Military Review

Battle of Salnitz: the progenitress of all victories of Russian weapons

57
Battle of Salnitz: the progenitress of all victories of Russian weapons



How Pereyaslavsky Prince Vladimir Monomah achieved the first global leadership success in stories Ancient Russia
In the history of Russian military victories for a long time the battle on Lake Peipsi, won by Alexander Nevsky, was considered the first and most famous. But where it would be fairer to consider - and today this is exactly what is considered! - the first major military success was the victory that 27 of March 1111 of the year was won by the combined squads of the Russian princes in the battle with the Polovtsi near the Salnitsa river.

This date was not by chance the first in chronology in the current list of Memorable dates of the military history of Russia. The victory won by the Russians under the leadership of Vladimir Monomakh, who at that time reigned in southern Pereyaslavl, the Grand Duke of Kiev Svyatopolk Izyaslavich and Chernigov Prince Davyd Svyatoslavich was a real military-political victory, which had far-reaching consequences and not just a successful outcome of a passing battle. After all, in order to cope with the superior forces of the Polovtsi (according to sources, they had at least one-and-a-half the advantage: 45 thousand nomads against 30 thousand Russian soldiers), Monomakh took several true leadership steps.

First, he implemented the principle of “beating the enemy on his territory with a little blood,” transferring his troops to the land controlled by the Polovtsy. Secondly, he used transport to ensure rapid delivery of infantry to the battlefield, without overworking it with the road. Third, he managed to turn even the weather into an ally, forcing the Polovtsy to fight at a time when nature itself prevented them from using all the advantages of cavalry.


"Vladimir Monomakh". Artist Ivan Bilibin

But not only Monomakh's leadership talents are famous for this victory. In order to gather sufficient forces, the Pereyaslavl prince managed to achieve the almost impossible - to unite the wayward princes, forcing them at least for a while to forget the civil strife! In addition, he managed to convince them to tear off even smerds from the ground, thereby strengthening the army, which traditionally consisted of professional warriors. Finally, Monomakh, who, as the Tale of Bygone Years says, “when traveling before the army, ordered the priests to sing the tropari, and the kondaki of the honest cross, and the canon of the holy Mother of God,” actually turned the campaign into a battle for the Orthodox faith.

Hit the enemy before him


The Russian-Polovtsian wars stretched for a century and a half - from the end of the XI century to the middle of the XIII. Regular successes of the Polovtsy (they were also called Kipchaks in Russia, and in Europe and Byzantium, Cumans) were also contributed by the disunity of the Russian princes.

The situation began to change after Monomakh took up the main business of his life - the gathering of Russian lands. After using diplomatic tricks and direct persuasion, he managed to achieve the holding of two unifying princely congresses (Lyubechsky and Uvetichesky), the strife in the east and west of Russia were stopped. The success of the Dolob Congress, which resulted in the first joint campaign of the Russian troops against the Polovtsy, marked the beginning of their gradual weakening.

But the success of the 1103 campaign of the year, planned at the Dolobskiy congress, only angered the Kipchaks. They undertook several campaigns, which, although they did not lead to great successes, did not allow Russia to re-gather strength and strike back. It took him eight years to prepare.

At the end of 1110, a subordinate of Monomakh, voivod Dmitry, with a small retinue, managed to get into the Polovtsian lands and find out the plans of the Kipchaks. The Polovtsi were preparing for a new offensive, in which almost all the main clans were to take part. This blow could be tried to reflect, as was always done, or to anticipate, unexpectedly inflicting its own.

It was this decision that Monomah made. Knowing perfectly well that it is always more difficult to repel a well-prepared offensive of the enemy, he decided to force the Polovtsy to swap roles with the Russians. But for this it was necessary to have time not only to gather an army, but also to make it large enough to inflict a decisive defeat on the nomads, and also to begin a campaign when the enemy does not expect an offensive.

Traditionally, both the Russians and the Polovtsi went to fight in the spring, when the mudslides ended and one could take full advantage of the cavalry. The latter was important for the Kipchaks: their army practically had no foot soldiers. It was on this and decided to play Monomah. He appointed a campaign for an unusually early date - the end of February. In addition to the fact that the nomads could not have expected the Russian army to take to the road at such an unusual time, this decision had another important goal. Even taking into account the fact that unhurried - due to the presence of foot troops - advancing deep into the Polovtsian lands will take a considerable time, by the time the rati converge on the battlefield, the earth will not have time to dry out. And this means that the Polovtsy will be deprived of its main advantage - the maneuverability and power of the cavalry, which will simply become bogged down in a snow and mud mash. This approach was completely new for the Russian generals, and it is precisely this that makes it possible to consider the battle of Salnits as the first real commander of ancient Rus.

Queen of the Fields - Infantry

But simply to deprive the enemy of the opportunity to fully use the advantages of his army is not enough, you still need to ensure your advantageous position. And this question Monomah decided, significantly increasing the number of foot soldiers. After all, if the Polovtsy could not fully use the cavalry, then it was precisely the infantry that was assigned the main role of millstones, which were supposed to grind the enemy army.


"Rest of Prince Vladimir Monomakh". Artist Victor Vasnetsov

Old Russian squad was a mixed army in which the ratio of equestrian and foot units were shifted towards the first. What is clear: the Russian warriors had to confront first of all the equestrian troops of the nomads, while the foot rats converged, as a rule, in the internecine battles of the princes. So, the basis of the Russian infantry of that time was the peasants, who had to be taken off the ground during the march. Therefore, the decision of Monomakh to strengthen the army at the expense of infantrymen met with resistance from the Allied princes and even his own squad. This is how the chroniclers describe it: “The squad said:“ It’s not time to destroy the smerds now, taking them from the arable land. ” And Vladimir said: “But it’s surprising to me, brother, that you feel sorry for the Smerds and their horses, and you don’t think that this spring will begin this plowing on that horse, and half of them, having arrived, will strike the smerd with an arrow and take the horse and the wife it, and the threshing floor will set it on fire. Why don't you think about that? " And the whole squad said: "Indeed, indeed it is." And Svyatopolk said: "Now, brother, I am ready (to go to the Polovtsy) with you."

Most likely, the matter here was not only in Monomakh's eloquence. Surely played the role of the early start of the campaign. After all, the end of winter is not the time when the peasants are seriously busy on the ground. It is much easier to get them out of their homes, equip and send in a campaign than in a month and a half.

And in order not to overstrain the infantrymen for a long time (in the end, it took almost a month!), The campaign to the main battle site, Monomakh, went for another innovation. Since the end of February in the XII century, due to the small ice age, was more severe and snowy than today, the foot soldiers were sent on a journey ... on sleds!

"And they went, putting hope in God ..."


