Military Review

19 November - Day of missile forces and artillery. From "mattresses" to "Iskander"

November 19 in Russia celebrates the Day of Rocket Forces and Artillery. Date of celebration in the calendar did not appear by chance. It was 19 on November 1942 that the first stage of the Red Army counter-offensive near Stalingrad began, and the role of artillery (in this case, the artillery of the South-Western and Don fronts) in defeating Hitler’s forces in the city on the Volga River is difficult to overestimate. And not only, I must say, in the city on the Volga. No wonder the artillery is called the god of war, because it is her participation in hostilities that can radically change the situation, and the outcome of both defensive and offensive operations can depend on the ability to effectively use artillery guns and systems.

Historians argue about when to count down the development of domestic artillery. Most modern specialists in the field historical sciences are inclined to believe that the history of artillery in Russia (in Russia) began in the XNUMXth century, when so-called “mattresses” were used against the horde of Tokhtamysh weapon in the form of forged guns). It was in 1382, when the Mongol-Tatar khan and the army besieged Moscow. Approximately a quarter of a century after the first mention of the use of "mattresses" in the annals there are reports of the use of these weapons as a marching one.

If you refer to historical documents, you can see that 400-500 years ago added the term “shots” or “shot chains” to the mentioned weapon. The barrel of such a tool had the shape of a truncated cone for a particular expansion, as it were now said, of striking elements. On average, the diameter of the stem of the mattresses with a “split-cut” socket was changed to 30-50 percent, but it also reached a twofold increase in diameter over the length of the trunk. For example, a mattress sample of the end of the XVI-beginning of the XVII centuries could have a barrel diameter from 160-170 mm (at the base) to 340-350 mm at the muzzle. Most often, "mattresses" were installed on wooden goats to give stability when shooting. Later, carriages on wheels appeared.

Of course, in the XVI-XVII centuries, other tools were used to produce artillery volleys. One of the options - breech ship guns, which began to appear initially as trophies, harvested from Europeans and Turks. We are talking about guns of small diameter - about 60 mm. The length of the barrel of these artillery pieces was no more than 80 cm. It is believed that initially such guns were used in Italy, and then their production was established in the Ottoman Empire.

19 November - Day of missile forces and artillery. From "mattresses" to "Iskander"

In 1757, the famous unicorn was invented. Mikhail Vasilyevich Danilov, known for being the first in Russia to publish a work on the course of artillery, took the most direct part in its creation. The official title of the work, published in 1762, sounds like "Primary knowledge of theory and practice in artillery." This work is rightly considered to be the most real alphabet of domestic artillery, because it describes the basics of using artillery pieces of the sample of that time.

Speaking about the creation by Mikhail Danilov (if I may say so, in collaboration with S.A. Martynov) the cannon in the 1757 year, one should pay attention to its very peculiar name. The reason that the weapon was called the “unicorn” was the detail of the family coat of arms of Count Peter Ivanovich Shuvalov. It's about the unicorn, which is an essential attribute of the so-called Boncho coat of arms. The fact is that it was Count P.I. Shuvalov who became the person through whom the new guns began to be put into mass service by the Russian army.

The "unicorn" camora was conical in shape. The new shape of the chamber made it possible to make the barrel longer, which allowed to significantly increase the firing range. Fire could be conducted from a distance of up to 4 km, and firing was carried out by various types of ammunition. It could be not only ordinary kernels, but also explosive grenades, bombs and buckshot. "Unicorn" has become a truly universal artillery gun, which was used both on land and on navy. They also used it as a siege weapon, equipping ammunition with a larger diameter (caliber) to increase striking power. Surprisingly, “unicorns” have been used during various military operations for more than 120 years!

It speaks about their universality, reliability and relative simplicity of a design. Even when guns of the new generation began to appear, “unicorns” continued to be used to solve certain combat missions, including in cases when the combat unit simply had no other options.

Returning to the theme of the appearance of the holiday, it must be said that in its original name no rocket troops were mentioned, of course. By decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of 21 of October 1944, a holiday was established not so much as a memorable date, called the Day of Artillery. Only after 20 years after this event - in the 1964 year - does a new name appear, which remains to this day. The day became known as the Day of Rocket Forces and Artillery.

