November 20 marks 70 since the start of the Nuremberg trials. The Nuremberg Trials - the trial of a group of major Nazi war criminals. He is also called the "Court stories". Held in Nuremberg (Germany) from November 20 1945 of the Year to October 1 of the Year of 1946 at the International Military Tribunal.
Shortly after the war ended, the victorious powers of the USSR, the USA, Britain and France approved the Agreement on the establishment of an international military tribunal and its statute, the principles of which the UN General Assembly approved as generally accepted in the fight against crimes against humanity, during the London Conference.
On August 29, 1945, a list of the main war criminals was published, including 24 prominent Nazis. The list included such prominent military and party figures of the Third Reich as the Commander-in-Chief of the German Air Force, Reichsmarshal German Goering, Deputy Führer for Nazi Party Leadership Rudolf Hess, Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop, Reich Minister for Eastern Affairs Territory Alfred Rosenberg, Chief of Staff of the Supreme High Command of the Armed Forces of Germany Wilhelm Keitel, Commander-in-Chief of the Navy fleet Nazi Germany (1943-1945), head of state and commander in chief of the armed forces of Nazi Germany from April 30 to May 23, 1945 Karl Dönitz, chief of staff of the OKW operational leadership Alfred Jodl, etc.
The defendants were charged with planning, preparing, initiating or waging a war of aggression in order to establish world domination of German imperialism, i.e. in crimes against the world; in the killings and torture of prisoners of war and civilians of the occupied countries, the hijacking of the civilian population in Germany for forced labor, the killing of hostages, the looting of public and private property, the aimless destruction of cities and villages, in ruin, not justified by military necessity, i.e. in war crimes; in extermination, enslavement, exile and other atrocities committed against civilians for political, racial or religious reasons, that is, in crimes against humanity.
The question was also raised of recognizing such organizations as fascist Germany as the leadership of the National Socialist Party, the assault (SA) and security forces of the National Socialist Party (SS), the security service (SD), the state secret police (Gestapo), the government office. and the General Staff.
18 October 1945. The indictment was submitted to the International Military Tribunal and a month before the trial began, each of the defendants was handed in German. 25 November 1945 g., After reading the indictment, Robert Ley committed suicide (head of the German Labor Front), and Gustav Krupp was found to be incapacitated by the medical commission and the case against him was terminated before the trial. The remaining defendants were brought to trial.
In accordance with the London Agreement, the International Military Tribunal was formed on a parity basis from representatives of four countries. The chief judge was appointed the representative of England, Lord Jeffrey Lawrence. From other countries members of the tribunal were approved: Deputy Chairman of the Supreme Court of the Soviet Union, Major General of Justice Ion Nikitchenko, former US Attorney General Francis Biddle, Professor of Criminal Law of France, Henri Donnedier de Wabre. Each of the four victorious powers sent their chief prosecutors, their deputies and assistants to the trial: the USSR Prosecutor General Roman Rudenko, member of the US federal supreme court Robert Jackson, from England - Hartley Shawcross, from France - Francois de Menton (then he was appointed instead of Champentier de Rib).
During the process, 403 open court sessions were held, 116 witnesses were questioned, numerous written testimonies and documentary evidence were examined (mainly official documents of the German ministries and departments, the General Staff, military concerns and banks). Due to the unprecedented gravity of the crimes committed by the defendants, there were doubts whether to comply with the democratic norms of judicial procedure in relation to them. So, representatives of the prosecution from England and the United States suggested not giving the defendants the last word. However, representatives of the USSR and France insisted on the opposite.
The process was intense, not only because of the unusualness of the tribunal itself and the accusations against the defendants. The post-war aggravation of relations between the USSR and the West after Churchill's well-known Fulton speech and the defendants, feeling the current political situation, skillfully dragged time and expected to escape from the well-deserved punishment. In such a difficult situation, the hard and professional actions of the Soviet prosecution played a key role. The film on concentration camps, shot by front-line cameramen, finally broke the course of the process. Creepy paintings of Majdanek, Sachsenhausen, Auschwitz completely removed the doubts of the tribunal.
30 September - 1 October 1946, the sentence was pronounced. All the defendants, except three (Fritsche, Papen, Schacht), were found guilty of the charges and sentenced: some to death by hanging, others to life imprisonment. Only units received sentences ranging from 10 to 20 years in prison. The tribunal recognized the criminal organizations of the SS, the Gestapo, the SD and the leadership of the Nazi party. The petitions of the convicts for pardon were rejected by the Control Council, and on the night of October 16 1946, the death penalty was carried out. Goering was poisoned in prison shortly before his execution. The trials of war criminals of lesser magnitude continued in Nuremberg until the 1950s, but already in a US court.
