PLA Navy Opportunities to Combat Carrier Strike Groups. Part 2




The task of countering foreign warships and landings in the coastal waters of the PRC and on the islands is entrusted to the coastal defense forces of the PLA Navy and numerous missile boats. To each command fleet (Northern, Eastern and Southern) the corresponding coastal defense areas are quickly subordinated. The Coastal Forces of the Navy of the PRC have 35 artillery and missile regiments, 20 separate missile divisions armed with anti-ship missile systems and 100-130 mm coastal guns.

Coastal anti-ship missile systems

A decade ago, coastal missile units were mainly armed with HY-2 anti-ship missiles, which were developed in China based on the Soviet P-15. Currently, this anti-ship missile is considered obsolete. The operation of the HY-2 RCC is associated with great difficulties, since the refueling of the rocket with fuel and an oxidizer requires the use of special means of protection by personnel of the calculations.

PLA Navy Opportunities to Combat Carrier Strike Groups. Part 2

Preparation of PKR HY-2


Despite the shortcomings, its design was quite simple, technological and understandable for Chinese specialists. But by the middle of the 80's, the noise immunity, range and speed of the missile’s flight no longer met modern requirements.

The use of LREs on the HY-2 RCC was a forced solution, since in the 60-70 in the PRC there were no other types of engines capable of providing the required range and speed data. Further efforts were made to improve the HY-2. After the appearance of recipes for solid-fuel and the creation of compact turbojet engines with satisfactory characteristics, the production of rockets with rocket engines, requiring rather labor-intensive maintenance and a long preparation time for launch, was refused in China. In the second half of the 80-x, deeply upgraded RCC with solid-fuel SY-2 and turbojet-SY-4 engines with several variants of active radar seeker were used.

In recent years, modern anti-ship complexes have been supplied to the armament of the missile units of the coastal defense forces of the PRC. This primarily relates to the RJYJ-8. The first missiles of this type entered service with the PLA Navy at the end of the 80's, while their launch range did not exceed 65 km.


Coastal anti-ship missile systems YJ-8 on the parade in the PRC


Over the past 25 years, several variants of the anti-ship missiles of the YJ-8 family have been created, in which the main combat characteristics were consistently improved: launch range, noise immunity and probability of hitting the target.


Start RCC YJ-82


Various modifications of this rocket arm surface ships, submarines and coastal missile systems. The latest versions of the missiles are similar in their characteristics to the early modifications of the US UGM-84 Harpoon RCC.

In 2004, the Chinese Navy entered service with the anti-ship missiles YJ-62. Its modification for coastal missile systems - YJ-62C, is installed in the PU, on the off-road chassis.


Start RCC YJ-62C


The anti-ship missile YJ-62C was created using elements of the Soviet X-55, received from Ukraine and the unexploded Tomahawk CD, which were mined by Chinese intelligence in Iraq.

The launch range of the YJ-62 reaches 400 km with a mass of 300 warheads kg. But its significant drawback is the relatively low airspeed - 0,9M. Not so long ago, the media leaked information about the development of a new coastal missile system YJ-62 in the PRC based on the YJ-65. The new anti-ship missile will have a supersonic speed on the final leg of the flight with a longer range.


"Mosquito fleet

The PLA Navy has more than 100 rocket boats of various types, with about 20% RCC of the Chinese fleet deployed there. The most modern are the boats of the 022 pr. (Hubei type) with the 2x4 PU YCR-YN-83 PU. They replace outdated boats of the 021 Ave. (of the “Huanfeng” type) in the PRC.


Rocket boats pr 022


Rocket boats of the 022 Ave. are built according to the original trimaran scheme. The architecture of the hull of boats meets the modern requirements of low visibility. Boats of this type in terms of combat performance are among the best in their class.


Launch RCC from the side of the rocket boat pr. 022


Trimaran scheme provides good seaworthiness and smooth entry into the wave, allows you to develop a high speed of full speed. Currently, more than eighty RK pr. 022 have been built in the PRC.

From 1991 to 1999, an 037 / 037GXNNXX / 037G1 missile boats were built on the basis of an anti-submarine boat of the 037 Ave. (Hainan) type. On boats installed four PU CRM YJ-2. As of 82 year, the PLA Navy had 2014 such missile boats.


Marine shock aviation

As of the end of 2014, the Chinese Navy aviation had: 55 bombers, 132 fighter and attack aircraft, 15 reconnaissance planes, 3 tanker aircraft. The share of naval aviation carriers accounts for about 30% of the RCC in the fleet. More than half of the Chinese hard-surface airfields are located along the coast at a depth of 700 km from the coastline.


The layout of the airfields in China


It is difficult to judge how reliable the information is on the quantitative and qualitative composition of the Chinese Navy’s aviation, as many sources indicate that the H-5 bombers (the Chinese version of Il-28) are still used as mine and torpedo bombers. Therefore, in this section, we will focus on combat aircraft, whose presence in naval aviation is beyond doubt.

Of the aircraft that are in service with the naval aviation of the PLA Navy, the Russian Su-30MK2 and their Chinese "clones", J-16, pose the greatest danger to the US surface fleet. The Su-30MK2 armament includes Russian X-31P supersonic anti-radar missiles with a passive GOS, which can be used against radars of warships, as well as anti-ship X-31А with active radar GOS. J-16 multipurpose heavy fighter aircraft are adapted for the use of aircraft versions of the YJ-8 family of missiles.