Today, organizational troops consist of missile, rocket and artillery brigades, including mixed, high-powered artillery battalions, rocket artillery regiments, separate reconnaissance battalions, artillery of military bases and combined-arms brigades. The Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation determines the following range of tasks, the solution of which for rocket troops and artillery:

winning and holding superiority over the enemy;
the defeat of its means of nuclear attack, manpower, weapons, military and special equipment;
disorganization of command and control systems for troops and weapons, intelligence and electronic warfare;
destruction of long-term fortifications and other infrastructure;
violation of the operational and military rear;
the weakening and isolation of the second echelon and enemy reserves;
destruction of penetrating the depths of defense tanks and other armored vehicles of the enemy;
cover open flanks and joints;
participation in the destruction of enemy air and sea landings;
remote mining of terrain and objects;
light maintenance of night operations of troops;
smoke, blinding of enemy objects;
distribution of campaign materials and others.

Rocket troops and artillery of the Russian Federation are equipped with new equipment and technology. The RV and A are equipped with modernized Msta-SM self-propelled howitzers of 152 mm caliber and Tornado-G MLRS. Armed rocket formations of the Ground Forces of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation are being armed with operational-tactical complexes Iskander-M, capable of reducing to zero the effectiveness of building up a missile defense system of a potential enemy.

19 November. On this day, "Military Review" congratulates the regular military personnel of the Missile Forces and Artillery, as well as veterans on their professional holiday!
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  1. Andreitas
    Andreitas 19 November 2015 06: 06
    Happy Holidays! drinks soldier
    1. smel
      smel 19 November 2015 07: 54
      Happy holiday friends
      1. insafufa
        insafufa 19 November 2015 08: 33
        Happy holiday comrades

        As they say when GODS OF WAR SAY THE OTHERS ARE SILENT
        1. Temples
          Temples 19 November 2015 08: 52
          Hooray! Hooray! Hooray!
          1. _Vladislav_
            _Vladislav_ 19 November 2015 09: 59
            Always ready to carry out the order,
            And justify the high trust.
            In history they have become famous more than once,
            Rocket troops and artillery.

          2. tank64rus
            tank64rus 19 November 2015 15: 55
            Happy Holiday! Gunners Stalin gave the order!
            1. Alena Frolovna
              Alena Frolovna 19 November 2015 18: 59
              Congratulations from the recent past.

              I trust you, Missile Forces,
              My lakes are untouched bowls
              And the gray of my father’s temple,
              And the sweet dream of our little daughter.

              Sunrises emerald lightning,
              And the starry breath of a spring
              And the flame of ripening wheat
              I trust you, missile forces.

              I trust you, Missile Forces
              Workshops of the industrial Urals,
              Siberian rivers forest shores
              And the blue of crystal Baikal.

              I trust you, Missile Forces,
              Scorched banners in battles
              And their light illuminating the ages
              And everything I look at is in love
              I trust you, Missile Forces!
              Nikolay Ageev

              1. The comment was deleted.
              2. Alena Frolovna
                Alena Frolovna 20 November 2015 04: 42
                MR. OFFICERS

            2. hedgehog in the fog
              hedgehog in the fog 19 November 2015 20: 00
              happy holiday man soldier
            3. 89043515687
              89043515687 20 November 2015 00: 37
              drinks Happy Holidays!
          3. tank64rus
            tank64rus 19 November 2015 15: 55
            Happy Holiday! Gunners Stalin gave the order!
        2. Good me
          Good me 19 November 2015 09: 59
          HAPPY HOLIDAY!

          In the same day, their professional holiday, in positions celebrated by rocket launchers and artillerymen of the People's Republics of Novorosia.

          And the fascist last, pouring the blood of civilians in the Donbass, postponed the date of the celebration of this kind of troops, without clues, knowing, feeling with its rotten gut that next to the glorious past and present of artillerymen and rocket launchers, they have no place.

          "Day of missile forces and artillery" (Ukrainian. "Day of missile forces and artillery") is a state holiday of Ukraine. This is a professional holiday for all workers and military personnel of the missile forces and artillery of Ukraine, which is celebrated in Ukraine annually on November 3 [1]. It is not a non-working day if, depending on the year, it does not fall on a weekend.

          To the dustbin of history!
          1. Lord of the Sith
            Lord of the Sith 19 November 2015 11: 02
            By the way, the first seconds show the position in 300 meters from my house. wink

            Well, the answer then
            1. Good me
              Good me 19 November 2015 11: 09
              Quote: Sith Lord
              By the way, the first seconds show the position in 300 meters from my house.

              Well, the answer then

              I have a relative, Artyomka, in the DPR militia ... Kalmius brigade (OBR).

              In the service "Grad". Perhaps his work in the frames ...