Here's how the preparation for the march, the march itself and the battle of Salnitz are described in the Primary source of information about these events - in the Tale of Bygone Years: “In the year 6619 (1111. - RP.). God introduced Vladimir to the thought in his heart to urge his brother Svyatopolk to go to the pagans in the spring ... And they sent to Davyd Svyatoslavich, telling him to speak with them. And Vladimir and Svyatopolk rose from their seats, and said goodbye, and went to the Polovtsy Svyatopolk with their son Yaroslav, and Vladimir with their sons, and Davyd with his son. And they went away, putting hope in God and on his Most Holy Mother, and on his holy angels. And they marched on the second Sunday of Lent, and on Friday were on Sula. On Saturday, they reached Khorol, and the sleds were abandoned. And that Sunday they went when the cross was kissed. They came to Psel, and from there they crossed and stood on Golte. Then they waited for the soldiers, and from there they moved on to Vorskla and there on the next day, on Wednesday, they kissed the cross, and placed all their hope on the cross ... And from there they passed through many rivers in the sixth week of the fast. And went to the Don on Tuesday. And dressed in armor, and built shelves, and went to the city Sharukanyu ... And they went to the city in the evening, and on Sunday the townspeople came out ... to the Russian princes with a bow, and carried the fish and wine. And slept there the night. And the next day, on Wednesday, they went to Sugrov and set it on fire, and on Thursday they went to the Don; on Friday, the next day, March, 24 gathered the Polovtsi, built their shelves and went into battle. Our princes laid their hope on God and said: "Here we have death, let us be firm." And they said goodbye to each other and, turning their eyes to heaven, called upon the highest God. And when both sides came together, there was a fierce battle. The highest God turned his eyes on foreigners with anger, and they began to fall before Christians. And so were foreigners, and many enemies fell ... before the Russian princes and warriors ... And God helped the Russian princes. And they gave praise to God that day. And on the morning, on Saturday, they celebrated Lazarus Sunday, the Annunciation of the Day, and, giving praise to God, spent the Sabbath, and waited Sundays. On Monday, Holy Week, foreigners again gathered ... a lot of regiments ... and made ... thousands of thousands. And overlaid the Russian shelf. And the Lord God sent an angel to help the Russian princes. And the Polovtsy regiments and regiments of the Russians moved, and the regiment fought with the regiment ... And the fierce battle ensued between them ... And Vladimir began to attack with his regiments and Davyd, and, seeing this, the Polovtsi fled. And Polovtsy fell before the regiment of Vladimir, invisibly killed by an angel that many people saw, and heads flew to the ground, invisibly chopped off. And beat them on Monday of the Passion Month of March 27. Foreigners were beaten up ... set on the river Salnica. And God saved his people, Svyatopolk, and Vladimir, and Davyd glorified God, who had given them victory ... over the pagans, and took a lot of them, and cattle, and horses, and sheep, and captives took a lot ... And they asked the prisoners, saying: "How could such a force and such a multitude resist you and so quickly fled?" weapons and helped you? "It is only and can be angels sent from God to help Christians. It’s because the angel put into the heart ... Monomakh the idea to raise ... Russian princes to foreigners. ... Therefore, it is necessary to give praise to the angels, as John Chrysostom said: they always pray to the Creator to be merciful and meek towards people, for the angels ... our intercessors, when we fight with opposing forces ... So now, with God's help, through the prayers of the holy Mother of God and holy angels, the Russian princes returned to their people with glory, which came to sun ex distant countries - to the Greeks, to the Hungarians, the Poles and the Czechs, even Rome came to her ... "

For faith and fatherland


The chronicler, as he should be, was only a diligent registrar and paid more attention to the relationship between the princes among themselves, a literal description of events and, naturally, manifestations of God's favor towards the Russians. Behind the narrative brackets are the subtleties of the tactics of Monomakh, his allies, the princes and the governor, as well as the role that the campaign played in the unification of Russia and the strengthening of Orthodoxy.


"Vladimir Monomakh on the advice of princes." Artist Alexey Kivshenko

Tactically, the second, the main battle of the campaign - the Battle of Salnitz - was played flawlessly. After the Polovtsians, who had the advantage, surrounded the Russian regiments, planning to break up their ranks with massive shelling from bows, mix them up and hit the cavalry on them, the princes, on the advice of Monomakh, led the troops themselves to the offensive. As a result, the Polovtsians were already mixed up and were forced to leave their bows and attack the infantry. It was then that Vladimir’s intention worked: in the snow mixed with mud, the Polovtsian horses began to get bogged down, and the long spears of the Russian infantry negated the advantage of the Kipchaks who were beating with curved swords from above. And soon, the reserve regiment of Monomakh himself, who personally led him to the attack, collapsed on the Polovtsian cavalry that was stuck in a senseless hand-to-hand combat with the lancers, who transferred command of the slowly retreating, but still maintaining, peshim son to Yaropolk. The blow proved decisive: losing people and horses, the Kipchaks turned back, but few managed to escape the muddy ground. They lost no fewer than 10 people on the battlefield, 000 people, most were captured.

The victory played a crucial role in the implementation of the idea of ​​Monomakh about the unification of Russia. No wonder: the campaign elevated the authority of the Prince of Pereyaslav, who had shortly before ceded the throne of Kiev to his brother in order to avoid new wars, and achieved a sharp strengthening of the Russian principalities through peaceful coexistence, to an unattainable height. So two years after the victory, Monomakh, without any dispute, took the throne in Kiev and went down in history as the first peacemaker prince, who achieved the union of principalities and ceased internecine wars. And it was not his fault that the descendants, despising the Monomakh “Teaching”, failed to keep the united Russia in their hands, which the Horde khans took advantage of.

But another result of the campaign - the glorification and strengthening of the Orthodox faith - could not be shaken. And for the warriors of the princes-allies, and for commoners, it was undeniable that success was predetermined by the heavenly patrons of Russia. Such an obvious victory like nothing else contributed to the strengthening of Orthodoxy in Ancient Russia, its formation as a state religion. We add only that the legendary victory of 27 in March of 1111 of the year fell on the day of the Theodore Icon of the Mother of God, glorified as the keeper of Russian statehood.

Of course, it is now difficult to unequivocally assert that even such a far-sighted ruler, like Vladimir Monomakh, has foreseen all these consequences. But even if not, it is impossible not to pay tribute to his instinct, because the steps taken by him led to the most important results. Which ultimately made the Battle of Salnitsa the first famous victory of Russian weapons - the point from which we should count all the other victories, including on Lake Peipsi, and in the Battle of Kulikovo, and under Poltava, and under Borodino, right until the very victorious May 1945 th ...
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  1. blizart
    blizart 21 November 2015 08: 09 New
    +5
    Well, that’s all Sun Tzu, Sun Tzu. To lead an army deep into the territory of a very strong and aggressive enemy, it is necessary to have remarkable confidence, courage and faith.
    1. avt
      avt 21 November 2015 09: 45 New
      +1
      Quote: blizart
      Well, that’s all Sun Tzu, Sun Tzu.

      "Teachings" Monomakh Abruptly bkdet and "Faust" by Goethe in addition!
      After reading this diploma, flatter yourself to do all good deeds, glorifying God with his saints. Death, children, do not be afraid, no war, no beast, do the work for men, as God sends you. For if I escaped from war, and from a beast, and from water, and from falling from a horse, then none of you can harm yourself or be killed until it is commanded by God. And if death happens from God, then neither your father, nor mother, nor brothers can take you from her, but if it’s a good thing to beware of yourself, then God's saving is better than human.
      There is some kind of Divine Providence in the fact that FOR THIS TIME the Russian ruler is popularly the bearer of the Monomakh Caps.
      1. War and Peace
        War and Peace 21 November 2015 10: 41 New
        -13
        Quote: avt
        There is some kind of Divine Providence in the fact that FOR THIS TIME the Russian ruler is popularly the bearer of the Monomakh Caps.


        a monomakh hat is just a hat, and not a symbol of power, the symbol of power is ALWAYS A CROWN, but since Russia is a cold country, the rulers put a crown on a hat so that their head would not be frostbitten. But the crown of RUSSIAN KINGS was destroyed in the reign of sophia and later Peter was the Germans and later another crown was created. In, for example, a miniature from the CHRISTMAS CODE- the Battle of Kulikovo, it is evident that the rulers of those times wore the CROWN, and not some hat. Replacing the crown with a hat is a substitution of concepts.
        And by the way, the fact that the cap from the sable or marten is stored for 1000 years is certainly nonsense, it’s also a lie that the hat embroidered with pearls has been stored for 1000 years, the same thing — pearls do not live for more than 500 years — it disintegrates ...
        1. avt
          avt 21 November 2015 12: 30 New
          +3
          Quote: War and Peace
          ALWAYS A CROWN,

