Military Review

Warriors of Culture "Funerary Urns Fields"

It has already been noted here that life is such a complex thing that absolutely everything in it is interconnected, like threads in a ball. Pull over one - followed by others. So it was with the theme of the Trojan War. Bronze age, like, what more? But ... it becomes interesting, and what was happening at the same time in the expanses of Siberia, where the unknown Seimin residents, the Turbins, moved from Altai to the north, and then to the west. What happened in the same England, where Stonehenge was built at about the same time, and the center of Europe still attracts attention - and what was there after the “culture of battle axes”?

Funerary urn. Museum Marburg, Hesse, Germany.

Let us first make a small chronological table of the most important events of this interesting era. Here it is, in front of you:
1. The end of the Mycenaean culture, which refers to the conditional date around 1200 BC. er
2. The destruction of Troy VI around 1200 BC. er
3. Battle of Ramses III with the "peoples of the sea", 1195 - 1190 BC. er
4. The end of the Hittite power 1180 BC. er
5. Philistine settlement in Palestine around 1170 BC. er

Well, what was at this time in Europe? And in Europe, somewhere from 1300 to 300 BC. er the whole territory from the Baltic coast to the Danube and from the Spree River to Volyn existed the so-called Pudzhitska culture, which is interesting for us, first of all, because its representatives somehow suddenly changed very quickly ... all their funeral rites! Before that, in the vastness of the East European Plain there existed cultures of the disposition - the pit (corpse in the pit), the log (corpse in the log of logs), the catacomb (the corpse in a special burial chamber). And then suddenly - r-aaaz, and the corpses of the departed began to be subjected to cremation, and what was left of it, put in a large earthen vessel and bury. Without any mound, mound or mound, although before that mounds and poured. And the first mystery - why would it? What is (if, of course, to exclude Atlantes and aliens from outer space) was to happen in the society of that time in order to change so radically from people the most inert that they have in their spiritual culture - attitude to the dead ?!

Warriors of Culture "Funerary Urns Fields"

Map of the culture of the "burial urn fields".

That is, the entire area of ​​the previously existing culture of kurgan burials suddenly reformed the funeral rite, and in just one or two hundred years, and then spread throughout Europe, and it was no longer a Pomeranian culture as such, but a single culture of cremation of the departed. The area of ​​its distribution was a very vast territory from Western Ukraine to eastern France, and this culture was called the culture of the “burial urn fields”.

Schematic representation of the cultures of the Late Bronze Age of Europe, around 1200 BC. e .: luzhitskaya culture (purple), culture Terramar (blue), central culture of fields of burial urns (red), northern KPPU (orange), Knovizskaya culture (purple), Danube cultures (brown), atlantic bronze (green), nordic bronze (yellow).

In the name of the culture, its characteristic feature played a role - the presence of burial grounds without embankments. If such a burial is unearthed, then clay vessels can be found in the grave, in which there are remains of death burnings and ... everything! It has been established that its occurrence is associated with the Lusatian area, and the area is relatively small. But as the inhabitants of this region brought their funeral rites to other places and inspired them to the inhabitants, that “it is necessary so, but not as before!” That its inhabitants made long hikes, conquered and settled all the lands from the Baltic Sea to the south, through Alps and to the modern Adriatic and the Apennines? Or did they specifically send emissaries who carried the truth about the proper burial to the nations ?!

Reconstruction of settlement luzhkoy culture. Museum in Biskupin. Poland.

American historian Robert Drews suggested that the observed cultural changes may be the result of new methods of warfare, based not on the use of chariots, but on the dominance of infantry warriors armed with long spears and the same long slashing swords. This change caused political instability associated with the emergence of these new troops, where war chariots were the basis of the armies, and this instability, in turn, led to the fall of the ruling dynasties and entire states. And if earlier there was a caste of warriors who fought with wooden handles with piercing swords, which they needed to be able to fight, now they have been replaced by “armed people” armed with Naue Type II swords. This sword, which appeared in the eastern Alps and Carpathians around 1200 BC. e., quickly spread throughout Europe and became the only type of sword in the XI century. BC er But the blades of such swords bent. Therefore, very soon bronze was replaced by iron with little or no change in the design of the blade, but the handle of the sword was cast bronze. At the end of the era of the fields of the burial urns, that is, in the Hallstatt period, swords reached the length of 80-100, that is, they became extremely powerful weaponsable to do away with any adversary.

Sword culture "fields of burial urns," found in the river. Museum in the castle in Linz (Upper Austria). This is quite a military weapon, as indicated by the presence of a counterweight on the handle.

