increase what is already there. So, for example, in Chukotka there is a Bilibino nuclear power station, they are going to close it. in the same place - a hydroelectric power station in Sinegorye - works half-heartedly - there are no load capacities.
  10. nizrum
    nizrum 24 November 2015 11: 22 New
    +1
    Eh ... right now in the Crimea this ...
    1. kashtak
      kashtak 24 November 2015 19: 30 New
      +1
      Sorry, maybe not the topic. but since the conversation came about Crimea, I have a question. a dry cargo ship (possibly old) with an electric drive may well serve as a floating power station for several megawatts almost without alterations. how many will it take to remove today's crisis? to resolve the issue on an ongoing basis. or at least remove the severity of the issue?
    2. The comment was deleted.
  11. litus
    litus 24 November 2015 11: 24 New
    +1
    comrades, it seems to me that we haven’t seen the main thing here - the nuclear industry has stepped forward and now the prerequisites for creating small-sized SAFE reactors have been created. What was previously based on other technologies. As far as I remember, the key to unraveling small-sized reactors should be sought in fast neuron reactors, but look for links, to be honest, laziness.
    ---------
    looked up. here's to help you:
    http://www.atomic-energy.ru/ASMM
  12. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 24 November 2015 11: 44 New
    +3
    For a long time there is a project of a floating small-sized nuclear power plant for the development of the North of Russia ... How would such a nuclear power plant be useful in the Crimea now!
  13. Basil50
    Basil50 24 November 2015 14: 13 New
    +1
    Now, if you listen to our * liberals * and the sun rises in the west, and of course all the technical * progress * is only there. So also in the government apologists * Western technology *. One * Mistral * worth. It has become commonplace * to equal the West * in everything, and if * equalization * is observed, then immediately praise and begin to respect themselves. And in the * culture * developed by contemporary RUSSIA, only the approval of the West is considered a measure * of the level of culture *.
    The piracy regimes of the West talk a lot and talk well, only real things fail, both in politics and in the economy. One cannot seriously speak about the success of an economy based on the army and the robbery of colonies.
  14. v.yegorov
    v.yegorov 24 November 2015 17: 42 New
    +1
    If such economical, safe nuclear power plants are created, then this will be a breakthrough
    in the development of Siberia and the Arctic.
  15. Vladimir 23rus
    Vladimir 23rus 24 November 2015 18: 24 New
    0
    I don’t know how weapons, but in the Crimea would be useful!
  16. The comment was deleted.
  17. Razvedka_Boem
    Razvedka_Boem 24 November 2015 20: 27 New
    +1
    Such stations are primarily a technological and political challenge. And without such things, the development of not only the Arctic .. Gentlemen and comrades ..) you turn on the fantasy ..) This is the road to space .. Extraterrestrial colonies. Various minerals from other planets and asteroids .. long-lived, extraterrestrial stations ..) And much more .. Nobody once believed that a person would fly into space. Nobody believed in the miniaturization of computers .. But I believe in human genius) and the fact that we are still Homo Sapiens
    1. VA.ODESSAAs
      VA.ODESSAAs 26 November 2015 19: 29 New
      0
      In space, nuclear power plants began to be used even earlier than solar panels. Now turn on the fantasy. I see a mobile nuclear power station. I also see the consequences of the Chernobyl explosion. Fakusima ?! So far so early.
  18. gridasov
    gridasov 24 November 2015 22: 22 New
    -1
    Of the existing methods for creating an electric current in a linear conductor, one such method is used and remains "mysterious", which allows you to turn a mechanical process into a potential difference with a directed EMF vector in a very short period of time. What is the uniqueness of this method and why can it be promising? The fact that this EMF can be created not only in any material regardless of its electrical conductivity, but also in weakly radioactive materials. But if in "simple" materials this EMF is linear for natural reasons, then the radial in vector radioactivity from radioactive materials becomes just as linear. Create an area of ​​concentration of tension and, accordingly, an alternating magnetic “field”. more precisely, the flow does not seem to be a problem. Therefore, we can talk about a nuclear double conversion reactor both in the stream of transformation of the "continuous" medium and in the transformations in the solid material of the rotor. What does all this mean? This means that the reactor can be absolutely safe to use. Its launch is carried out in seconds and without pre-training. It is controlled in all operating modes and does not require intermediate turbines to convert the heat carrier in the form of steam into the energy carrier on the turbine blades. Its mass-dimensional parameters are sufficient to be used up to airplanes and spacecraft. This is not a simple nuclear reactor, but also an instant source of ultrahigh electric. magnetic energy. The initiation of its launch is instant and does not require energy-intensive generators or batteries. In the light of what the nuclear power plants said is passive, or they can be called static transformations, they look very unproductive in their execution and in solving the idea embodied in them.