          This is to Daniil Galitsky, the first and only of the Russian princes to receive the CROWN from the Roman priest. Well, and to other heirs after Petit No. 1.
          1. War and Peace
            War and Peace 21 November 2015 12: 56 New
            -4
            Quote: avt
            Quote: War and Peace
            ALWAYS A CROWN,

            This is to Daniil Galitsky, the first and only of the Russian princes to receive the CROWN from the Roman priest. Well, and to other heirs after Petit No. 1.


            did you even look at the picture from the Annalistic Code? Apparently there is a crowned commander of some kind of army, who could it be? Dmitry Ivanovich or Mamai? And here is a miniature

            Ivan the Terrible at the wedding of Simeon Bekbulatovich.

            as we see SEVERAL CROWN SINGULARITIES, how does this differ from your words about "one time"
            1. Nagaibak
              Nagaibak 21 November 2015 13: 04 New
              +2
              = war and peace "did you at least look at the picture from the Chronicle?"
              Yes, why watch it then?))) The Romanovs forged and destroyed all the annals.))) The fans about the Fomen sect squeak at all angles themselves.)))
              1. War and Peace
                War and Peace 21 November 2015 13: 43 New
                -4
                Quote: Nagaibak
                But why watch it then?))) The Romanovs forged and destroyed all the annals.))) The fans of the Fomenka sect shout at all angles themselves


                to talk about the fact that history was "completely destroyed and a new one was written on top" is illiterate, the falsifiers of history could not COMPLETELY rewrite history, but could only distort it, historical facts have been moved in places and in time, as well as distorted real names and attributed to other countries and heroes, that's how they distorted history ...
                1. Nagaibak
                  Nagaibak 21 November 2015 18: 39 New
                  +2
                  war and peace "to talk about the fact that history" is completely destroyed and a new one is written on top "is illiterate, history falsifiers could not COMPLETELY rewrite history."
                  Oh, it’s like that!))) That is, when you use official sources for fitting under your false theory, you use official sources.)))) When the data of the annals do not correspond to your delirium, you declare them falsified.))) A win-win option.))) Well done .)))
        2. Glot
          Glot 21 November 2015 16: 02 New
          +1
          monomakh hat is just a hat, and no one is a symbol of power, a symbol of power is ALWAYS CROWN


          Yah ? The Hellenistic kings were crowned at all with tiaras. And wow there were basileus. smile

          but since Russia is a cold country, the rulers put a crown on a hat so that they wouldn’t freeze their heads.


          Yes, and we also have bears walking in the streets and playing vodka while playing the balalaika. laughing

          But the crown of RUSSIAN KINGS was destroyed in the reign of sophia and later Peter


          Themselves were not present at this "act of vandalism" did not? laughing

          In, for example, a miniature from the CHRISTMAS CODE - the Battle of Kulikovo is visible


          A group of soldiers is also visible in miniature, closer to the corner to the right and spherical helmets are clearly visible on their heads. Are they in spacesuits? Who are they ? Oh mine gatt, these are the Annunaki who have flown to the battle! laughing laughing

          In short, our "Vasya" burns again, rereading the fomenok at his leisure. laughing laughing
          1. War and Peace
            War and Peace 21 November 2015 18: 40 New
            -3
            Quote: Glot
            Yah ? The Hellenistic kings were crowned at all with tiaras. And wow there were basileus


            remember the Chinese, they generally have a yellow robe, a symbol of power, and the African kings have shiny beads, and the ideologists have feathers on their heads, dude just don't talk about them now. I heard a ring but I can’t get through ...
            1. Glot
              Glot 21 November 2015 21: 16 New
              -2
              remember the Chinese, they generally have a yellow robe, a symbol of power, and the African kings have shiny beads, and the ideologists have feathers on their heads, dude just don't talk about them now. I heard a ring but I can’t get through ...


              Here you guys can talk about "hats because it's cold" and other dregs. laughing
              I already told you, you - you do not know anything, you do not understand anything, have read Fomenok and think you have learned the essence? I'll disappoint you, you haven't even gotten to the point, dude. Your level: A shop in the front garden, and rubbing with the dudes of "global historical falsifications" under the husks of seeds. laughing
              1. War and Peace
                War and Peace 21 November 2015 22: 46 New
                0
                Quote: Glot
                I already told you, you - you don’t know anything, don’t understand anything, you read a little thing and think you know the essence


                talking with militant stupidity is a waste of time, for the stupid eternally asking - "where is the evidence?" and without heeding other people's arguments, you cannot understand the meaning of the definition SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH and therefore forever
                as Peter renounces the principles of science, because they pay you for the lie, the principles of logic, because you have forever lost the opportunity to use the arguments of reason, from loyalty and service to your people, because the Russophobic position of traditional history is closer to you and non-Russian relatives. You aren’t even able to talk on abstract topics, but only, as a two-year-old, peep into someone else’s notebook and, from the third time, from the lack of skills to work with your own brain, transfer other people's thoughts into your notebook. And you don’t have your own thoughts, just like a mockingbird and meaningless remarks without getting into the topic.

                Quote: Glot
                Your level: A shop in the front garden, and rubbing with the dudes of "global historical falsifications"


                and in which palisade did you see me? you again got out of business and out of place ...
              2. The comment was deleted.
          2. War and Peace
            War and Peace 21 November 2015 19: 28 New
            -1
            Quote: Glot
            Themselves were not present at this "act of vandalism"


            the fact that the Russian tsars had a real crown, and not stupid fur hats say, for example, old engravings, here is an engraving from the book Van Klenk’s journey to Muscovy in 1677, the Russian tsar with the CROWN ON THE HEAD is clearly visible, and they were also worn together with a hat, moreover in the rear view SEA SHIP !!! so what was it for MOSCOW? Maybe TSARGRAD?
            1. Glot
              Glot 21 November 2015 21: 24 New
              0
              , here is an engraving from the book Van Klenk’s journey to Muscovy in 1677, the Russian tsar with the CROWN ON THE HEAD is clearly visible, and they were also worn together with a cap, moreover, SEA SHIP can be seen in the rear view !!! so what was it for MOSCOW? Maybe TSARGRAD?


              Aha ... And now "Vasya", think with your head about whether the engraving on which, behind the Russian tsar IN MOSKOVIA, sea ships are visible, is of any informative value? Can you trust what you see?
              Turn on your head a little. She’s not just for you to husk the seeds. laughing
              Eh ... Vasya, Vasya ... Calm down already and start reading the RIGHT books. Do not make people laugh, and do not disgrace the Russian people with their denseness then. The site is then revered by foreigners. What will they think ... request
              1. War and Peace
                War and Peace 21 November 2015 22: 52 New
                -3
                Quote: Glot
                , here is an engraving from the book Van Klenk’s journey to Muscovy in 1677, the Russian tsar with the CROWN ON THE HEAD is clearly visible, and they were also worn together with a cap, moreover, SEA SHIP can be seen in the rear view !!! so what was it for MOSCOW? Maybe TSARGRAD?