              WINS YOU ...
          2. The comment was deleted.
          3. Stasweb
            Stasweb 20 November 2015 00: 39
            "Day of missile forces and artillery" (Ukrainian. "Day of missile forces and artillery") is a state holiday of Ukraine. This is a professional holiday for all workers and military personnel of the missile forces and artillery of Ukraine, which is celebrated in Ukraine annually on November 3 [1]. It is not a non-working day if, depending on the year, it does not fall on a weekend.

            Bandera ubl * dki, burn you in hell !!!
        3. The comment was deleted.
        4. kumaxa
          kumaxa 20 November 2015 09: 21
          Hurray! The Russian-Soviet artillery industry, as well as the most advanced type of aircraft. to this day. I won’t go for an example. who are interested in facts can be found here on the site. fellow
        5. Tarikxnumx
          Tarikxnumx 20 November 2015 21: 03
          interesting, but what a strange muzzle brake on a howitzer in the foreground? What kind of gun? on the back like d-30 ...
      2. zanoza
        zanoza 19 November 2015 13: 00
        Happy RV and A! drinks drinks drinks good
      3. Andrey Yuryevich
        Andrey Yuryevich 19 November 2015 13: 31
        Well, gods of war, sin for you does not shrug! Happy Friends!
    2. Lord of the Sith
      Lord of the Sith 19 November 2015 11: 05
      Happy Holiday! I’ll drink today for my grandfather, who with his ZIS-3 reached Berlin. drinks
  2. Mikhail m
    Mikhail m 19 November 2015 06: 11
    Happy holiday, colleagues! Good luck in the service! New and effective weapons!
    1. silinigo
      silinigo 19 November 2015 13: 07
      Happy Holidays !! Horned .. no offense .. Health .. Happiness !!
  3. Vladimyrych
    Vladimyrych 19 November 2015 06: 11
    Artillery God of War! Happy Holiday !!!

    1. Secta haki
      Secta haki 19 November 2015 06: 56
  4. Tatar 174
    Tatar 174 19 November 2015 06: 13
    Happy holiday, fellow gunners!
  5. magician
    magician 19 November 2015 06: 18
    Happy holiday rocket launchers! drinks
    1. Tatyana
      Tatyana 19 November 2015 07: 01
      And with the holiday gunners too! love
      All of you happiness, good health and only VICTORY soldier over the enemy!
    2. The comment was deleted.
  6. parusnik
    parusnik 19 November 2015 06: 21
    Burning in our hearts is love for our dear land,
    We are going into a mortal battle for the honor of our native country.
    Cities burning in smoke
    The harsh god of war thunders in gray forests.

    Gunners, Stalin gave the order!
    Artillerymen, calling the Motherland of us!
    And hundreds of thousands of batteries
    For the tears of our mothers,
    For our Motherland - fire! The fire!

    Find out, dear mother, find out the wife-friend,
    Find out the distant house and my whole family
    What hits and burns the enemy is our steel blizzard,
    What will we carry to our native lands!


    The victory will strike the hour, the campaign will end.
    But before you go to your family’s homes,
    In honor of our Leader, in honor of our people
    We will give a salute in the victorious hour!

    Gunners, Stalin gave the order!
    Artillerymen, calling the Motherland of us!
    And hundreds of thousands of batteries
    For the tears of our mothers,
    For our Motherland - fire! The fire!

    Happy Holidays! drinks
    1. avt
      avt 19 November 2015 08: 40
      Quote: parusnik
      Happy Holidays!

      drinks Along the wide collective farm road
      In Moscow large areas
      We pass through an avalanche of terrible
      We are ready for battle.

      Gunners, or rather a sight!
      Scout Zorok, gunner dared
      We say to the enemy: "Don't touch our Motherland!
      And then we will open a crushing fire! "

      We walk among the golden fields
      And the young fighters sing
      Artillery song voiced
      You sound like a salute!


      To protect freedom and peace
      There are grenades, shrapnel is ready.
      Our guns and our mortars
      They hit the target without a miss.


      If the enemy wants to break through to us,
      The battle will come.
      Fighting heroically for the motherland
      There will be all numbers.


      Fast grip and clear work
      Artillery is our pride.
      Our cavalry, our infantry
      We will always help.


      Our tanks will pave the way
      Our guns are fighting fire.
      Enemy will destroy power to the ground
      Terrible shaft of fire.