The shape of their arms differed depending on the region, so that several types of them are distinguished, each of which has its own characteristics. They also acquired great importance spears, which were apparently armed proto-hoplites. It is not for nothing that Homer uses the word “spears” as a synonym for the word “warrior,” which indicates an increase in the number of spears during his war. Warriors with large shields and long spears, capable of repelling massive chariot attacks, could defeat states whose armies were based on the use of chariots by the military elite of society, while ordinary tillers and hunters were excommunicated from professional military affairs.

Bronze swords from Hungary in the British Museum.

Other scientists consider this approach to be somewhat superficial, but ... the culture of the fields of the burial urns at the end of the Bronze Age painfully unexpectedly appeared. And very soon, its carriers seized, in addition, also iron metallurgy - the production of iron weapons and labor tools. Well, some time later in Europe, burial grounds began to appear in which the burials of the burned ashes were found, but without urns, that is, they were considered redundant!

Sword from the city museum of Welz (Upper Austria).

As a Czech archaeologist of the second half of the 20th century, Jan Filipp writes about this time: “The culture of the fields of the burial urns unexpectedly emerged at the turn of the second and first millennia in a large part of the Danube region and in the south German region of kurgan burials, as well as in northwestern France and Switzerland . Everywhere we find burn burns, we notice similar cultural equipment everywhere. ”

Bronze tips of spears from the fields of burial urns. (1400 - 750 BC) and Hallstatt Culture (750 - 250 BC). Museum in Carinthia, Austria.

From the data of the Czech historian, it is necessary to single out the information that with the replacement of the Kurgan culture with the culture of the burial urns, the approach to the selection of a place for settlements has changed significantly. The new culture has become, above all, characterized by such characteristic features in the organization of settlements as security from attacks. That is, they were all located in places convenient for protection. And the settlements themselves were also strengthened by ramparts made of stones or logs. On the other hand, many areas were deserted and it is not clear why, although judging by the findings, people lived here before. Lived, but with the advent of iron tools left their homes and left! Where are the people gone in the beginning of the Iron Age? Unknown!

This is how the burial of the culture of the fields of burial urns looked like.

On the other hand, simultaneously with the formation of the period of the burial fields in the urns, gold mining is also clearly progressing. Gold becomes an attribute of the highest nobility, and, importantly, it also acquires ceremonial value. All found burial grounds testify to the special position in the society of a man - that is, gold jewelry is found, first of all, in men's burials. They also find treasures of bronze items. They were buried because of their value, it is obvious. That is, the life of people on the territory of the “burial urn fields” was full of dangers, and taking care of hiding wealth on a “rainy day” was not a bad thing.

Many funerary urns. Museum Marburg, Hesse, Germany.

And here we have a causal relationship: a sudden, unjustified change of the funeral rite on a vast territory, on the one hand, and on the other, a clear increase of military activity on it, from which people tried to isolate themselves with shafts and walls.

But material - material, and how to explain such a sharp change in the funeral rite - a phenomenon related to spiritual culture? Scientists are trying to explain it by a dramatic change among the inhabitants of Europe of the concepts of life and earthly life and life after death. That is, it can be assumed that for some reason people of this culture have begun to believe that when the body is burned, the soul of the deceased quickly flies to the sky. That is, until it is his spirit gets out of the earth to the light of God (or even go to the dark underworld?). And then ... he put it on the fire, he poured oil on it, set it on fire and ... once or twice, and the soul, along with the smoke, flew right before your eyes to the sky. And you are standing with a long bronze sword at your belt and you think what else nearby settlement would be plundered!

Ancient fortification atop a hill in Burgsthalkogel, Austria.

"The order of deliverance from the departed is repeatedly perceived as one of the most peculiar customs of this or other people, which is especially firmly maintained for a long period of time." (G. Child) Such a quick break-up of people's consciousness is unthinkable, and yet it happened! What could force people so suddenly to change their ancestral habits? In addition, after some time, people returned to the old kurgan system. This "restoration" has captured large areas of Europe - from the Czech Republic to France. However, in archaeological finds, both forms of burial are now tracked, that is, pits with urns and barrows, too, with or without urns, side by side with each other.

By the way, why such attention to the cultures of the “burial urn fields” was given by a Czech archaeologist is understandable. After all, it was precisely on the territory of the Czech Republic that there was a Knozow culture close to Luszka, dating back to 1300 - 1050. BC er

A characteristic feature of it was the development of blacksmithing. For example, the vessels there were made of forged bronze sheet. In the river Vltava, they found a sword, the handle of which was decorated with volutes. But also found signs of cannibalism. Alas, not only the naked tropical savages ate each other. Civilized, of course, in their own manners, the Europeans of the Bronze Age also dealt with this matter, but for what purpose it is difficult to say.

The easiest helmet of the Bronze Age. "Funeral urn fields".

The end of the era of burial urns fields came in the VIII century. and was again connected with the relocation to Europe of new masses of newcomers, both from the north, and those that went through the Black Sea Steppe Corridor.