                Aha ... And now "Vasya", think with your head about whether the engraving on which, behind the Russian tsar IN MOSKOVIA, sea ships are visible, is of any informative value? Can you trust what you see?
                Turn on your head a little. She’s not just for you to husk the seeds. laughing
                Eh ... Vasya, Vasya ... Calm down already and start reading the RIGHT books. Do not make people laugh, and do not disgrace the Russian people with their denseness then. The site is then revered by foreigners. What will they think ... request


                have you ever used your head yourself, in the world there are HUNDREDS of cards with the image of the GREAT TARTARIA that goes to the seas, and during the time of Tsar Alexei there were even more of these exits.
                For example, the table of the 18th century sea flags below two yellow flags with a griffin and an owl are TARTARIA flags, do you understand anything?
                1. Alex
                  Alex 22 November 2015 11: 34 New
                  +7
                  Quote: War and Peace
                  in the world there are HUNDREDS of cards depicting GREAT TARTARIA

                  And you are not surprised by such a detailed image of Eastern Siberia, Kamchatka, the Far East with Sakhalin, about which in Europe at that time they simply could not have the slightest idea? And this despite the fact that on it somewhere completely European Scandinavia disappeared?
                2. but still
                  but still 22 November 2015 22: 02 New
                  -1
                  Bulgarian states
                  smile And here are a lot of maps of Great Bulgaria:

                  http://shtaparov.blog.bg/politika/2014/07/26/istinskite-granici-na-stara-velika-



                  bylgariia.1284179

                  But still I want to reassure everyone:
                  According to Herodotus, the Thracian tribes were the largest nation after the Indian.
                  After the Flood, which was in the Black Sea, the GREAT MOVEMENT OF PEOPLES happened - the Thracian tribes from the Balkans and the Black Sea coast settled north to Scandinavia, south to the Middle East, west - ..... east - to northern India.

                  The second resettlement of the Thracian tribes took place most likely during the invasion of the Roman Empire - part of the Thracian tribes escaped from the Romans to the north and east, where they founded their states.

                  So we are all more or less relatives smile
              2. The comment was deleted.
            2. War and Peace
              War and Peace 22 November 2015 15: 47 New
              -2
              the fact that the Russian tsars had a real crown, and not stupid fur hats, say, for example, old engravings, here is an engraving from the book Van Klenk’s journey to Muscovy in 1677, the Russian tsar with the CROWN ON THE HEAD is clearly visible, and they were also worn together with a hat, not only that in the rear view SEA SHIP !!! so what was it for MOSCOW? Maybe TSARGRAD?
              this is a very informative picture, the tsar is not only wearing a hat and crown, in the background not only sea vessels, but it is also clear that on a distant structure, either a temple or a tower with a dome BACK WITH THE Crescent, which absolutely does not fit with the TI (where in Muscovy symbolism that is suitable for either Byzantium or Islamic states).
          3. The comment was deleted.
      2. Alex
        Alex 22 November 2015 11: 25 New
        +2
        Quote: avt
        "Teachings" Monomakh Abruptly will be and "Faust" Goethe in addition!


        Thanks, smiled good
    2. andrew42
      andrew42 21 November 2015 13: 17 New
      +2
      With proper organization and the absence of strife, that is, without genius, but simply in the presence of ORDER, the power of the Polovtsian land did not even stand next to Russia. Heavily armed princely squads could defeat the Cumans at a ratio of 1 to 10, which was demonstrated by Svyatoslav Yaroslavich on the river Snov, having only 2000 professional and motivated soldiers. And even in the presence of the "city militia", that is, the infantry, and with skillful leadership, there was no chance at all, especially in a defensive war. The Cumans were generally not adapted to the defense according to the structure of the economy. Their cities were very vulnerable. The defeat of the stupid and greedy Igor Novgorod-Seversky does not count.
    3. alekc73
      alekc73 21 November 2015 13: 31 New
      +1
      It is instructive. It turns out that the pre-war strategy on the territory of the enemy and not with little blood the invention of the Red Marshals. They knew about Monomakh. hi
    4. Secta haki
      Secta haki 21 November 2015 15: 23 New
      +2
      the first, first, first, first - break off the "merchant", Svyatoslav was still such that your kaganate rolled out bully
      and he would not be the very first ...
      1. Aposlya
        Aposlya 22 November 2015 09: 29 New
        -2
        Svyatoslav didn’t roll anything there, he was more likely to raid. The Khazar Kaganate was beaten by the Pechenegs actually ...
        1. Secta haki
          Secta haki 22 November 2015 13: 17 New
          0
          yeah, yes, but eat the jackals ... and Svyatoslav has nothing to do with it.
          1. Aposlya
            Aposlya 24 November 2015 07: 33 New
            -1
            Svyatoslav went on the raid and lost his head, from which the same Pechenegs made the goblet ...
            And also Byzantium fought with the Khazars, but it was the Pechenegs who finished it off!
            1. Secta haki
              Secta haki 25 November 2015 15: 35 New
              0
              She was friends with you against the Russians more ... The Khazar Khanate Svyatoslav broke, the Pechenegs betrayed him, and then they ate you too.
  2. Jurkovs
    Jurkovs 21 November 2015 08: 18 New
    +3
    And I read somewhere that one of Monomakh’s main intentions was to make the Polovtsy fight at the end of winter, when their horses were extremely exhausted. After all, the Polovtsy did not store food for the winter and their horses just hoofed frozen grass from under the snow. Monomakh carried hay on carts, and his cavalry turned out to be so quick that they managed to clean up the uluses before the messengers arrived there with the news of the defeat at Salnitsa.
    1. andrew42
      andrew42 21 November 2015 13: 11 New
      +2
      The Polovtsians did not have "uluses". in Russia this word was heard only after 200 years.
      1. Aposlya
        Aposlya 22 November 2015 09: 31 New
        0
        All Türks had uluses! This word was used by the Turks long before the Kipchaks appeared. See runic inscriptions on the Kultegin stele from the 7th century A.D. - By the way, they are translated.
  3. Neophyte
    Neophyte 21 November 2015 08: 21 New
    0
    In the history books, much needs to be done in order to know the history of Russia?
  4. Mangel olys
    Mangel olys 21 November 2015 08: 41 New
    +1
    I followed the link to the source - I did not find anything. request
  5. Ivan Slavyanin
    Ivan Slavyanin 21 November 2015 08: 49 New
    +4
    "The discipline and training of the Prussian soldier, the courage and honor of the French soldier, the fury in the battle of the Turkish janissary - all this is the Russian soldier! He is invincible!" (Otto von Bismarck - "The Iron Chancellor")
  6. Darkness
    Darkness 21 November 2015 09: 07 New
    +4
    And that the battles of Svyatoslav are so bashfully hushed up? They were probably the very first and most famous.
    But, since he was a pagan - then there is no place in Russian history?
    1. Cossack Ermak
      Cossack Ermak 21 November 2015 09: 54 New
      +7
      Quote: Darkness
      And that the battles of Svyatoslav are so bashfully hushed up? They were probably the very first and most famous.
      But, since he was a pagan - then there is no place in Russian history?

      But because he defeated the Jews. Khazarov. And now they are all in power, money and the means of mass stupefying the population.
      1. amba balamut 77
        amba balamut 77 21 November 2015 10: 25 New
        +1
        Correctly. The GDP said that the scumbag Vladimir is the protagonist of a thousand years ago, so it is. It’s good that Svyatoslav was not identified in the banderlogs.
      2. moskowit
        moskowit 21 November 2015 10: 39 New
        +5
        Right! He visited Tsargrad and built a new capital on the territory of present-day Bulgaria. A famous trip to the Khazar Khanate !!!
        1. RUSS
          RUSS 22 November 2015 16: 36 New
          0
          Quote: moskowit
          Right! He visited Tsargrad and built a new capital on the territory of present-day Bulgaria. A famous trip to the Khazar Khanate !!!