Fighter J-16


In 2012, the Chinese fleet received the aircraft carrier Liaoning. Its aviation group includes up to 24 deck fighters J-15. Initially, the goal of the completion of the aircraft carrier received from Ukraine was to increase the combat stability of the Chinese fleet when operating at a considerable distance from its shores. Unlike the original project, which was carried out for the construction of the aircraft carrying cruiser Varyag, the Chinese revised version is more suitable for creating an aircraft fighter “umbrella” of a ship connection operating autonomously in the ocean zone. In the course of construction, launchers for RCC, RBU and SAM missile launchers were dismantled from the Chinese aircraft carrier. The remaining weapons systems are designed to provide air defense of the aircraft carrier in the near zone. The vacant place of the dismantled weapons systems uncharacteristic for an aircraft carrier was used to increase the number of aircraft based on the ship. In its current form, the Liaoning is a more balanced ship than its “relative” - the aircraft-carrying cruiser “Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union Kuznetsov”. The tasks of anti-submarine and air defense are assigned to escort ships.

The Chinese carrier-based fighter J-15 was pirated based on the Su-33 (T-10K), one copy of which was obtained not in flying condition from Ukraine.


Deck fighter J-15 with a hung RCC YJ-83


Unlike the Russian Su-33 aircraft, which cannot use controlled anti-ship weapon, J-15 Chinese deckers provided for the use of anti-ship missiles YJ-83, which significantly increases the impact capabilities of the Chinese aircraft carrier group.


CRP YJ-83


In the middle of the 90's, the JH-7 fighter bomber entered service. This strike aircraft was created by order of the PLA Navy Command. At one time, the Chinese admirals were impressed by the American multi-purpose fighter F-4 "Phantom II", with which they had the opportunity to become acquainted during the Vietnam War. JH-7 is not only conceptually reminiscent of the "Phantom", but also partially uses some nodes, units and avionics borrowed from the American fighter.

So the Chinese Type 232H radar is based on the American station AN / APQ 120, several copies of which were removed from F-4 shot down in Vietnam. Often downed "Phantoms" fell in the coastal strip or on the crowns of trees, and their avionics did not receive fatal damage. Also in the Chinese JH-7 engines used Rolls-Royce "Spey" Mk.202, engines of this type previously installed on the deck version of the British F-4K.


JH-7 Fighter Bomber


On the strike aircraft of the JH-7 naval aviation, the YJ-81 solid propellant anti-ship missiles with a launch range of about 60 km are possible. This rocket is close in its capabilities to the French Exocet.

Anti-ship missiles modification YJ-83 armed with upgraded fighter-bombers JH-7A. After starting the CRP accelerates solid-fuel booster, after which the launch of the main engine. In the middle section of the flight, the control is carried out using an inertial system, with radio correction from the aircraft carrier. The active radar homing unit is switched on at the final segment. The launch range of the YJ-83 aviation variant is 250 km, and the cruise speed of the missile is 0,9M. In the target area, the rocket accelerates to a speed of about 2M.


Suspension RCC on the fighter-bomber JH-7


Marine aviation also has light J-10A single-engine fighter jets, which can also be used for strikes against naval targets using YJ-81 anti-ship missiles. But due to the relatively short range, J-10А can operate only in coastal areas.


Fighter J-10


Since the beginning of the 60-x in China, the long-range bomber H-6 (a copy of the Tu-16) has been operated. In addition to performing nuclear deterrence tasks, an anti-ship modification H-80D was built on the basis of this aircraft in the middle of the 6, capable of delivering strikes with anti-ship missiles YJ-61 (C-601). This missile was an aviation version of the liquid anti-ship missile HY-2.


CJR YJ-61 under the wing of H-6D


After creating and adopting the YJ-82 and YJ-62 anti-ship missiles, they replaced the long-range YJ-61 missiles with Chinese long-range bombers.


H-6 Bombers with YJ-62 RCC


The most modern version of the H-6K with D-30KP2 turbofan engines adopted in the 2011 year has a combat range of about 3000 km. In the aircraft of earlier versions operating in the anti-ship variant, this figure was 1600 km. The long-range H-6 bombers are theoretically capable of striking anti-ship missiles in the oceanic zone at a considerable distance from the coast, which at a distance exceeds the range of the American carrier-based aircraft and Tomahawk cruise missiles. But at the same time, the bombers themselves are highly vulnerable due to the subsonic flight speed and high ESR. And in a real combat situation in the fight against AUG, they are very likely to be intercepted at long-range approaches to the launch line of their anti-ship missiles.

In terms of the number of strike aircraft of carrier-based aviation, the US Navy significantly exceeds the total number of naval aviation aircraft of the PRC. However, it should be understood that in the event of a conflict against US AUG, Chinese front and long-range aircraft will operate from coastal airfields.

Numerous Chinese and Russian-made air defense systems deployed along the coastline and interceptor fighters are capable of inflicting heavy casualties during the invasion of the air of the American strike aircraft of the PRC.
Under these conditions, without conquering air superiority by American aircraft, we can only talk about strikes at Chinese coastal facilities with long-range cruise missiles, which of course will not lead to the destruction of the entire military and industrial potential of the PRC and cause harsh retaliatory measures, which Americans are unlikely to do.


Intelligence, control and targeting

Along the coast of China and on the islands there are a significant number of long-range radar stations, which, together with coast guard ships, reliably monitor coastal waters. But the weak point of the PLA Navy is still the controls in the ocean zone.