Entrance to the Museum of Pudzha architecture and life in Biskupin. Poland.

Museum of Pudzha architecture and life in Biskupin. Poland. This is how the ancient settlement had a wall.

Well, and finally, what does the author himself think about all these changes, both in the material and spiritual culture of the people of this time? What if culture then (the culture of people in general) was much higher than we used to consider it. That people did not isolate themselves in their close world of the clan-tribe, chicken coop and barn, but they knew and understood that they belong to a powerful human race that controls the world around them and ... that other people are also people, even if they speak an incomprehensible language . Yes, they can serve as an object of trouble (when robbing you!), But also an object of increasing your own well-being, when you rob them! But at the same time there were some sacred prohibitions on the killing of travelers and merchants. Perhaps there was a cult of commerce dedicated to the traditions, and there were clans of translators, reconnaissance travelers, ambassadors, and merchants who carried out long hikes and enjoyed the right of immunity.

Religion was solar, that is, solar, as evidenced by symbols on ceramics and ornaments. And they had their own prophets and messiahs, no less significant than the Buddha, Christ and Mahomet, whose ideas were imposed (or transferred!) To other nations not only by force, but also by example. But there was no written language (which means they had both excellent storytellers and compilers of oral works). Different languages ​​were not an obstacle to communication, as well as language differences among the Indians of North America. They communicated using the language of signs, which helped to establish communication between people who lived thousands of miles apart. However, only the sword and his personal physical culture made him free. The lot of those who "did not meet the requirements of the time" could be slavery, and even something worse ...
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 23 November 2015 08: 00
    Jan Philippe: “The culture of the fields of funeral urns suddenly appeared at the turn of the second and first millennia in a large part of the Danube and in the southern German region of burial mounds, as well as in the northwestern part of France and Switzerland. ... Here is such an unexpected emergence of cultures and sometimes surprises .. And this applies not only to the culture of "fields of funeral urns" ... Thank you, very interesting ..
    1. andrew42
      andrew42 23 November 2015 14: 10
      As far as I understand, the area of ​​"the culture of the fields of burial urns" overlaps in time and territory at the epicenter of the spread of the early Celtic ethnic community. Moreover, it should be noted that the Cimmerians (who were kicked out of the Northern Black Sea region, most likely these same "Celts"), and the Scythians who later returned to the Northern Black Sea region, despite the cliché of a "semi-nomadic / nomadic way of life", nevertheless bother with labor-intensive burials (Yamnaya, Srubnaya, Catacomb culture of KURGAN burials). But the Celts "unnoticed in their wandering" did not take a steam bath, but simply burned the ashes and buried them, even WITHOUT urns. This speaks of the amazing mobility and speed of the spread of this culture. There is a stereotype of behavior during large-scale conquests. I believe that it was these "comrades" who gave birth to the ancestors of the Gauls to the southwest, the Achaeans to the Balkans, and then the "peoples of the sea" to Egypt. Without significant use of chariots, long shields and spears, the first "elongated" swords - the equipment was strikingly different from the "Scythian chariots with bronze axes". And yes, where in a later period "for an infinitely long" urns with ashes were used - of course in the culture of ancient Greece, by the gentlemen-descendants of the Achaean conquerors.
  2. V.ic
    V.ic 23 November 2015 08: 29
    Religion was skaSolar, that is, Solar, Author Vyacheslav Shpakovsky

    Does vector religion exist? Dear author, religion was "solar", that is, solar.
    1. kalibr
      23 November 2015 08: 51
      Yes, here you are right, I don’t understand how I wrote it. Plus to you, Victor, for your attention!
  3. Bashibuzuk
    Bashibuzuk 23 November 2015 08: 40
    "..Religion was scalar, that is, solar .."
    I wouldn’t have met such turns before and wouldn’t have paid attention.
    But why scalar? A scalar is a concept from physics.
    And the solar religion is solar.
    Error correction sometimes works wonders.
    Very informative material. Especially according to the classification of crops.
    Suddenly, for himself, he discovered that the Lusatian culture and mythical Berendey Russia is one and the same thing - pile settlements with long houses.
    You do not know, honestly, where you find where you lose.
    And the technology and design of the swords amazed me - this is clearly not a hundred or two hundred years of blacksmithing. This is half a millennium, at least.
    Well-developed lines, the katana will envy.
    1. kalibr
      23 November 2015 08: 53
      Quote: Bashibuzuk
      And the solar religion is solar.

      I'm sorry - I will improve. After all, when I was writing and reading, I was reading "solar".
      As for the lines of swords, this is the end of the bronze. Great experience and skill have been accumulated. Here it is.
  4. Riv
    Riv 23 November 2015 09: 35
    Scalar religion also surprised. Well here already corrected. And as for the rest ... It’s ridiculous for us, brother, to turn on the brains.