          The map is new, since there is no name for Kievan Rus, since 2014, in the textbooks on the History of Russia, now Kievan Rus is called the Ancient Russian State.
      3. Aposlya
        Aposlya 22 November 2015 09: 33 New
        +1
        The Khazars were Turks, not Jews! And Judaism there was accepted only by the top of the kaganate ...
        1. but still
          but still 22 November 2015 22: 37 New
          0
          The Khazars, including the Bulgarians, were not Turks. As for Judaism, I agree.
          1. Aposlya
            Aposlya 24 November 2015 07: 30 New
            0
            We read a brief summary: "Khazar Kaganat, Khazaria (650-969) [1] - a medieval state created by the nomadic people - the Khazars. West Turkic Khaganate. "
            The Khazar Khaganate ruled the ancient Turkic clan Ashin ...

            "Great Bulgaria (Bulgaria) (Greek Παλαιά Μεγάλη Βουλγαρία) - a short-term union of the Bulgar tribes (632-c. 671), which arose in the steppes of Eastern Europe after the collapse West Turkic Haganate."

            Khans ruled the Bulgarian Khanate, among other things, this is the Turkic title ...

            Do not speak the Turks? :)
            1. but still
              but still 24 November 2015 15: 14 New
              0
              Khazarology - hell will break a leg - scientists argue on many issues about the Khazars, Bulgarians (and someone does not write about them at all, as if they were not smile ), Tatars, the origin of the Cossacks, etc. And practically nothing has been investigated in this area yet.
              Several nationalities lived in the Khazar Khaganate, most of which were Bulgarians, ruled by the royal family of Dulo together with the Khazars, who captured Bulgaria Kubrat after his death. Some of the Khazar governors adopted Judaism, and then there was a conflict with the Bulgarians, from whom part of the territory was taken away and driven out. In contrast to Judaism, apparently the Bulgarians on the Volga converted to Islam. The Khazars came from Savir. The Savir language is not Turkic, and its remnants are observed in modern Chuvash (although the Chuvash language was formally attached to the Turkic language, it is incomprehensible to the Turkic peoples and has more characteristics of Indo-European languages). Arab medieval sources indicate that the Khazar language and Bulgarian are one and the same language and it does not look like Turkic.

              And not HANS, but КANES! Do not read only Wikipedia - bother reading a little from various sources. The original KAN, not KHAN!
              CAN - MOUNTAIN
              KAN + AZ = KANAZ
              KANAZ - K'NAZ - KN'AZ - KN'AZ '(pay attention to the fact that at the end of the word the voiced consonant is muted, but in our case it was not muted, but only softened and the word did not turn into KN'AS, tk. in the Bulgarian AZ "ze" is not muted.

              So many centuries they tried to erase the memory of the ancient and great people, attributing their identity to themselves! Archaeologists will unearth everything. Anthropologists, genetics, and linguists prove the truth.
              1. but still
                but still 24 November 2015 16: 37 New
                0
                KAN - KAN AZ - KNYAZ - this is one of the assumptions. But where? In what manuscripts, in what artifacts did you see the KHAN ????? KAN is in the list of Bulgarian kings. On the slab to King Samuel, there is an inscription in Greek "KANESSYUBLIGI"
                One modern pseudo-scientist blurted out his assumption once and rewrote and retyped everything and put it on Wikipedia! And the Turkic etiquette stuck. And among the Turks, by the way, the title of KHAN after the name is written, like all titles.

                But on the grave of KUBRAT in the Poltava region 3 of his rings with inscriptions of PATRICIANS were found. This is the source. And one says BAT (in Persian ruler). Here There is more reason to stick the BAT title to the Bulgarian rulers than the baseless KHAN.
              2. Aposlya
                Aposlya 2 December 2015 10: 00 New
                0
                The word KHAN is just tracing paper from the Turkic KAN, or rather, the KaAN. The word itself comes from the word KAN - blood, not a mountain! Symbolizes the blood of the first dynasty of the Ashin Turks.

                Quote: but still
                The language of Savir is not Turkic


                Yah? In ancient times, the Savirs were called Suvas or Suas - Water Ases. Asa is an ancient Turkic tribe.

                Quote: but still
                Arab medieval sources indicate that the Khazar language and Bulgarian are one and the same language and it does not look like Turkic.


                Do not engage in Fomenkovism completely! wink
                That the Khazars, that the Bulgars of one field of a berry are the most ordinary Türks! The same bersils, i.e. Bersh tribe - an ancient Turkic tribe, indicated on the Kultegin stele!
                1. Secta haki
                  Secta haki 2 December 2015 12: 40 New
                  +1
                  It turns out that the Mongols with their Chengis Khan were under the Tatars?
                  "kan" is dishes, han - the Chinese, "aliens" made of something inappropriate, according to their own history ...
    2. Aposlya
      Aposlya 22 November 2015 09: 32 New
      0
      can there really be a church whim in this?
  7. martin-159
    martin-159 21 November 2015 09: 42 New
    0
    Quote: Neophyte
    In the history books, much needs to be done in order to know the history of Russia?

    Quote: Darkness
    And that the battles of Svyatoslav are so bashfully hushed up

    Do those historians write textbooks with us?
  8. parusnik
    parusnik 21 November 2015 09: 47 New
    +1
    A. Mityaev's "Book of Future Commanders" describes Monomakh's campaigns well.
    1. biznaw
      biznaw 21 November 2015 18: 29 New
      +1
      Quote: parusnik
      A. Mityaev's "Book of Future Commanders" describes Monomakh's campaigns well.


      KIND OF FAVORITE BOOK. WERE REALLY INTERESTED IN IT.
      1. Alex
        Alex 22 November 2015 11: 39 New
        +3
        Quote: biznaw
        KIND OF FAVORITE BOOK. WERE REALLY INTERESTED IN IT.

        As far as I know, no. It's a pity...
      2. RUSS
        RUSS 22 November 2015 16: 39 New
        -2
        Quote: biznaw
        Quote: parusnik
        A. Mityaev's "Book of Future Commanders" describes Monomakh's campaigns well.


        KIND OF FAVORITE BOOK. WERE REALLY INTERESTED IN IT.

        I recommend the story of Vasily Yan-
        "Lights on the Barrows", 1932-1952
        Spartak, 1933
        The Hammers 1934

        “Invasion of the Mongols” (trilogy):
        Genghis Khan (Genghis Khan) (1939)
        "Batu", 1942 (an abridged version for children - "Invasion of Batu", 1941)
        "To the" last "sea", 1955
      3. parusnik
        parusnik 23 November 2015 11: 21 New
        0
        It was reprinted, like the Book of future naval commanders .. I saw in one of the shops I didn’t buy the price of 700 and 800 rubles .. I didn’t have that kind of cash .. But they didn’t accept cards ..
  9. Roy
    Roy 21 November 2015 10: 26 New
    +1
    Glory to Prince Monomakh and the entire Russian army! Glory to our ancestors!
  10. but still
    but still 21 November 2015 10: 30 New
    +6
    Where did Oleg bring his wife Igor? And under what circumstances? What did Princess Olga do for the ancient Russian state? What nationality was Olga's housekeeper Malka? And who was her brother, Dobrynya? And who was Bayan (Boyan)? And who was the Orthodox priest Gregory, who was constantly with Olga? Where and what kind of liturgical literature was in Russia at baptism? Why Svyatoslav made a campaign across the Danube? What were the circumstances of Svyatoslav's location "Across the Danube?"
    Later, who were Grigory Tsimbalak and Kipriyan?