As part of the Chinese fleet there are about 20 large reconnaissance ships capable of operating at a considerable distance from its shores. However, this number is clearly not enough to fully monitor the situation in the Pacific.
The most modern Chinese intelligence officers of the ocean zone are ships of the project 815G. Ships of the 815 Ave. are built from the middle of the 90's. Currently, the Chinese navy has three ships of the 815 and 815G Ave.


Intelligence Ave 815G


The purpose of the ships of the pr. 815 and 815G is to monitor the actions of the ships of foreign countries and the conduct of radio intelligence. It is known that in the near future the Chinese fleet will be replenished with several more reconnaissance ships of this type. But lightly armed and relatively slow-moving ships are the observing means of “peacetime”. In the event of a real threat to the American AUG, they will be instantly neutralized.

In the interests of naval intelligence, there are two Chinese radio interception centers in Cuba. On the Cocos Islands belonging to Myanmar, deployed several stations of electronic intelligence, which collect information about the situation in the Indian Ocean. Recently, radio interception centers on Hainan Island in the South China Sea and Sop Hau near Laos were restored.

Developed and put into operation coastal balloon reconnaissance complexes "Sea Dragon", capable of detecting and issuing targets for naval and air targets at a distance of more than 200 nautical miles.


Chinese Y-8J patrol aircraft fly over Marshal Shaposhnikov BOD and Guangzhou, a Chinese destroyer, during Russian-Chinese joint exercises

Aerial reconnaissance using radar for detecting long-range surface targets is conducted by Y-8J aircraft. The basis for Y-8J is the transport Y-8, which in turn is the Chinese version of the Soviet An-12.


Patrol aircraft Y-8J


The radar of the Y-8J patrol aircraft can simultaneously track 32 naval targets at a distance of up to 250 km, including even such as a submarine periscope.


DRLO Y-8W


For these purposes, the DRLO Y-8W (KJ-200) aircraft with a range of detection of large surface targets up to 400 km can be used.

Special mention deserves the reconnaissance Tu-154MD (Tu-154Р), built on the basis of a Soviet-made medium-haul passenger airliner, which regularly flies over the sea. In terms of its capabilities, the TU-154MD is comparable to the American E-8 JSTARS aircraft.


TU-154MD


The first aircraft was converted in 1996 year. On it are kept civilian identification marks and coloring of the Chinese airline "China United Airlines". The reconnaissance Tu-154MD under the fuselage in a streamlined container carries a search radar with synthetic aperture, and the plane also has powerful television and infrared cameras for visual reconnaissance.

Currently, a large-scale program for the construction of several types of DROLO aircraft has been launched in the PRC. Such as: JZY-01, KJ-500, KJ-2000. However, these not-yet-numerous aircraft in the PRC are too expensive and valuable to risk them on long-haul sea flights. The priority task of the Chinese radar patrol aircraft is the control of the air situation, guidance and control of fighter aircraft.

In this situation, we should expect the appearance in the PRC of a specialized aircraft of the type of American P-8 "Poseidon", capable of controlling the sea surface in the ocean spaces. In the meantime, long-range bombers H-6 and seaplanes SH-5 are periodically attracted for these purposes.

The Chinese artificial satellite HY-1, launched in the 2002 year, is intended for tracking from space across the ocean. On board there are optoelectronic cameras and equipment transmitting the resulting image in digital form. The next spacecraft of a similar purpose was the ZY-2. The resolution of the onboard photographic equipment ZY-2 is 50 m with a fairly wide field of view. Satellites of the ZY-2 series have the ability to perform an orbital maneuver. All this allows them to monitor the AUG. However, Chinese representatives refute all the assumptions regarding the military purpose of these spacecraft, stating that they serve exclusively the peaceful purposes of studying the world's oceans.


Current opportunities and prospects

Already, combat aircraft based on coastal aerodromes, frigates of URO, missile boats and anti-ship missile complexes of coastal defense forces make it impossible to find a hostile foreign fleet in the coastal waters of the PRC.

Currently, China is actively building ocean-class ships. In addition to the three existing fleets in the People's Republic of China, in the near future it is planned to create a fourth one, capable of operating and conducting large-scale operations in the ocean zone, outside the coastal waters.



According to American naval analysts, in the near future, China will have the opportunity to form its own aviation strike group. The structure of this Chinese AUG, in addition to the aircraft carrier "Liaonin", can enter the squadron of frigates and destroyers from 6-8. The following warships have the ability to accompany a Chinese aircraft carrier on a long-range cruise: FR URO XR. 053, EM YRO XR. 051, 052. Ave., 052.S., 956.S. and 956.S., etc. multipurpose submarines of 052 Ave. and 051 Ave., as well as tankers and supply ships.

In this line-up, the Chinese AUG may well play on an equal footing with the duty forces of the US Navy 7 fleet, which are permanently located in this region. But in the event of escalation of tensions and other American aircraft carrier groups to the area, the superiority of the US Navy will be overwhelming, and the Chinese sailors will not be able to resist the Americans. In addition, American AUGs operating in the world ocean due to the presence of aircraft on aircraft carriers, DRLOs have a significant advantage in the timely detection of surface and air targets. This largely depreciates the numerous anti-ship missiles that can carry Chinese warplanes and ships. In addition, the PRC of the PRC Navy with a range of about 300 km in the main part have a subsonic speed in the final section of the trajectory.