      We walk among the golden fields
      And the young men sing
      The sonorous song of the gunners,
      You sound like a salute.
    2. 2s1122
      2s1122 19 November 2015 10: 04
      Great song. Dedicated to the gods of war, the intelligentsia of the armed forces and the owners of a long arm. drinks
  7. Sasha75
    Sasha75 19 November 2015 06: 21
    Happy holiday.
  8. Miha86
    Miha86 19 November 2015 06: 21
    Happy holiday to all gunners and rocket launchers.
  9. The comment was deleted.
  10. staryivoin
    staryivoin 19 November 2015 06: 27
    Happy Gods of War !!! And successful development of new types of equipment! To make the "possible adversary" jealous of your OPPORTUNITIES!
  11. aszzz888
    aszzz888 19 November 2015 06: 27
    Have a bright holiday and you!
    Congratulations! love
    My uncle passed the second half of the Second World War in the artillery of the reserve of the Headquarters of the Supreme Commander.
    And this reserve gave the unchurched opportunity to quickly meet with their ancestors in heaven!

    Once again with the holiday !!! soldier
  12. Vityok
    Vityok 19 November 2015 06: 30
    With the HOLIDAY of all artillerymen and rocket launchers! love For you drinks !!!
  13. a.hamster55
    a.hamster55 19 November 2015 06: 37
    Cum-clean the trunk! Not finished, change position! Happy Holidays!
  14. 4Bas
    4Bas 19 November 2015 06: 37
    Happy Gods of War!
    385 guards Art Brig.
  15. viktor561
    viktor561 19 November 2015 06: 41
    Happy holiday drinks Do not confuse the warhead on the "Caliber" - otherwise you will smash half of Syria with joy fellow
  16. Masya masya
    Masya masya 19 November 2015 06: 44
    I scored a shell in a gun tight
    And I thought: I'll treat a friend!
    Wait, brother Monsieur!
    What a trick, perhaps for battle
    We’re going to break the wall
    We will stand head and shoulders
    For his homeland!
    Happy Holidays! love
  17. Volga Cossack
    Volga Cossack 19 November 2015 06: 45
    Participants - Happy Holiday !!!! Good Service!
  18. moskowit
    moskowit 19 November 2015 06: 48
    Happy holiday gunners! Health to all involved in this glorious army.
    My father, a career artilleryman who went through the whole war, always proclaimed a toast: "To the Glory of the Russian artillery!"
  19. kurs66
    kurs66 19 November 2015 06: 49
    Gunners happy holiday !!! Peaceful sky above your head and all the best !!!
  20. Signaller
    Signaller 19 November 2015 06: 56
    Happy holiday rocket men and gunners. I remember during the years of service in the GSVG in the rocket brigade I took a festive order about this day. And then look at the parade ground, parade. Yes, bad luck often happened, the brigade at the training ground, but only the management company in part. This is hard work, the guys from the divisions that drove the Skuds and controlled them, generally spent more time at the training ground than in the barracks. Happy holiday again.
  21. pvv113
    pvv113 19 November 2015 07: 11
    Happy Holiday, Gods of War!
  22. NEXUS
    NEXUS 19 November 2015 07: 14
    I join the congratulations to the "Gods of War" soldier Sarmatians, Frontiers and Iskanders to help you! WITH A HOLIDAY, ARTA!
  23. SAM 5
    SAM 5 19 November 2015 07: 17
    For artillery! drinks Hooray!
  24. Anatole Klim
    Anatole Klim 19 November 2015 07: 22
    I remembered the first time I shot from a cannon, it was a simple direct-fire shooting from the T-12 at the Totsky training ground, and I hit the target, how much joy and pride there was, I became a real gunner. Happy holiday to all of you!
  25. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 19 November 2015 07: 31
    Happy holiday, Gunners and Rocketeers! Happy holiday, Russian Warriors !!!
  26. I am Russian
    I am Russian 19 November 2015 07: 34
    Happy holiday !!!!
  27. hohryakov066
    hohryakov066 19 November 2015 07: 42
    Happy holiday! Black epaulets and golden trunks!
  28. s.melioxin
    s.melioxin 19 November 2015 07: 43
    Happy holiday to all of you, dear colleagues, especially military unit 47573. Husband and happy holiday!
  29. tommy717
    tommy717 19 November 2015 07: 55
    And my black and gold cadet epaulettes lie at home in a box with subsequent officers. Oh brothers! Happy holiday! Tonight I will raise a toast for you and for my youth in boots.
  30. hartlend
    hartlend 19 November 2015 08: 07
    Today is my professional holiday. Happy holiday to all!
  31. shimus
    shimus 19 November 2015 08: 35
    Happy Gods of War! The gunners are GOOD!
    As one of the heroes of the film "DMB" said: "Maybe bang?", To which an experienced military man replied: "Bang, we will certainly bang, but then!"
    So, let’s say that the artillery would plow, but only at the training grounds! Well, if it’s in battle, then what’s BABAHALA, but louder!
    And tonight, at the festive table, 100 grams of "Fugitive FIRE !!!"
  32. EvgNik
    EvgNik 19 November 2015 08: 39
    Happy holiday to everyone who has served and is serving in the missile defense! 67-69th years (my years of service). As well as all the rocket and artillerymen!
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 19 November 2015 12: 17
      Quote: EvgNik
      Happy holiday to everyone who has served and is serving in the missile defense! 67-69th years (my years of service). As well as all the rocket and artillerymen!