    I understand that it takes time to digest and comprehend everything.

    The key to the question is who were the so-called Mongol Tatars? Who were the heroes? Who was Alexander Nevsky? Who are the Scythians, where did they live and where did they come from?

    The white spot of "Slavic" history will soon bloom - the winners are writing history - you can write anything you want, you can destroy enemy manuscripts, you can replace your own names, names of peoples and localities in manuscripts, BUT ... Archaeological excavations will smash all the false history written winners.
    1. Morrrow
      Morrrow 21 November 2015 15: 14 New
      +1
      Read the books of the RAS of Eastern Slavic studies - they all rely on archeology.
    2. Stiletto_711
      Stiletto_711 21 November 2015 16: 45 New
      +1
      Oh no! Just not that! Were they all Great Ukrainians ?!
  11. Give the light
    Give the light 21 November 2015 12: 51 New
    +1
    BUT ... Archaeological excavations will smash into pieces the whole fake story written by the winners.

    In your opinion, this story is invented, if not invented, then embellished, so as not to wake up patriotic feelings and pride for the past, "great" beautifully on the written past in another way? It might even be. Would like to dig it out, dug it out long ago and trumpet it, but. .. stop History and politics are two interconnected, non-existent concepts without each other.
    1. Spnsr
      Spnsr 21 November 2015 17: 01 New
      -1
      Quote: Give the light
      BUT ... Archaeological excavations will smash into pieces the whole fake story written by the winners.

      In your opinion, this story is invented, if not invented, then embellished, so as not to wake up patriotic feelings and pride for the past, "great" beautifully on the written past in another way? It might even be. Would like to dig it out, dug it out long ago and trumpet it, but. .. stop History and politics are two interconnected, non-existent concepts without each other.

      CAN YOU INTERPRET ANY FIND, AND WHAT IS THE TRUTH?
      1. Glot
        Glot 21 November 2015 17: 48 New
        -2
        CAN YOU INTERPRET ANY FIND, AND WHAT IS THE TRUTH?


        Amateur judgment.
        We read carefully, thoughtfully:
        http://arheologija.ru/opisanie-i-obrabotka-arheologicheskih-materialov/
        And this is only a small part of how they work with certain finds.
        1. Spnsr
          Spnsr 21 November 2015 20: 19 New
          0
          Quote: Glot
          CAN YOU INTERPRET ANY FIND, AND WHAT IS THE TRUTH?


          Amateur judgment.
          We read carefully, thoughtfully:
          http://arheologija.ru/opisanie-i-obrabotka-arheologicheskih-materialov/
          And this is only a small part of how they work with certain finds.

          You perfectly understood what I mean!
          it’s just for the sake of your interpretation that you slip something that doesn’t take away from not assigning certain artifacts for the sake of a certain interpretation ...
          1. Glot
            Glot 21 November 2015 21: 12 New
            -1
            You perfectly understood what I mean!
            it’s just for the sake of your interpretation that you slip something that doesn’t take away from not assigning certain artifacts for the sake of a certain interpretation ...


            No, I didn't understand. Explain. You know, it probably seems like something like this. A certain hypothetical "academician Ivan Petrov" decides for himself how to interpret this or that artifact? You are wrong. Any scientist must defend and prove any his theory, his vision or understanding of this or that in history. And he will defend and prove neither to me or you, but a group of professionals in those areas in which he will try to prove it. And if these pros, and this pros can be no doubt, will not overwhelm him during this process, then only then his theory, interpretation of this or that will get the right to life and further development.
            Everything is very, very difficult.
            These are charlatans without the formation of a specialized one, without a name and other things they can write anything and interpret somehow this or that. Fortunately, we have freedom in this regard. Although not good, but not the essence. And among pros this approach does not work.
            Of course, you can now talk about the "general conspiracy" and so on and so forth, by the way charlatans like to talk about this, but this is all nonsense.
            Professional scientist he cannot interpret the find in every way, since he simply will not be given, he will be showered with "black balls". And here is a charlatan, there is no one above him, and he is just as he wants and twists.
            1. Spnsr
              Spnsr 22 November 2015 12: 30 New
              0
              Quote: Glot
              No, I don’t understand.

              I will not talk about inertia of thinking
              I’ll only say about becoming
              Quote: Glot
              Professional scientist
              you must prove that you
              Quote: Glot
              Professional scientist
              before the same
              Quote: Glot
              Professional scientist
              , hence the line of interpretation, from which not one
              Quote: Glot
              Professional scientist
              subsequently cannot refuse because
              Quote: Glot
              Professional scientist
              stop counting him
              Quote: Glot
              Professional scientist

              and then, in the process, this
              Quote: Glot
              Professional scientist
              for example, he will search for the Khazar Khaganate, and not finding it, but finding a large territory of the Cossacks strewn with artifacts of the "Khazar Khaganate", he will diligently prove so as not to lose his
              Quote: Glot
              Professional scientist
              in front of others like
              Quote: Glot
              Professional scientist
              that there was a “Khazar Khaganate", and the Cossacks all stole it! ...
              and the idea that the “Khazar Kaganate" is the Cossacks will be considered sedition, and to make this sedition brighter, the "Khazar Kaganate" will be called Jewish, especially since we say we don’t treat Jews very favorably, then draw an analogy no one will be the Cossacks and the “Khazar Khaganate,” since this is sedition ...
              and the territory is ... only people have disappeared somewhere, and others have replaced them ... or maybe they just transformed? ...
              1. but still
                but still 22 November 2015 20: 50 New
                +2
                and the idea that the “Khazar Khaganate" is the Cossacks

                good What language was spoken in the Khazar Kaganate? When part of its population adopted Judaism, and before what national composition was there? What language group is the Chuvash language attached to (since their language is completely different from the Turkic languages)?

                Here, quite by accident, googling, I managed to find the info, moreover, the first one I got about the Cossacks:

                "Genealogy of the Yaitsky Cossacks according to the book" Topography of the Orenburg province "

                ("Composed by the collegiate counselor Pyotr Ivanovich Rychkov and published in St. Petersburg by the Imperial Academy of Sciences in 1762").


                Under such a heading is the book in two volumes in the Paris National Library, in its first edition in Russian.

                P.I. Rychkov was sent by the Academy of Sciences to examine this “province” at the time when “Ivan Counselor and Chevalier (1774) Ivan Ivanovich Neplyuev” was appointed its governor. These books, despite their ideal storage conditions, have become so dilapidated over 210 years that when used carelessly, the dried binding leather crumbles, and many pages turn yellow.

                The "Orenburg province" of that time was a huge province: from south to north - from the Caspian Sea to the Ural Mountains, from west to east, bordering the Astrakhan province in the south, from the river. Volga to the borders with Khiva, Bukhara and Persia. Its population was multi-tribal: Tatars, Kirghiz of three tribes, Bashkirs, Turkmens, Mordovians, Chuvashs, Cheremis, Aralans, Russian and Yaik Cossacks. “Before the advent of the Tatars, the ancient kazars, Bulgarians, Ugrians, both Russian and foreign writers assure us that they lived in front of the Orenburg province,” writes P.I. Rychkov.