TTX some Chinese RCC


Under these conditions, along with increasing the size of its fleet and improving its anti-ship armament, the PRC leadership took a number of “asymmetric” steps. First of all, it concerns the coastal anti-ship ballistic missile complex, which is based on the DF-21 mobile MRSD.


MRBM DF-21С


It is assumed that anti-ship DF-21D with a launch range of more than 1500 km will be equipped with maneuvering at the final section of the warhead with an active radar seeker. Given that the warhead of a ballistic missile DF-21 is moving at the final stage with hypersonic speed, in the case of salvo application, the fight against them will be a very difficult task for the American squadron air defense systems.


So the Chinese artist imagines an attack with the help of DF-21D of the American AUG


According to data published by US intelligence services, anti-ship reconnaissance aircraft DF-21D are already in use in the PRC in test mode. So far they are limited by insufficient capabilities of reconnaissance and targeting systems. To correct the situation in the PRC, an over-the-horizon radar is being built on the coast with a detection range of sea targets up to 3000 km, and a new generation of reconnaissance and target designation satellites are also planned.



As many observers say, the Chinese 5 generation J-20 aircraft with supersonic cruising speed and low radar visibility, for which a long-range anti-ship missile with a ramjet engine is being developed, is also aimed at solving anti-ship targets.

In the case of the implementation of these plans, the shock capabilities of Chinese aviation, the fleet and coastal missile systems will be enough to keep American AUGs beyond the combat range of existing cruise missiles and deck aircraft in a shock configuration. This will unleash the hands of the People's Republic of China and will enable military resolution of territorial disputes with Japan and the “Taiwan Question”.

Publication of this series:
PLA Navy Capabilities to Combat Aviation Shock Groups. Part 1

Based on:
http://www.navy.mil/index.asp
http://www.modernarmy.ru
http://www.defensemedianetwork.com
http://flot.com
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  1. Good cat 25 November 2015 06: 51 New
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    The Chinese are quietly arming themselves in full growth!
  2. qwert 25 November 2015 07: 17 New
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    I looked at the pictures. I remembered the Soviet Union.
    Indeed, nature does not tolerate emptiness. One great power has left, and another seems ready to take its place. But the place of today's Russia in the world ....
    1. Bongo 25 November 2015 07: 51 New
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      Quote: qwert
      Indeed, nature does not tolerate emptiness. One great power has left, and another seems ready to take its place. But the place of today's Russia in the world ....


      The fact is that in all these years in the PRC there has been no talk of "getting up from their knees," but they were busy with business - investing in their own production, education and science, building affordable housing and roads, and fighting mercilessly against corruption. Strengthening the navy in particular and the armed forces is generally impossible without a strong and sustainable economy.
      1. Falcon 25 November 2015 09: 49 New
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        Hello again, Sergey! drinks
        Excellent!

        Quote: Bongo
        As many observers say, the Chinese 5 generation J-20 aircraft with supersonic cruising speed and low radar visibility, for which a long-range anti-ship missile with a ramjet engine is being developed, is also aimed at solving anti-ship targets.


        Controversial moment of course. If you mean CX-1? Clone of our P-800



        Nowhere to hang her under the belly of J-20



        This at our T-50 can still be possible to push the P-800 between the engines



        Rather, it is for modifications of the Su-30 / 33 J-15, etc.
        1. Bongo 25 November 2015 10: 34 New
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          Quote: Falcon
          Hello again, Sergey!
          Excellent!

          Cyril, hi! Thank! The praise from a literate person is doubly pleasant! drinks
          Quote: Falcon
          Controversial moment of course. If you mean CX-1? Clone of our P-800
          Nevertheless, in Chinese forums they write about J-20, and the Americans are of the same opinion. In my opinion, there is a place for hanging RCC on it. One way or another, life will show. In the meantime, these are only our hypotheses.
        2. forumow 28 November 2015 18: 26 New
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          Quote: Falcon
          This at our T-50 can still be possible to push the P-800 between the engines

          IMHO and a brocade can be placed on the drop pylons installed in the compartment of weapons, subject to the possibility of folding the plumage of anti-ship missiles. The shutters will have to be kept open before starting.
          However, I like 3M14 more.
      2. Falcon 25 November 2015 09: 57 New
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        Quote: Bongo
        To remedy the situation in China, the coastal radar is being built on the coast with a range of detection of sea targets up to 3000 km


        Not so simple. Anton and I have already discussed this topic. He really promised to shed light on the problem ...

        ZGRLS is based on a system of jumps from the ionosphere



        1 who knows how many jumps, 2 is not clear where exactly to look.
        Their fundamental drawback is the presence of dead zones, “invisible” to the radar, with a length of several thousand km. They "cover" only a small area of ​​the order of 50 sq. km at a distance of 3000 km, and the entire interval 0-3000 km remains invisible to them.

        There is also a radar on surface waves - the "Earth ray" with a range of up to 300km.
        They are also called (confused!) Surface electromagnetic waves (SEW).

        In reality, only a SEW can be a full-fledged over-the-horizon radar. But so far this is only in laboratories.



        I do not think that China will be the first ...

        Rather, it is the satellites that will solve the problem of detection.
        1. Bongo 25 November 2015 10: 44 New
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          Quote: Falcon
          It's so simple. Anton and I have already discussed this topic. He really promised to shed light on the problem ...


          Nevertheless, such work is underway in the PRC (it’s easier to say what is not being done), they have actively studied our Sunflower and Wave radars. The latter just has approximately the same range (pictured).