    We are looking at the reconstruction of the fort of Ludza culture. What are the conclusions? First: such fortresses are not built from nothing to do. After all, this is how much work you need to spend to make logs on the islet, to erect a palisade, to put houses close to it ... The palisade covers even from the side of the water. At that time - an impregnable fortress even for the Roman legion. Obviously, the locals were seriously threatened, and the enemy besides the army also had a sufficient number of ships and came so often that it was easier to live outside the walls. Neighbors? People of the sea (well swam far away, yes - uncles were tempered)? Some analogue of the Vikings?
    Note: diseases in such a fort should have spread with lightning speed. One sneezed - tomorrow the whole tribe is in snot. In general, this time could probably even be called the "era of snot". :)

    The second conclusion: in a limited space there simply was no place for a cemetery. And the dead must be put somewhere. With slaves it’s simple: he tied a stone to his feet and threw it into the water. There will be more fish. But free people cannot be disposed of like that. It is worth remembering that the enemy always first of all sought to desecrate cemeteries, that is, the burial should have been not only compact, but also secret.

    Now the hypothesis: you have a lot of dead people who died not in battle, but from illness (well, there are military losses too). What to do with them? Well of course burn it. It was believed that fire cleanses. Ashes in a pot and bury. Enemies will not find. What is surprising that such a practical approach has found distribution in neighboring settlements? The ancients were generally very practical people.
    The second hypothesis: remember that the Greeks also burned their dead. The custom is probably as old as the epidemics. Could merchants and robbers bring custom into Europe? Could of course. The locals, having looked at it, tested it at home. Great One, it turned out! The quick destruction of the corpses was probably to reduce the incidence in the settlements. Well, if so, then the gods would like it.

    Summing up: there was a certain global threat that forced people to move to sufficiently large areas under the protection of the walls. All other joys in the form of hunger and epidemics were attached. Burial of ashes in an urn is a practical attempt to solve these problems. And the disappearance of culture was obviously associated again with a change in lifestyle. Local learned to make good weapons and armor. It became dangerous to attack them. Moreover: for sure, they themselves began to pinch their neighbors little by little. Well, a professional warrior wanted to show off after death. The clay pot was not enough for him.
    1. kalibr
      23 November 2015 09: 46
      Quote: Riv
      Summing up: there was a certain global threat that forced people to move to sufficiently large areas under the protection of the walls. All other joys in the form of hunger and epidemics were attached. Burial of ashes in an urn is a practical attempt to solve these problems. And the disappearance of culture was obviously associated again with a change in lifestyle. Local learned to make good weapons and armor. It became dangerous to attack them. Moreover: for sure, they themselves began to pinch their neighbors little by little. Well, a professional warrior wanted to show off after death. The clay pot was not enough for him.

      Everything is very logical. You are well done! And the "era of snot" is generally wonderful! It will be necessary to use this name of yours. Do not you mind?
      1. Bashibuzuk
        Bashibuzuk 23 November 2015 10: 40
        It inspired me. Age of snot - a find!
        One question remains - who are these unknown enemies who so professionally cut through the water and were able to attack forts from puddles and swamps?
        Until we find out, I won’t sleep.
        With whom ?, a question (I can’t forget the film in any way, Taiga border).
        Among other things, the iron culture from the swamps could have gone, to get the critical iron - to blow out a couple of snot. And, dropping into water - to discover the property of hardening.
        Swamps of Polesie, Kursk Magnetic Anomaly, swamps of the Desna and Oka - they themselves are for the manufacture of iron weapons and guns.
        Well, with iron weapons against bronze, but bending - God himself ordered to speak.
        And win.
        And the mounds, for the second time, are forced to pour women and children from the vanquished.
        Is it logical
        1. kalibr
          23 November 2015 10: 53
          Yes, it’s quite logical. In fact, the following materials are planned as a development of this topic. What you write is very interesting. We need to see how this connects with my material. But in general - why not?
          1. Riv
            Riv 23 November 2015 11: 16
            Use it to your health. What kind of copyright can it be? Actually "the era of diarrhea" is also suitable. The inhabitants of the fort, in the then state of hygiene, wore farther than they saw. But the human body gets along with bacteria more easily than with viruses, so the locals, presumably, have got used to it.

            What enemies? Well they were. Just like that, no one will build a stockade. Most likely, everything was decided trivially, at the level of local leaders. Two united against the third, another just joined the robbery - and went war. Moreover, a tribe capable of building a solid fort, by definition, must accumulate many enemies. Eastern Europe is rich in rivers and swamps. A river in winter is the same road, and in summer too, if there are boats. In Russia for hundreds of kilometers in the winter on the rivers went hiking. It might well have turned out that even then the ancestors of the Slavs were annoying the Poles.