                “Bulgars-Bulgarians are the offspring of the Scythian, and earlier they were called barracks. Volga Bulgarians are Sarmatians ”. Rychkov reports this information with references to the chronicle of the forefather Nestor. The Flemish monk Guillaume Rubricis, sent by the French king Louis 9th to the Tatars, was in 1253 in the Orenburg province, which was then inhabited by them. He calls Yaik "Yagach". On the basis of archaeological research in the upper Urals, G.V. Gubarev points out in his writings that the graves of the Torks were found there, some of which were also found on the land of the Don Cossacks. "

                http://www.yaik.ru/rus/forces/history/index.php?SECTION_ID=263&ELEMENT_ID=2542
                1. Spnsr
                  Spnsr 23 November 2015 11: 14 New
                  +1
                  Quote: but still
                  The "Orenburg province" of that time was a huge province: from south to north - from the Caspian Sea to the Ural Mountains, from west to east, bordering the Astrakhan province in the south, from the river. Volga to the borders with Khiva, Bukhara and Persia. Its population was multi-tribal: Tatars, Kirghiz of three tribes, Bashkirs, Turkmens, Mordovians, Chuvashs, Cheremis, Aralans, Russian and Yaik Cossacks. “Before the advent of the Tatars, the ancient kazars, Bulgarians, Ugrians, both Russian and foreign writers assure us that they lived in front of the Orenburg province,” writes P.I. Rychkov.

                  hi
                  Greetings!
                  I don’t know, would you like to reproach me for my superficial description, but the essence of your description, in my opinion, does not nearly reduce what I say!
                  and about religion, not to be confused with faith in God!
                  there is an interpretation of religiosity, as a technology of control, to which religion you relate to, with those rules and laws you live. and in terms of language, this is the same technology, divide and conquer! modernity can be cited as an example, and literally by our side, Ukraine! but there, besides religion and language, there is also saturation with Russophobia, by the way that the Russians attacked Ukraine, the Russians finance the ig, and all that ...
                  regarding legislation, when it became difficult to control the population through religion, due to the fact that on a relatively small span of land, states, populations belonging to different religions could live, the need arose to bring this population universally to the rules defining this particular state ... we can talk further about the manifestation of these rules on another state, that there is a technology for the influence of some on others, but here it is already superfluous ...
                  examples on the face, the neighbor, the story we see ...
                  and the statement that it was otherwise before either refutes or refutes the expression, history repeats itself ... take it as you please ...
                  1. but still
                    but still 23 November 2015 12: 18 New
                    0
                    Quote: SpnSr
                    Greetings!
                    I don’t know, would you like to reproach me for my superficial description, but the essence of your description, in my opinion, does not nearly reduce what I say!


                    Good day! hi

                    In no case, I did not want to reproach you - on the contrary - I support your guess that the "Khazar Kaganate" may be the Cossacks!
                    Yes! I consider the personification of Cossacks to be well-known heroes - Dobrynya Nikitich, Ilya Muromets and Alyosha Popovich. These were people who from childhood were able to masterfully ride horses and possess excellent weapons. I support the idea of ​​the Flood in the Black Sea and the emergence of the most ancient civilization in the Balkans, the resettlement of ancient Thracians - the ancestors of modern Bulgarians. The same Thracians-Scythians-Bulgarians created a large number of cultural states on a vast territory. Dobrynya is the brother of Malka, the key keeper of Princess Olga, the mother of Vladimir the Baptist. He is most likely the prototype of the hero Dobrynia Nikitich. Where is the name GOOD, DOBRIN, DOBRINK not only lively, but also very common? In Bulgaria. Princess Olga, her housekeeper Malka, mother of Vladimir the Baptist, Dobrynya, Bayan (Boyan) - all of them were Bulgarians. And the Bulgarians are the descendants of the Balkan Thracians who settled during the post-flood Great Migration of Peoples and, most likely, during the invasion of the Roman Empire.

                    So I consider us relatives smile And not along the line of "Slavism" and "brotherhood", but along a more ancient bloodline, cultural and spiritual line.
                    1. but still
                      but still 23 November 2015 12: 48 New
                      0
                      If you are embarrassed by the assumption that your distant ancestors were Bulgarians-Thracians, then I will try to reassure you: the Thracians were very brave and capable people with a high culture. The Thracians were Orpheus, and Dionysus, and ... Spartacus ...
                      1. Spnsr
                        Spnsr 23 November 2015 15: 41 New
                        0
                        Quote: but still
                        If you are confused by

                        embarrassment, not here, anyway, in a stream of interesting things, a person chooses what his heart desires ...
                        I didn’t find my grandfather, but my mother told me that he was unsociable, more and more on fishing, maybe he wanted to avoid gossip, especially in those days, so that the children would live more quietly, because there was a period when everything was done to plague the Cossacks, what about this?
                        I mean, that my grandmother, with whom I had a chance to communicate, was a woman, though seemingly fragile, but able to put another man in his place ...
                        so, I remember a conversation like that:
                        who are you old
                        Russian I am a grandmother.
                        what are you Russian, Cossacks we, Russian ... and the rest are all lapotniki.
                        then I did not attach any importance to this, but the more I read, I was not interested in the dialogue between us and her, but in the case of time for, the more I get the impression that I am beginning to understand what she wanted to say ...
                        there was caste, or very close to where there was a caste of rulers, agricultural workers, artisans, pastoralists, and warrior castes
                        Well, since this was the time of the Soviet era, by and large, one can guess why she called all the others lapotniki, for the reason that the Soviet government destroyed the caste of rulers, and did everything in her power to destroy the warrior caste in one way or another. ... besides, there was a different approach to protecting the fatherland ...

                        and there’s also, about the Scythians, I had a long time to read, I don’t remember what the book is called and who the author is, and even then I’m not inclined to draw conclusions about reliability, but the Scythians were three people, farmers, cattle breeders and warriors, if you manage to find and get to know yourself, then you will make a conclusion about the reliability, because even the link that you gave about the Genealogy of the Yaitsky Cossacks was also written on a whim of that time in order to erase the identity of the Cossacks
                        runaway peasant! the concept is very ambiguous, to the Romanovs, who and where ran, if only there was a set, a kind of tithe with blood ...
                        but with the Romanovs, it seems more like the Cossacks were replaced by nobles, and the farmers were enslaved, but I doubt that the escaped serf, becoming a robber, returned to the ground like a Cossack, except for his military abilities, engaged in crafts ....

                        it is so for reasoning hi
                      2. but still
                        but still 24 November 2015 04: 08 New
                        0
                        there was a caste