          One of my omissions in this publication is that I did not mention Chinese long-range UAVs. request
          1. Falcon 25 November 2015 11: 11 New
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            Quote: Bongo
            in Chinese forums they write


            Do you spree in Chinese? belay

            Quote: Bongo
            Nevertheless, such work is underway in the PRC (it’s easier to say what is not being done), they have actively studied our Sunflower and Wave radars. The latter just has approximately the same range (pictured).


            So this is not a sew. Just a hopping + earth ray. There is a dead zone anyway.

            If you look at the jump range, then in the same crazy area you need to look for a ship
            1. Bongo 25 November 2015 13: 25 New
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              Quote: Falcon
              Do you spree in Chinese?

              No, of course, only in English a little and then without the help of a Google translator is not complete. The tribe helps, he studies at DFGU in Vladivostok, among other things, he studies Chinese, for him it is a language practice. Also about the Chinese forums write a lot in the United States.
          2. opus 26 November 2015 13: 48 New
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            Quote: Bongo
            Nevertheless, such work is underway in China (it’s easier to say what is not being done),

            Why are "being"?
            They have (2 pieces)
            - one is located in Xinjiang province (the zone of its detection is oriented to Western Siberia), i.e. against us (Russian Aerospace Forces and the launch of ICBMs, RMDS, TR, KR)
            -№2 off the coast of the South China Sea.
            China uses bistatic stations (well, Buddha himself ordered them on the UKM coast)
            But the technologies (principles, solutions) are not ours, but completely tyrenny with the Australian ZG radar.
            Those. similar to australians
            1. bistatic ZG radar "Jindali";
            Management Center JIFAS (JFAS - Jindalee Facility at Alice Spring) in Alice Spring,
            -2 div stations: the first with a 90 ° field of view in Queensland (transmitting point - in Longreach, receiving - near Stonehenge),
            - the second with a viewing angle of 180 ° in azimuth is located in Western Australia (the transmitting point is located northeast of the city of Laverton, the receiving point is northwest of it)

            2. ionosphere monitoring system (FMS frequency management system (FMS - Frequency Management System);
            - Control Center at Ab Edinburgh (South Australia).
            ================================================== ====
            But here is my opinion (modest in the development of 40% of the material)
            1. all this is terribly expensive

            One piece 29B6 The container costs about 10 rubles (in prices 000-000)
            Compare with the cost of the satellite and the launch of the Proton launch vehicle

            / because in Kamchatka they built a new ZRLLS “Taurus” (the principle of XNUMXG location by a surface beam (diffraction surface propagation-DPR))
            Here it is "before unpacking"



            here it is 50% assembled:

            What about a data center? (it’s more important than the antenna mast)

            2. For the control center, a bearing is still needed, i.e. RT reconnaissance assets should “say” to the ZGRLS personnel: here about (W, D, sync-hr), an aircraft carrier was spotted.
            ZGRLS, respectively, in elevation angle and azimuth there "is induced."
            Processing reflections gives TsU.
            Logical satellite is simpler and cheaper.
            and more precisely:

            The diffraction propagation of surface decameter waves with vertical polarization provides a range over the sea of ​​up to 150 ... 500 km, depending on the effective area of ​​the reflected object. This is a ZG radar with a surface wave;

            Features of the ZG radar:
            • the propagation of useful and noise interference signals at decameter waves depends on the daily, seasonal, etc. state of the ionosphere. In addition, the decameter range is loaded with radiation from connected and broadcast radio stations. Therefore, it is necessary to systematically optimize the choice of the working frequency sub-band;
            • the use of large antennas of the order of fractions and units of kilometers due to the large working wavelengths. Even under this condition, the coordinated azimuthal resolution is X ... XXe, which ensures low linear resolution across the line of sight 5 ... 50 km at a distance of 300 km and at a range of 3000 km. Nhigh resolution and along the line of sight, since at low carrier frequencies use a narrow frequency band of the probing signals;
            1. Bongo 26 November 2015 13: 57 New
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              Quote: opus
              Why are "being"?
              They have (2 pieces)
              - one is located in Xinjiang province (the zone of its detection is oriented to Western Siberia), i.e. against us (Russian Aerospace Forces and the launch of ICBMs, RMDS, TR, KR)
              -№2 off the coast of the South China Sea.

              Anton, in the publication we are talking about radars that are designed to track surface ships. As far as I know, we have a similar station near Nakhodka.
              Quote: opus
              one is located in Xinjiang province (its detection zone is oriented to Western Siberia), i.e. against us (Russian Aerospace Forces and the launch of ICBMs, RMDS, TR, KR)

              She is?

              Quote: opus
              Logical satellite is simpler and cheaper.
              and more precisely:

              You can’t argue with this, but the Chinese apparently work out all the possibilities of detection.
              1. opus 26 November 2015 14: 56 New
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                Quote: Bongo
                She is?

                Unlike Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar [OTH-B].
                specificity, this is Chinese OTH-B view from the ground

                Most likely, the data center or communications center or AFAR is the most conspiring.