      Personal holiday greetings. I replaced you.
  33. Amurets
    Amurets 19 November 2015 08: 40
    Happy holiday artillerymen and rocket launchers! Especially Rodnaya military unit 31458. Served 1969-1971 in the 2nd until the renaming of the 5th after renaming the division of the station of Mylka near Amursk.
  34. Fat
    Fat 19 November 2015 08: 54
    77-79 GSVG with a holiday men drinks
    1. stabskapitan
      stabskapitan 19 November 2015 09: 57
      Oh, I studied this rocket. wink drinks
      1. glotich
        glotich 19 November 2015 22: 45
        And I pulled from Scud! Thing! Happy Holidays!
  35. ilyaches
    ilyaches 19 November 2015 09: 02
    Happy holiday men. All the best and good luck. soldier
  36. alex67
    alex67 19 November 2015 09: 18
    soldier love drinks
    Gods of war with a holiday!
    health and good luck!
  37. Robert Nevsky
    Robert Nevsky 19 November 2015 09: 23
    HAPPY HOLIDAY! It was interesting to read about unicorns. soldier
  38. Stalnov I.P.
    Stalnov I.P. 19 November 2015 09: 24
    Let every YOUR shell and rocket lie right on target. I have the honor for ALL of YOU. HOLIDAY !!!
  39. Scud
    Scud 19 November 2015 09: 41
    Belarus, in; h 56000 of all missile and artillerymen with a holiday. Schaub deftly bulo in front. Good luck. !!!
  40. bbss
    bbss 19 November 2015 10: 01
    Congratulations to all the artillerymen and rocket launchers in general, and in particular the counterparts in the Air Defense Forces of the Country.
  41. anfreezer
    anfreezer 19 November 2015 10: 15
    Happy Holidays to you Rocketeers and Gunners !!! If today there are no guns nearby, then let there be a twenty-fold volley of champagne bottles (for starters wink ).. drinks
  42. Roy
    Roy 19 November 2015 10: 31
    Glorious Holiday. We have always been proud of our artillery. And she always proved it in practice.
    Happy Holidays, dear artillery friends!
  43. Nikita Gromov
    Nikita Gromov 19 November 2015 10: 36
    Gunners - The Supreme gave the order,
    Gunners - Calling the Fatherland of Us!
    Happy Holidays, friends!
  44. GOgaRu
    GOgaRu 19 November 2015 10: 45
  45. tolancop
    tolancop 19 November 2015 10: 53
    All Russian gunners - with a holiday.

    ".. The" unicorn "chamber had a conical shape. The new shape of the chamber made it possible to make the barrel length longer, which made it possible to significantly increase the firing range ..."
    It's strange. I from the "Book of Future Commanders" believed that the conical shape of the chamber provided a tight fit of the core to reduce the amount of escaping gases (the efficiency of the powder charge increased), and not the barrel lengthening. And on wise thinking, the "old" version looks more reasonable.
  46. sub307
    sub307 19 November 2015 10: 53
    I join in all the congratulations! Congratulations on the "gods of war" holiday and ... dry powder for you, and ... the absence of "dry wood" after the holiday.
  47. Andrew 447
    Andrew 447 19 November 2015 10: 59
    Happy holiday to all gunners and rocket launchers !!!
  48. SOB
    SOB 19 November 2015 11: 11
    Joining the congratulations! Without you, gunners, nowhere.
  49. Georg Shep
    Georg Shep 19 November 2015 11: 22
    Artillery is our pride and glory!
    Happy Holidays, dear comrades!
  50. babai591
    babai591 19 November 2015 11: 35
    Congratulations to all involved - acting and in stock !!!
    1. visitork67
      visitork67 19 November 2015 22: 06
      I agree. I will participate.