                        good My ancestors on my paternal grandmother's side are Trans-Baikal Cossacks (I happened to hear that my great-grandfather swam across Lake Baikal), and along my grandfather's line - Don Cossacks (my grandfather died in 1944 in Latvia). Since childhood, I have the impression that the Cossacks are something almost mythical and worthy of respect. my father was very proud of his Cossack ancestors - he sang Cossack songs and discussed Sholokhov's work. Apparently, it was prestigious to be Cossacks relative to other common people - peasants, artisans. The Cossacks have a special mentality and lifestyle. And they got married, they are most likely among their own - by the way. Well, of course, they were not from the "runaway peasants" - to organize villages, fortresses and live permanently in "hot" border points in constant combat readiness ... they rode horses since childhood ... I believe that the Cossacks are the heirs of peoples, whose lifestyle was directly related to the horse, namely the war horse. A lot has been written about them ... to be honest, I'm a little sick of reading different historical interpretations. Yes, the Cossacks were a thorn in the eye of all authorities (although all authorities used them). And it's clear why. They hanged the label "Mongol-Tatars" (and to everyone in a row unwanted or dangerous), which frightened children. But in reality, everything was not so - there are too many inconsistencies and white spots. I just needed to establish myself at the expense of others. Nothing new - and ancient politicians manipulated history for their own purposes, and now it is the same. Every day we are all brainwashed from all sides for the sake of their interests. I still have all my hopes for archeology, anthropology and genetics. Although those who write are right that if they wanted to excavate, they would have excavated everything long ago - politics rules.
  • andrew42
    andrew42 21 November 2015 13: 03 New
    +3
    No one is better than L.N. Gumilyov did not reveal the essence of the Russian-Polovtsian confrontation of the 11-12 centuries. Comprehensive analysis of the landscape and natural economic order, consideration of systems of traditional values ​​and ethnopsychological dominant, consideration of the entire genesis of mutual relations - from the appearance of the Cumans in the Pereyaslavl land to the Battle of Kalka. All this to smithereens smashed the stupid cliché about the eternal "confrontation between sedentary and nomads" for the Russian-Polovtsian contact.
    Gumilev, rightly pointed out that the Cumans had CITIES, - in the same article it is literally given: "And they dressed in armor, and built regiments, and went to the city of Sharukan ... And they went to the city in the evening, and on Sunday the townspeople came out ... to the Russian princes with a bow, and brought fish and wine. And slept there at night. And the next day, Wednesday, went to Sugrov and set it on fire, and on Thursday went to the Don; .. "
    But what about the best friend of the Kumans, Oleg Svyatoslavich of Chernigov, the son of Grand Duke Svyatoslav Yaroslavich, who died so inopportunely and strangely in his prime, a representative of the so-called "Russian party" as opposed to "Ceregrad" and "Westernizing"? Not everything was so simple in Russia. And Russia was by no means a victim. But what about the "Polovtsian red girls" whom the Russian princes were married to? And the mother of Andrei Bogolyubsky (so he is half Polovtsian!)
    There is a deliberate organization of mutual raids, campaigns, as a result of which both Russian slaves and Polovtsian captives regularly ended up in the eastern slave bazaars. Who benefited from this? - It is clear that those "businessmen" and "sponsors" who stood behind the backs of the Kiev princes. These are the first beneficiaries, not the main ones. The main ones took "live goods" in the Crimea and the Caucasus, where they skimmed the first cream. The black business of the Rakhdonites has not gone anywhere, and has already penetrated the Kiev "top". It is scary to think what would have happened if Izyaslav Yaroslavich, a typical "Westerner", had kept the Kiev table - Russia into slavery to Catholics, all Polovtsians - under the knife or to the market. It is a pity that Svyatoslav Yaroslavich passed away early. And the lesser evil was the victory of the "Byzantines" led by their younger brother Vsevolod Yaroslavich. Vladimir Vsevolodovich Monomakh will continue his political line, with the only peculiarity that he brought to naught both the Polovtsian raids and the Russian campaigns in the steppe. A complete historical analogy to the Chechen wars of modern times is to stop business on blood. This is the merit of both that old Vladimir and his current namesake.
    1. Morrrow
      Morrrow 21 November 2015 15: 16 New
      -2
      What do we care about the affected Polovtsy? They were a threat to the Russian land and got their own. The rest is lyrics.
  • Robert Nevsky
    Robert Nevsky 21 November 2015 19: 38 New
    0
    Guys, the Kumans, nowhere around 1240, evicted from southern Russia to Bulgaria, fleeing from the Mongol-Tatars. And here they got a little bliss.
  • Stilet
    Stilet 21 November 2015 22: 41 New
    +1
    You will laugh, or maybe not, but the ending in the surname with "-enko" of Turkic origin, inherited by their owners from the Polovtsy, that is, the Cumans. The external appearance of the Polovtsians was of the Caucasian type - light (chaff-colored) hair and brown eyes. It remains now to understand where their descendants live, to understand and ... somewhere deep down (somewhere very deeply) forgive. In Ukraine tse Europe? belay
    1. Spnsr
      Spnsr 22 November 2015 18: 00 New
      0
      Quote: Stilet
      You will laugh, or maybe not, but the ending in the surname with "-enko" of Turkic origin, inherited by their owners from the Polovtsy, that is, the Cumans. The external appearance of the Polovtsians was of the Caucasian type - light (chaff-colored) hair and brown eyes. It remains now to understand where their descendants live, to understand and ... somewhere deep down (somewhere very deeply) forgive. In Ukraine tse Europe? belay

      laughing
      Look, but cho, mykhalych!

      Adnaka, given that people do not go anywhere, but simply renamed (as now with the great UKR.mi), then it’s more logical to assume! ... that they probably all the same ...
      Quote: Stilet
      and ... somewhere deep down (somewhere very deep) forgive.
      and at the same time half of Russia and the entire Cossacks request what belay wink
  • Truth-lovers
    Truth-lovers 22 November 2015 01: 15 New
    -2
    .In the history of Russian military victories, the battle on Lake Peipsi won by Alexander Nevsky was considered the first and most famous for a long time.
    That's bullshit. NEVER. The author does not understand what he writes about.

    . Luck, in order to cope with the superior forces of the Polovtsy (according to sources, they had at least one and a half odds: 45 thousand nomads against 30 thousand Russian soldiers),
    In the SOURCES there is not a word about the number of troops. Even an approximate.

    . Hit the enemy before him
    For reference: the Russian princes at that time carried out the Crusades - the answer of Christian Europe to Asian aggressors (such as the Crusade to the Steppe of 1111). And so, also for reference, had constant contacts with the crusaders in St. Zemlya and with the European Christian sovereigns, and it was then that the mass enough pilgrimage of Russians to St. Places began.

    But just to deprive the enemy of the opportunity to take full advantage of the advantages of his army is not enough, you still need to ensure your winning position. And Monomakh solved this issue, significantly increasing the number of foot soldiers.
    The author again shows that HE DOES NOT UNDERSTAND ANYTHING IN THE MILITARY CASE OF KIEV RUSSIA. What can the pawns - militiamen in the Barrens give in addition to vain victims?!? Speech in the annals OF THE SHELVES OF MOUNTED CITY POLICE! Semi-professional military by the way! And often outfitted at the expense of the state / prince.

    Quote: avt
    BY THIS TIME, the ruler of Russia is popularly the bearer of the Monomakh Caps.
    How is it? Who among the highest persons of the state is this wearing a converted Tatar skullcap, a gift to the princes of Muscovy from Khan Uzbek?

    Quote: biznaw
    KIND OF FAVORITE BOOK. WERE REALLY INTERESTED IN IT.
    Reprinted, and many times. Last very cool edition like 2012. But even then it cost about 1500 rubles.

    Quote: Stilet
    . The appearance of the Polovtsy was Caucasian-type blond (sexually colored) hair and brown eyes. It remains now to understand where their descendants live.
    In principle, you are right. The Polovtsian gene pool is scattered a lot among Ukrainians, and among Russians (even in the Volga region). But such a fairly compact gene pool is among one ethnic group in Hungary (they are direct and pure enough descendants of the Polovtsy-Kumans who fled there from the Mongols).
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. Aposlya
      Aposlya 22 November 2015 09: 39 New
      -1
      Quote: True-Loving
      they are direct and clean enough descendants of the Polovtsy-Kumans who fled there from the Mongols


      What other Mongols? The Mongols in the territory of modern Russia first appeared in the 16th century! wink
      Well, in the army of Batu Khan there were no Mongols spawn!
  • Truth-lovers
    Truth-lovers 22 November 2015 14: 08 New
    -3
    Quote: Aposlya
    What other Mongols? The Mongols in the territory of modern Russia first appeared in the 16th century
    Fomenkoids can go in the direction of the forest. Even the murals on the regiments of the troops of the Great Khan were preserved during the division of the army between several local hordes, there are the most such Mongols, even with the name of clans and clans.