                Yes, and on the coast it should be

                ==========================

                Zhao Shuqing, Liu Yongtan and Duan Fengzeng (1990) Digital beamforming in the OTH radar ICSP-90 Beijing, 655-656.
                Jiao Peinan (1991) A new method of track processing in HF skywave OTH-B radar ACTA CIE 19, 1, Jan 91, 1-6.
                Zhao Shuqing and Liu Yongtan (1991) Frequency domain digital beamforming in the OTH radar SEE 13, 1, Jan 91, 47-51.
                Zhou Wenyu and Mao Xu (1991) Bistatic FMCW OTH-B experimental radar ICR-91 CIE, 138-142.
                Wang Jiliang and Duan Fengzeng (1993) Application of maximum entropy in angular superresolution of OTH radar SEE 15, 10, Oct 93, 21-30.


                ---------------------------------

                Chinese Over-the-horizon surface wave RADAR

                System 1
                27 ° 46'10.00 "N 120 ° 44'44.34" E

                Transmitter site

                Receiver site


                System 2
                22 ° 55'26.51 "N 116 ° 13'32.07" E
                http://i.imgur.com/4CoQ3xP.jpg

                System 3
                25 ° 47'25.10 "N 119 ° 37'08.79" E


                System 4
                24 ° 04'56.97 "N 117 ° 54'06.38" E


                Record of the operation of the Chinese ZRLS obtained by the US Air Force interception station in the Mojave Desert, California, USA, April 05, 2013, at about 13:21 UTC


                1. Bongo 26 November 2015 15: 01 New
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                  Quote: opus
                  27 ° 46'10.00 "N 120 ° 44'44.34" E

                  These are the coordinates of this object (below). In the first picture (in the previous comment) - a radar which was used to test Chinese anti-ballistic systems and is located not far from the border with the Russian Federation. Truncated pyramids do not resemble anything?

                  1. opus 26 November 2015 15: 36 New
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                    Quote: Bongo
                    These are the coordinates of this object (below).

                    I didn’t check the coordinates / Stupidly torn apart by foreigners /


                    Quote: Bongo
                    Truncated pyramids do not resemble anything?

                    something reminiscent of
        2. opus 26 November 2015 13: 16 New
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          Quote: Falcon
          Anton and I have already discussed this topic. He really promised to shed light on the problem ...

          Kirill....
          I myself will soon begin to radiate horizontally what




          before shedding

          Quote: Falcon
          Their main drawback is the presence of dead zones,


          there (ZGRLS) in general, everything is very complicated. Especially for surface purposes (surface)

          In general, ZGRLS is good for launching ICBMs, at altitudes of 60 km

    2. xtur 25 November 2015 17: 22 New
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      > While they are limited by insufficient capabilities of reconnaissance and target designation systems. To remedy the situation in China, the coastal radar is being built on the coast with a range of detection of sea targets of up to 3000 km

      when I suggested that Russian ZGRLS be used for the same purpose, Andrei (from Chelyabinsk) told me that this was impossible.
      1. opus 26 November 2015 14: 04 New
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        Quote: xtur
        Use ZGRLS for the same purpose, Andrey (from Chelyabinsk) told me that this is impossible.

        1. They are used (but they are expensive), despite the "impossible from Andrei (from Chelyabinsk)

        "Wave"



        By 1990, the station was steadily detecting and escorting US aircraft carriers in the Pacific at ranges far above 3000 kilometers, and individual air targets at ranges up to 2800 km.

        "Taurus" - near zone

        uses a signal of lower power and is used to detect ships and air targets at ranges up to 250 km.
  3. zyablik.olga 25 November 2015 09: 45 New
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    Very informative publication in two parts. The author, who is not the "full-time writer" of the Military Review, manages to create very interesting articles in the "free from the main work" time. good
    1. Bongo 25 November 2015 10: 46 New
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      Quote: zyablik.olga
      Very informative publication in two parts. The author, who is not the "full-time writer" of the Military Review, manages to create very interesting articles in the "free from the main work" time.

      Thank you, Olenka! love
  4. voyaka uh 25 November 2015 11: 20 New
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    Auto RU:

    In one of the discussions I don’t remember which branch of VO
    Interesting flashed (and not confirmed by anything)
    infa that Japan is very quiet and discreetly completely
    approached the equipment of nuclear weapons. What did they prepare
    a large amount of plutonium, prepared thousands
    warheads (without loading plutonium into them), prepared
    thousands of infantry fighting systems (without warheads). Everything is disassembled.
    But to collect completely rockets with all the stuffing (and become immediately large
    nuclear power) they will be able for 2-3 weeks.
    And all this is connected with the Chinese threat - the rapid growth of the Chinese
    military potential.
    Do you have any related information?
    1. Bongo 25 November 2015 13: 26 New
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      Quote: voyaka uh
      In one of the discussions I don’t remember which branch of VO
      Interesting flashed (and not confirmed by anything)
      infa that Japan is very quiet and discreetly completely
      approached the equipment of nuclear weapons. What did they prepare
      a large amount of plutonium, prepared thousands
      warheads (without loading plutonium into them), prepared
      thousands of infantry fighting systems (without warheads). Everything is disassembled.
      But to collect completely rockets with all the stuffing (and become immediately large
      nuclear power) they will be able for 2-3 weeks.
      And all this is connected with the Chinese threat - the rapid growth of the Chinese
      military potential.
      Do you have any related information?