            Rapid progress in weapons matters is also trivial. To build such a fortress - you need a lot of tools. That is, local blacksmiths quickly gained experience. And with experience - why not forge a sword? In fact, it is much easier than a steel fishing hook to do.
            In general, the progress of weapons is stimulated by just successful defense. If attacked and won, then there is no need to change weapons. If you are robbed, then the question is removed for the death of the robber. But if you attacked you and somehow fought off, then you will involuntarily think about what else can be opposed to the enemy. What five hundred years are there? Two generations of life would be enough.
            1. Gomunkul
              Gomunkul 23 November 2015 12: 34
              The spread of a new burial culture may have been associated with the arrival of new peoples on these territories, i.e. war, the victors settled the conquered territory of the vanquished.
              According to the fort, in my opinion, this defensive structure is not a city settlement, but a military one (possibly borderline), because lack of infrastructure for civilians. And from the water side, the presence of the wall can speak not only about the possibility of an attack on ships, but also that the river froze in winter.
              Thanks to the author for interesting material. hi
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    2. brn521
      brn521 23 November 2015 12: 08
      Quote: Riv
      What is surprising that such a practical approach has found distribution in neighboring settlements? The ancients were generally very practical people.

      On the contrary, burning corpses is an additional problem. The same firewood needs a lot, they still need to be collected or chopped. And after burning, anyway, digging around in the ground and filling up the remains - in the mound (so that they would not be found and not plundered, yes :)), in a pot, or just like that in a bunch without registration - there are different graves. It is much easier to immediately dig a 1x2m hole or a common burial ground. The effect is the same - the corpse is disposed of, the time and labor costs are much less. For example, the Velatice fortified settlement in Blučín near Brno. They also burned the corpses. But when the corpses suddenly sharply increased (about 200) - archaeologists believe that these are not local, some raiders were killed - they just buried them. So here it is not a rational approach, but just a special kind of cockroaches in the head. You have to burn your own. Take the same Indians who at all costs sought their corpses, if not burned, then at least slightly charred and sent to sail along the Ganges. And the enemy can be so buried.
      1. Bashibuzuk
        Bashibuzuk 23 November 2015 12: 34
        I thought here .... but how can I burn a corpse in a pile settlement.
        There is not enough space, and there’s also additional firewood to cook.
        And on the other hand, do not store the corpses, waiting for the adversary to be removed. Then still harness the people to dig all sorts of holes, and the design of the graves. And so that it was visible, and so that the enemies did not go out of steam.
        Well, what are your thoughts?
        Simple - a forge at hand.
        Since a forge is a kind of bellows for blowing, it is necessary to attend, otherwise you won’t melt iron and you won’t get steel.
        And since there is a blow, it means that the temperature is much higher.
        Fire, again, a shrine, warming, nursing. Well defensive. And Burning if gape.
        I thought that the bodies were burned, maybe, right at the forges. Come up with a grate, just above the hearth, so that the stench drives away upstairs, but know yourself to blow it.
        And the question at once is whether during blowing (for corpses) they redistributed iron to steel, or vice versa.
        And since then, the attitude to blacksmiths as dangerous people - they are known with witchcraft, and they themselves are practically the worst ones, and even corpse burners.
        Well, at least, they’ve mastered safety precautions.
        Clearly away from housing you need to place them.
        What is so entrenched in generations.
        Who has any thoughts?
        1. a housewife
          a housewife 23 November 2015 13: 02
          About the blacksmiths - it’s interesting, that is, the blacksmith’s is at the same time an ancient crematorium. Than burn, in the sense of firewood, since there were much more forests in Europe then, there was taiga. And how in these countries could they fight on chariots, as the article says? I don’t remember that chariots in the center of Europe were mentioned somewhere. By the way, the figure should have indicated the Luzhitsky culture in purple. And where?
          1. kalibr
            23 November 2015 18: 26
            In the very center! Purple is not red! In Heraldry, it's almost a blue color!
        2. The comment was deleted.
        3. Riv
          Riv 23 November 2015 13: 05
          A kind of crematorium? In principle, if the wood is dry, the temperature allowed. But the furs were not really needed here, enough stove draft. Were there any fortifications on the territories or near the stoves with abnormally high (above 5 meters) chimneys? They really should have looked like screaming ones.
          1. Bashibuzuk
            Bashibuzuk 23 November 2015 15: 14
            Somehow I got into the hands of a publication.
            And I don’t even remember - whether the book is on the Internet, how else.
            So there was described precisely the mass finding of primitive blast furnaces (you cannot call them furnaces) in the area of ​​the swamps of the Oryol woodland, Desna. And from the Desna, a tributary of the Dnieper - Belarusian Polesie. The main body of the Kursk magnetic anomaly is located in the Oryol woodland. And "metastases" on the sides.
            So there the theory of producing raw-iron was outlined. We take swamp sludge, lay out the hearth, use it, use it, then fill it with new raw materials - the result is an ingot of iron. Of such a type. Ie they received not cast iron, but immediately raw iron.
            Then this iron had to be forged for a long, long time, removing toxins, until something suitable for crafts was obtained.
            I don’t remember the subtleties, but the main thing was postponed.
            In our conditions, hope for meteorite iron is not necessary. But the swamp ore - the shaft.
            About burning.
            I suppose that if they burned, then not so much for saving the forest, but for fire-fighting purposes. It refers to pile settlements.
            Agree that burning in a house standing in a swamp is not the best share.
            And since the smithy rumbles, blazes from morning to evening, so that the resource is wasted in vain. Let's pop unnecessary, or especially expensive.
            1. Riv
              Riv 23 November 2015 19: 50
              Well, the deceased will definitely not fit into the forge.
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    3. Mikhail3
      Mikhail3 24 November 2015 09: 29
      Good reasoning, very logical. It can be seen that you are not a historian, so the logic is usually not peculiar :) I will add something. The emerging threat, because of which they began to build walls in large numbers? Most likely - the appearance of mobile units, cavalry clearly having high combat skills and a tendency to rob the weakest.
      Now about the "lightning change". During epidemics, there are mass graves, usually in one pit. Because people are dying out, and they are not like now, but very few. And how can the few survivors bury the dead? Burn everyone, supplying him with an urn? It's funny.
      People who are suddenly concerned about the epidemic threat that has not yet come to them, are massively changing their habits, and instead of cheaply burying, they suddenly start collecting heaps of firewood for burning? It’s a difficult and expensive operation. Mass consciousness? Even funnier ...
      But the new religion, which proclaimed the burning of privilege ... This is where much better fits into human psychology. Now, if in this way it would be possible to rise, grab another piece of power, influence, rise above not so rich and advanced neighbors ... You, poverty, buried old grandfather in the old way, and here I am, cool and rich, noble and great, my father burned with magnificent trizny, yeah!
      This is how "new trends" spread faster than forest fires.
      1. brn521
        brn521 24 November 2015 10: 25
        Quote: Mikhail3
        And here is a new religion, proclaiming the burning of privilege ...