The victory over the Third Reich and the project of Nazi Europe led by Germany was the most important event in the history of mankind. Soviet civilization de facto crushed the “inferno civilization” - a concentrated embodiment of the Western project, caste, racial, man-hating and slave-owning society. The new world order, which the ideologists of the Third Reich dreamed to build, was, in fact, the embodiment of the plans of the owners of the USA and England. After all, it was Washington and London who nurtured, fostered, trained Hitler in due time, preparing him for an attack on the USSR. No wonder many of the Nazis took the British Empire as a model with its first reservations, concentration camps, the mass destruction of "subhumans", the division of people into castes, where white aristocrats and bankers dominated the masses of the white poor and the colored slaves.
The Soviet Union, whose goal was to build a just society, a society of creation and service, where there would be no parasitism and oppression of people, won a victory over the infernal Third Reich, saved all of humanity from slavery. The trial of war criminals guilty of the deaths and torments of millions, tens of millions of people became the logical conclusion of the war. Not only Nazism, but also militarism were condemned for the first time by the sentence of the International Tribunal in Nuremberg. The verdict stated that “unleashing a war of aggression is not only a crime of an international character. It is the gravest international crime. ”
In the 17th century, 3 million people died in wars in Europe, 5,2 million people died in the 18th century, and in the 19th century. - 5,5 million. The First World War claimed the lives of 10 million, the Second World War - 50 millions, perhaps even more, because China’s losses cannot be calculated. And only the Soviet Union lost about 27 million. World War II was accompanied by mass atrocities. So, in the concentration camps there were about 18 million people, of which 11 million were destroyed.
Previously, only in theoretical terms, there were arguments about the responsibility for an aggressive war. Attempts to bring to justice Wilhelm II and about 800 of the German military, convicted of war crimes committed during the First World War, almost did not end. Only 12 people were convicted for short-term detention, but they were soon released.
Before the outbreak of the Second World War there was a real opportunity to save Europe from the big war. The Soviet Union put forward a plan for creating a collective security system. However, in response to this, Western “democracies” embarked on the path of encouraging aggression, militarism, Nazism and fascism, hoping to direct the edge of aggression against the USSR. Caused by the contradictions of the Versailles system and the deepening crisis of capitalism, the Second World War was provoked by the efforts of Paris, which was eventually sacrificed, of London and Washington. The financial-industrial clans (so-called “financial international”, “golden elite”, “world backstage”) behind France, England and the United States, with a hierarchy of closed clubs, Masonic lodges and other organizations, aimed at the new world order - the global slave-owning pyramid, with the complete enslavement of mankind. After the First World War, the New World Order could not be established, as the Russian people broke away from the “world revolution” project and began to build socialism in a single country. However, in the West they did not retreat from their goals.
Soviet civilization presented an alternative just world order to humanity - a society of creation and service, a society without exploitation, parasitism of some over others. This society led humanity to the stars, revealed the infinite creative potential of man. It was a challenge to the owners of the Western project., as the sympathies of the best representatives of humanity were on the side of the USSR. Therefore, London and Washington began to cherish fascism and Nazism in Europe in order to once again confront Germany and Russia-USSR. Italian fascism was too weak, and removed from the USSR, so the main bet was made on Hitler, giving him the care of Italy, and the dwarf Nazis and militarists, such as Hungary, Romania and Finland. Hitler was given almost all of Europe, including France, so that he could organize a "crusade" against the USSR. In fact, only Switzerland remained outside of Hitler's influence, since it was one of the “bridgeheads” of the world behind the scenes. Hitler received colossal assistance from the West - financial, economic, technical, military and political. For a long time, Hitler was one of the most popular leaders of the West. The masters of the West did not stint: for the destruction of the USSR all means were good.
The Nazis justified the hopes of the owners. They began to solve the “Russian question”: a colossal destruction machine was launched. The Nazis used all the previous practices of the Anglo-Saxons: any atrocities against the "subhumans" were allowed, concentration camps, the elimination of cultural achievements, historical heritage, hunger, etc. The elimination of the "inferior" population was at the state level, programs of mass destruction and eviction of the peaceful population, looting and colonization of the Soviet territories. Not surprisingly, the USSR lost in the war about 27 million people, most of which were civilians, prisoners of war.
At the beginning of the war, Moscow formulated a program to eradicate fascism. An integral part of it was the demand for severe punishment of the instigators of war and the organizers of crimes against humanity. The statement by the People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs of the USSR on 22 June 1941 put forward the idea of criminal responsibility of the German rulers for starting an aggressive war. The statement about the responsibility of the Nazis for the atrocities they committed was made in 1941 also by the governments of England and the USA. 13 January 1942. Nine governments of countries subjected to Nazi aggression signed a declaration on the punishment of war criminals in London.