      Fake, definitely ...
      1. opus 26 November 2015 14: 43 New
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        Quote: Bongo
        Fake, definitely ...

        no.
        Paranuclear "Japan Option"
        Many times wrote
        Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists
        Address: Office: 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637
        Mailing: PO Box 422, Hopedale, IL 61747-0422
        Telephone: 707-481-9372 -
        http://thebulletin.org/contact-us#sthash.xOmtoIvK.dpuf
        Japan has no material or technological problems in creating nuclear weapons. Japan has the raw materials, technology and capital to develop nuclear weapons.
        Japan will be able to start producing the functional components of nuclear weapons in less than a year from the moment the decision to manufacture and withdraw from the NPT is made.
        Based on its nuclear industry, and its weapons-grade plutonium reserves, Japan considers itself, and is being considered by others, as a virtual state possessing nuclear weapons.
        Japan is an unofficial nuclear power with a full nuclear cycle for the production of nuclear weapons and with two plants with a production cycle for producing weapons-grade plutonium. True, one of them was destroyed by the tsunami in 2011, and its status is currently unknown.



        There are no problems with delivery vehicles.
        1. Professor of the University of Tokyo, Hideo Itokawa (Hideo Itokawa) in 1954

        2.In 1962, Nissan began work on Solid propellant 40 tp thrust for the new large Lambda rocket.

        In the summer of 1966, equipment (100 kg Mon) installed on board the Lambdy-ZN-2 reached an altitude of 1800 km
        3. Launch of Lambda-4S-5 on February 11, 1970. In 8 min 29 sec, Japan will become the fourth power of the “Big Space Club”

        4. Preparation for the first launch of the “working” carrier Mu-4S, September 28, 1971



        and all this is a rocket on the solid propellant rocket engine

        1. Bongo 26 November 2015 14: 47 New
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          Quote: opus
          no.

          Quote: voyaka uh
          they prepared
          a large amount of plutonium, prepared thousands
          warheads (without loading plutonium into them), prepared
          thousands of infantry fighting systems (without warheads).

          Do you want to say that this is true? no
          Japan's fissile material and delivery capabilities are known to me. wink
          1. opus 26 November 2015 15: 49 New
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            Quote: Bongo
            Do you want to say that this is true?


            A Plan To Deploy Nuclear Warheads in Japan "
            by Nisohachi Hyodo, critic and author
            Tokyo SHOKUN, Oct 96 pp 202-213
            1. Israel is a puny 8 million, but Japan can’t 128 million?
            I will not even compare the technological and scientific potential of Japan with the Israeli one.
            2. According to the Japanese agency Kyodo Tsushin, over 300 kilograms of weapons-grade plutonium (40-50NBZ) available in the arsenals of Japan, were transferred to her by the USA during the cold war. Japan sharply protested against the return of this plutonium, as it is used for research in fast neutron reactors. It has not yet been removed. In addition, there is information that Japan has accumulated over 1,2 tons of highly enriched uranium (including 215 kilograms of highly enriched uranium level of offensive weapons), as well as about 44 tons of separated plutonium.

            3. Shinzo Abe’s maternal grandfather, Nobusuke Kishi, as prime minister of Japan, said in parliament: "Constitutional clarifications allow Japan to even have weapons called nuclear weapons." Japanese media reported that Nobusuke Kishi secretly wrote to the US government: "If Japan Counts it is necessary for defense, she will develop nuclear weapons ".
            4. In 2002, Shinzo Abe, then Deputy Secretary General of the Cabinet of Ministers of Japan, said in a speech that the Japanese Constitution was for defense purposes and to a minimum extent does not prohibit Japan from having nuclear weapons or other conventional weapons.
            ======================================
            I think everything is ready for the FRG
            Quote: Bongo
            and delivery vehicles I know.

            where do they go then?
    2. Amurets 25 November 2015 13: 38 New
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      Quote: voyaka uh
      Japan is very quiet and discreet
      went to equipping nuclear weapons.

      Sorry to interfere, but here is an interesting link from Akademika.http: //dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/ruwiki/167597
      I won’t comment. But even the fact that the Japanese have large reserves of spent nuclear fuel, everything is possible.
      http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enc_japan/634/%D0%A0%D0%B0%D0%BA%D0%B5%D1%82%D0%B
      D% D0% BE
      http://cosmos-japan.ru/kosmosjap_rn.html
      These are two references to space rocket programs. And if there are spacecraft carriers, then there is the space rocket industry. I won’t talk about power, they are significant.
      1. Bongo 25 November 2015 13: 47 New
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        Quote: Amurets
        These are two references to space rocket programs. And if there are spacecraft carriers, then there is the space rocket industry. I won’t talk about power, they are significant.

        Nikolay, regarding Japanese carriers and spaceports you can take a look here:
        http://topwar.ru/37969-kosmodromy-mira-chast-3-ya.html
        As for nuclear fuel, this is only raw materials. In reality, nuclear weapons are not being developed in Japan, especially since the United States is very taut on this. Japan to this day is essentially under occupation.
        1. voyaka uh 25 November 2015 15: 17 New
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          "that the United States is very tough on this" ////

          Here ... debatable. The United States must protect Japan by treaty.
          And of course, Americans are vitally interested in
          Japan could protect itself as much as possible. To unload your aircraft.
          So take a look - yes - but which way?
          Kennedy kept an eye on Israel: "I will close so-your-m ..." chicken farm " am ,
          and Nixon kept an eye on: "grow chickens as you want fellow ".