        Only elements of priestly ritualism of that time come to mind. Altars and the burning of the victims were at the top of fashion. The Jews even seemed to have detached the whole knee in this matter. So the findings indicating cannibalism may well be from the same opera, so to speak, a logical development. Victims of the gods were rarely burned whole, usually certain parts were cut out and sacrificed, and everything else was eaten.
  5. Max repp
    Max repp 23 November 2015 09: 50
    Thanks to the author
  6. traveler
    traveler 23 November 2015 10: 26
    judging by the distribution area, these are the Celts.
    how about in the next article to compare the above weapons with the later Gallic and Galatian?
    1. IS-80
      IS-80 23 November 2015 10: 30
      Quote: traveler
      judging by the distribution area, these are the Celts.

      Initially, these are arias.
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. Turkir
        Turkir 23 November 2015 13: 05
        There is such an opinion -
        The culture of the fields of burial urns (KPPU), a characteristic feature of which was the rite of cremation with the placement of ashes in vessels (the Vyatichi and many other "Indo-Aryans" of Eastern Europe did the same).
        1. traveler
          traveler 23 November 2015 16: 45
          and Vyatichi as in the Indo-Arya?
      3. traveler
        traveler 23 November 2015 19: 38
        yeah, kipelov
    2. kalibr
      23 November 2015 10: 54
      It is believed that the protokelt culture. The Celts are still a bit later. That's exactly what is planned - ha! Just not soon the thing is done ...
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  8. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 23 November 2015 11: 33
    Somehow it didn’t work out correctly with the quote, so the words of the respected Riv are: ☆☆☆☆ Now the hypothesis: you have a lot of dead people who died not in battle, but from illness (well, there are military losses too). What to do with them? Well of course burn it. It was believed that fire cleanses. Ashes in a pot and bury. Enemies will not find. What is surprising that such a practical approach has found distribution in neighboring settlements? The ancients were generally very practical people.
    The second hypothesis: remember that the Greeks also burned their dead. The custom is probably as old as the epidemics. Could merchants and robbers bring custom into Europe? Could of course. The locals, having looked at it, tested it at home. Great One, it turned out! The quick destruction of the corpses was probably to reduce the incidence in the settlements. Well, if so, then the gods would like it. ☆☆☆☆☆
    When it comes to burial, the Greeks were pragmatists. Recall: the relief there is mountainous, the soil is rocky, especially on the islands and islets. And for burials you need a thick layer of EARTH. There is more than enough on the plains of Eurasia. But in Greece ... in general ... , of course. And for cremation you need --- trees! If they are. And if not, logs and boards from ships "out of use" and washed up on the shore will do. Little I had to live on the seashore in a house, where the stove was heated. There the sea often brought wreckage of boats and even whole trees --- the "sea" tree burns well. But in Tibet, for example, there are few trees --- you cannot cremate, there is no earth as such, pure water is a jewel , so there the funeral ceremony was completely different.
    Sincerely, Vyacheslav. Thank you for the article --- it clarifies a lot.
    1. Riv
      Riv 23 November 2015 12: 14
      Well, again: the poor Achaean, or slave, did not care where to lie. But noble warriors were buried in high quality, in the mounds. Not so much there was not enough land for them not to bury the king. Almost all archaeological finds of that era in the mounds are made. It rarely happened that the whole city was covered, like the same Pompeii. They burned the dead on campaigns, again: so that it was impossible to abuse the grave, and so as not to spread the infection if he died from an illness.