The Moscow Declaration of the Heads of the Three Powers “On the Responsibility of the Hitlerites for the Atrocities Committed” from 30 in October 1943 noted that war criminals must be tracked down and handed over to justice. The very idea of creating an international tribunal proceeded from the Soviet government, which in a statement from 14 in October 1942 stressed: “... considers it necessary to bring to trial a special international tribunal and punish, to the fullest extent of the criminal law, any of the ringleaders of fascist Germany who were already in the process of war the hands of the authorities of the states fighting against Hitler Germany. "
Despite the position of the American and British leaders who were not interested in the whole truth about the war becoming the property of the world community (and the leaders of the Third Reich could talk), and initially inclined to the inexpediency of international court proceedings, Moscow defended precisely the proposal to prosecute the Nazi war criminals. Up until the beginning of 1945, the USSR was the only power that spoke in favor of a public process over the leaders of Hitler's Germany. Only after the Crimean Conference of the three great powers, the American President F. Roosevelt approved the proposal to organize a trial, and the position of the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill on this issue changed only at the very end of the war, as stated by British Foreign Minister A. Eden 3 in May 1945
Thus, only due to the consistent and persevering policy of Moscow, by the time the Nazi Germany surrendered to the anti-Hitler coalition, did they agree on the need for an international tribunal over the leaders of the Third Reich. He played his role and factor of the world community, whose sympathies were on the side of the USSR. As a result, the United States and England failed to push through the version of extrajudicial reprisals against the leaders of the Reich.
8 August 1945 in London an Agreement was concluded between the governments of the USSR, the USA, Great Britain and France on the prosecution and punishment of the main war criminals of the European aggressor countries. In accordance with the Agreement, the International Military Tribunal was established, its Charter was developed. The statute defined: the organization of the tribunal; jurisdiction and general principles; a committee to investigate and prosecute major war criminals; procedural guarantees of defendants; Tribunal rights and court session; sentence and expenses. The Charter Article 6 contained definitions of crimes subject to the jurisdiction of the Tribunal and entailing individual responsibility:
1) crimes against peace: planning, preparing, initiating or waging a war of aggression or war in violation of international treaties, agreements or assurances, or participating in a general plan or conspiracy aimed at carrying out any of the above actions;
2) war crimes: violation of the laws or customs of war. These violations include murder, torture or withdrawal into slavery or for other purposes of the civilian population of the occupied territory; killing or torturing prisoners of war or persons at sea; hostage killings; robbing public or private property; the senseless destruction of cities and villages, devastation, unjustified by military necessity; other crimes;
3) crimes against humanity: killing, extermination, enslavement, exile and other atrocities committed against civilians before or during the war, or persecution for political, racial or religious reasons with a view to carrying out or in connection with another crime subject to the jurisdiction of the Tribunal, regardless of whether these actions violated the internal law of the country where they were committed or not.
It should be noted that the idea of a new Tribunal over international war criminals is very relevant in the modern world. It must be remembered that “Unleashing a war of aggression is not only a crime of an international character, that it is a grave international crime.” At first, the masters of the West were able to destroy the USSR with the help of the information war, the Cold War (World War III), which led to enormous destruction, a number of military conflicts and millions of demographic losses of Russian civilization. Only with the help of the methods of socio-economic genocide, the Western Gauleit servants in Russia were able to destroy millions of Russians. The Yalta-Potsdam system was destroyed, which led to the destabilization of the world community and the possibility of major local and regional wars throughout the world.
Having plundered the Soviet civilization, the West could only postpone its crisis. Therefore, the masters of the West launched a new world war (the Fourth World War). Now they are using radical Islam as a “collective Hitler” to “reset the matrix”, “nullify” the former industrial and post-industrial civilization, destroy the largest national states and civilizations of Eurasia and Africa, to build their neo-slave civilization on their fragments. Again, the basis of the current global crisis is the crisis of Western civilization and capitalism, that is, the parasitism of a few “chosen” clans and countries over all of humanity.
The masters of the West launched a series of aggressive wars that led to the destruction of Yugoslavia, Serbia, Iraq, Libya, Syria and Ukraine (Little Russia). The war goes on in Afghanistan and Yemen. Some countries are on the verge of destruction. The wave of chaos and inferno begins to approach Europe, on the verge of an explosion many countries in Africa, the Near and Middle East, and Central Asia. As a result, Western masters committed crimes against peace, war crimes and crimes against humanity. Millions of people became their victims in the last 25 years, after the collapse of the USSR. Only in Iraq and Syria hundreds of thousands of people died, millions were injured, mutilated, sold into slavery, lost their property, their jobs, were forced to become refugees.
Thus, we must remember that in the end a new Tribunal is needed, at which it will be necessary to condemn and punish many of today's most prominent Western politicians, oligarchs, bankers, world-class financial speculators, representatives of royal families, leaders of information resources and other people guilty of the destruction of the USSR , Yugoslavia, Iraq, Syria, Libya and a number of other countries, in the death and suffering of millions of people. Moreover, they unleashed a new world war in which millions of lives were burned.
It is also necessary to severely and revealingly punish local lackeys, gauleiters. For example, all the current Nazi and oligarchic leadership of Ukraine, which unleashed a civil war and turned part of the Russian civilization into a “Bantustan” and reservation, dooming tens of millions of Russians to slavery and extinction.
In addition, it must be remembered that it was Washington and London that fed up Hitler in their time, and they are the main instigators and perpetrators of the Second World War.