          The Japanese are stupid people, excellent engineers and look at the world strategically.
          It is unlikely that they are indifferent to the Chinese military revival.
          But this is so - speculation, of course ...
          1. xtur 25 November 2015 17: 25 New
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            > Here ... debatable. The United States must protect Japan by treaty.

            obliged for this, and looks closely ... IAEA. It is in this, and only in this, that the constitutional task of this organization. The Japanese will not be able and a gram of unaccounted for plutonium to earn
  5. voyaka uh 25 November 2015 11: 30 New
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    How I like their boats ave. 022 Hubei!
    Trimaran, stealth ... 38 knots.
    Would buy for us what . With launchers immediately under our missiles.
    1. Odysseus 25 November 2015 21: 08 New
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      Quote: voyaka uh
      How I like their boats ave. 022 Hubei!
      Trimaran, stealth ... 38 knots.

      Yes, as young people say, a cool device. Especially if you take into account their number in the fleet. If there is timely target designation (and Israel has no problems with this), it is extremely difficult to repulse the “flock” attack of these RKs.
  6. Amurets 25 November 2015 11: 35 New
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    Sergei! Hi! So I don’t understand? Did the Chinese have not mastered the amplification of tanks? Our missile refueling occurred only as an oxidizer.
    1. Bongo 25 November 2015 13: 28 New
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      Quote: Amurets
      Sergei! Hi! So I don’t understand? Did the Chinese have not mastered the amplification of tanks? Our missile refueling occurred only as an oxidizer.

      Hi Nikolay! Master, but only in later versions. By that time, they already had solid-fuel and turbojet anti-ship missiles on the way.
      1. Amurets 25 November 2015 14: 00 New
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        Quote: Bongo
        Fake, definitely ...

        Sergey! I would not become so categorical after the link to the Academician: http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/ruwiki/167597
        I’m not only judging by this material, I also came across something in other literature. On the territory of China there were two or three strictly classified detachments consisting of physicists, geologists, and a number of other scientists. The entire composition of these detachments was exported to the United States. Exactly that these people are not from Detachments 731 and 100. The Academician says that at the end of the war, with the help of the Germans, the Japanese were close to creating nuclear weapons. In one I agree with you, there are no large quantities of nuclear weapons in Japan, there can be single samples.
  7. Hydrograph 25 November 2015 12: 44 New
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    Soon, Chinese operational squadrons around the world will go. And then look and go to establish their order. Creepy.
  8. summer 25 November 2015 15: 36 New
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    The content is level and framed in feng shui.
    “Simple and tasteful” smile
    Thank you.
  9. opus 26 November 2015 01: 28 New
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    Quote: Author
    the arms of the Su-30MK2 include Russian supersonic X-31P anti-radar missiles with passive GOS, which can be used against radars of warships

    Sergey, I think you're wrong.

    1. U X-31P not active radar seeker ARGS-31 (U505)

    X-31P (PD) is still not X-31A

    The X-31A high-speed aviation anti-ship missile with an active radar homing head (ARGS) is designed to destroy in simple and difficult weather conditions, day and night, class ships up to and including the destroyer, the following both singly and as part of ship strike groups. The X-31A missile can be used in single or group use. ARGS provides detection and target selection (on the trajectory or before the launch of the rocket).
    2. U X-31P (PD) passive radar homing head "L-112E"


    + memory for the disconnected radar (storing the radar geocoordinates and entering them into the ANN and pairing with Glonas)
    In the "original" X-31P anti-radar version created to combat existing air defense systems and complexes of the new generation, including the American Patriot. It had a higher priority than the anti-ship modification, and was faster worked out, demonstrating stable guidance on the target in conditions of intense interference. With a high degree of unification with X-31A, the anti-radar modification is different guidance system and GOS and its type.






    PRR X-31 P has interchangeable semi-active radar seeker models PRGS-4VP, PRGS-5VP and PRGS-6VP - each in its own frequency range. Guidance algorithms are designed so that intense interference and temporarily turning off radar targets do not disrupt guidance.

    If the ship (target) moves and turns off the radar .... then?

    That will be a miss ..

    If ours did not deliver Fantasmagoria, Ethnography and Progress containers with the Su-30MK2!
    But didn’t they deliver?
    They are in my opinion and do not fit under 30ku, but only under Su-24M, MiG-27, Su-17

    "head" is PASSIVE!

    This is our "analogue" AGM-88 HARM
    1. Bongo 26 November 2015 02: 35 New
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      Quote: opus
      If the ship (target) moves and turns off the radar .... then?

      That will be a miss ..

      Of course, but the strike will be delivered clearly not by one plane and not by one anti-ship missile.
      In these conditions, turning off the radar will be suicide.
  10. voyaka uh 26 November 2015 10: 24 New
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    These anti-ship BR DF-21D, undoubtedly, will strain Americans
    and make them aug move away into the ocean. Aircraft carriers will need
    longer "arm".
    And they are getting ready for this. The radius of application of the F-35S is 1130 km, and the Superhornet F-18 is only 720 km.
    And Aegis, of course. Missiles DF-21D, just under it.
    No wonder Burke stamped like hot cakes.
    1. forumow 28 November 2015 18: 16 New
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      I think the DF-26D is not far off, but maybe already!
  11. Glad 24 December 2015 05: 22 New
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    It is assumed that the anti-ship DF-21D with a launch range of more than 1500 km will be equipped with a maneuvering warhead in the final section of the warhead with an active radar seeker. Given that the warhead of a ballistic missile DF-21 moves at the final stage with hypersonic speed

    Hmm ... If a rocket moves at the final stage with hypersonic speed, then it should go in a cloud of plasma. Hence the question - how in this case, the Chinese have an active radar seeker working? Plasma is not radiolucent ...
    Or something I do not understand?