      And Tibet - there, too, is not a matter of land. A true Buddhist, after his death, must give his body to those who still live on earth. Well, it is clear that other Buddhists will not eat it, but stray dogs will do just fine. So they did (and they seem to be doing so far). Well, if you are absolutely holy, then you swear not to go to nirvana until even grass reaches it. It doesn’t matter here: dead or alive. So the Bodhisattvas also become. Then neither your dog will touch your corpse, nor even microbes.
      1. a housewife
        a housewife 23 November 2015 13: 12
        Are Buddhists in Tibet and India different? In India, they just burn it. So all the same, it is not a matter of religion, but of local conditions. The Chukchi had no conditions, you can’t dig a hole, there’s nothing to burn, but it’s spacious, but they just took the corpses away, they also cut clothes on them so that the animals could get there faster. And if the epidemic and the village died out, they were just left, they never went there again.
        1. Riv
          Riv 23 November 2015 14: 17
          The course of Buddhism is different, yes. But it's not that. In India, this custom existed when Buddhism was not even a trace.
          By the way: in ancient times in India, only people of the highest varnas, kshatras and brahmanas were burned. And then not everyone, but only deserved ones. Wives went to the bonfire in the kit. It is closer to our time, customs have become not so severe. For wives, sati became optional and every mob began to ask for a bonfire.
      2. Turkir
        Turkir 23 November 2015 13: 58
        But noble warriors were buried in high quality, in the mounds.

        According to haplogroups - R1a1 - they were burnt, R1b1 - were buried in mounds.
        Tru Buddhist is a term unfamiliar to me. Do not clarify its meaning?
        Zoroastrians - they did not bury or burn their dead, leaving their bodies to be eaten by birds in the towers of silence.
        1. Riv
          Riv 23 November 2015 14: 19
          True - "true". It's jargon. Tru -... someone really passionate about something. Usually used in an ironic sense.

          Haplogroups fit well into the hypothesis of an external threat. There is an invasion of "unknown peoples", and such migrations stretched out for decades, or even centuries. The locals build fortresses, the aliens slowly mingle with the natives. Or destroy - as it happens. Or they themselves perish. Time passes, some of the customs are forgotten, some are borrowed. Some of the aliens are promoted to the leader. They are buried in the mounds, according to their own custom and faith.

          Well, it never happened that a barrow was poured for everyone. Leader - higher, of course. Smaller warriors. Peisanam - a small pile of land on the grave. Slave was not supposed to do anything.
          1. Turkir
            Turkir 23 November 2015 15: 02
            Did you mean the English word "true"? A mixture of French and Nizhny Novgorod.
            If someone is really passionate about something, then what's the point of irony, that is, a hidden mockery? What is there to taunt here? I'm not very clear.
            It is very interesting to know which group of people uses this jargon?
            I write without irony, in what circles do they use?
            I ask just in case, so as not to accidentally get into trouble.
            I myself use only jargon (in spoken language, and not in written form) associated with computers and programming.
            1. Riv
              Riv 23 November 2015 20: 07
              And this, as far as I remember, came from music. Specifically: from rock. Norwegian black metal music stands out in a special direction. It is even believed that only Norwegians can play correct black metal. "True Norwegian Black Metal". Moreover, such a musician must lead an appropriate lifestyle: hooliganism, drinking, injecting drugs, desecrating churches and all that. Otherwise, not "true".
              Accordingly, these principles are perceived rather ironically by society.
    2. brn521
      brn521 23 November 2015 12: 27
      Quote: Reptiloid
      the relief there is mountainous, the soil --- rocky, especially on islands and islets.

      Quote: Reptiloid
      And for cremation we need --- trees! If they are

      It is believed that with those trees and soil in those days things were much better than now. If grass grows, then bushes and trees, then the stones go under the humus and the ground pretty quickly. For example, the landscape of the old stone cutter near my house went under the sod for 15 years.
  9. Glot
    Glot 23 November 2015 11: 55
    Good article. To the author plus. )))
  10. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 23 November 2015 14: 15
    [quote = housewife] Buddhists in Tibet and India are different?
    Of course, different, dear Housewife, Irina! Buddha spoke about this: the difference is in the valley and in the mountains. The funeral rites are also the same: in Tibet --- in the stomachs of animals, that is, they simply left in a secluded place, and animals and birds-- -they themselves will come and fly.
  11. Turkir
    Turkir 23 November 2015 14: 37
    Arab sources:
    Al-Dzhaygani the end of IX beginning of X centuries.
    Ibn Fadlan - circa 922
    Ibn-Rosta "The Book of Precious Jewels"
    Al-Masoudi "Washers of gold" (Golden meadows) 943-947
    Ibn Haukal 976-977 "The Book of Ways and States" - "Russia is a people who burns their dead"
    Everyone writes about the custom of the Rus to burn the dead.
    But the culture of the funeral urns - of course belongs to the Celts, Goths or Swedes. A wonderful, logically justified, conclusion, in which of course there is no place for the Russians, about which no one had ever heard of ... except the Arabs.
    The Celts are another matter.
    But the "pros" have now found another way out - the Russians are Vikings ...
    1. a housewife
      a housewife 23 November 2015 15: 59
      The Vikings in general, it seems, are not people, but ... I don’t even know, not the estate, like the Cossacks, but rather pirates? Also not really. They could be from different nations, but to live together, having a common occupation, not only robbery, but also agriculture and trade, and long journeys in search of new lands.
      1. kalibr
        23 November 2015 18: 52
        There is a very good film USSR-Norway "And trees grow on the stones" - look. Very good about the Vikings!
        1. Riv
          Riv 23 November 2015 20: 09
          For that matter, the very word "viking" meant "campaign for prey", or "campaign for victory". So they said: "went to the Viking." Like: not just went to rob, but also for glory.
        2. venaya
          venaya 23 November 2015 21: 58
          Turkir: ... the "pros" have now found another way out - Russ is a Vikings...
          a housewife: Vikings generally seems not people, and ... I don’t even know, not an estate like the Cossacks, but rather pirates? Also not really ...
          kalibr: There is a very good movie ...
          Cinema is indeed a very good form of propaganda (and Lenin also spoke about this). It is not for nothing that now that it is not a film, it is an outspoken fellow, something is being promoted, who else would understand why. Who was in Scandinavia, he could notice that there are chipped (young) rocks everywhere, it is very similar that the name of the peninsula comes from these chipped stones. And when you look at these Scandinavians, then they all have brown hair, I would even say white-blond, and they themselves are very much more like Belarusians. Another thing is that they have no land roads in the north at all, and therefore they go on their ships exclusively on the sea, as well as the Murmansk Pomors. In this regard, they have always had direct family ties with the Arkhangelsk Pomors, and the genetics from here completely converge with the genetics of the Arkhangelsk Pomors. The language is another matter: the last modification of the language of the Norwegians (in Russian - North-Putin) occurred only in 1905, and this language was mixed from various sources. Here, in addition to Russian roots, one can feel the influence of the languages ​​of the Turkic-Germanic tribes and even some Latin roots, hence the term "Vikings", which resembles the Latin term "victoria" - that is, the winners, possibly in raids on foreign sea coasts, which was often described, for example raids on the coast of France. The French language is sometimes called "cook's Latin", then it is not surprising and the nickname of these sea (Pomor) robbers. Someone disagrees with the fact that the word "viking" has more meaning of a nickname, and not the self-designation of nationality, please, I am open to a fruitful discussion. By the way, the question with the word "solar" also surprised me, in Russian the root word "sun worshipers" is more familiar, and in English there is an expression "Happy New Year" - which corresponds to "the happy new sun god Yar", a clear sign that the language had the roots of sun worshipers. And what is the point of using the terminology of the semi-African dialect of the Etruscan language (Latin) as the original one for its use in the Russian-language text of the article? Is this preparation of a text for its further translation into foreign languages?
          1. kalibr
            24 November 2015 08: 48
            Why translate what they already know? The word turned up under the arm and inserted. Who knows what's in our head? Have you never had this before? What the hell? If only under .... b! You still write about Russophobia! Uses foreign words !!!
  12. cth; fyn
    cth; fyn 23 November 2015 19: 28
    Pf, yes it’s understandable as God's day ... Zombies, yes, yes, I'm kidding with a serious look. Zombie!
    Well, judge for yourself in all the films about zombies you burn them, for the sake of fidelity, besides, the tattered bones seem to hint, and it’s good to chop off stupid boshko with long chopping swords, like mine, but only zombies. In addition, entire areas were depopulated, and palisades arose around the villages, a perfect picture of a zombie apocalypse. I still figured out the bedding, we diverge