So far, the project of the promising heavy destroyer air defense / missile defense 23560E Shkval exists only on paper and in computerized 3D-modeling programs of the Krylov State Scientific Center (KSCC), the most powerful and advanced ships fleet the upgraded heavy nuclear missile cruisers, Project 1144 Orlan, and the more compact and technologically advanced frigates Project 22350 Admiral Gorshkov will remain. At least until 2025, these warships will be the main instruments of air defense / missile defense and fleet strike operations on an ocean theater in likely major regional military conflicts.
To date, the most developed ship of the project "Orlan" is the flagship of the Northern Fleet of Russia TARKR "Peter the Great". The ship is distinguished by the most balanced composition of shock and defensive armament complexes, where the C-300F “brahter kar” (48H6E) and C-300FM Fort-M (ZNR 48H6X2) and “Dagger” are able to provide for the cover of the body armor's bodywork. in which friendly ships dispersed within a radius of 30-35 km from the flagship (this range is due to the small radio horizon at the surface), high-altitude targets can be hit within a radius of 160 km and at speeds up to 6500 km / h.
The C-300F KZRK modification, installed in the stern of the ship, differs only in the 48HNNUMXE SAM, which is unified with the C-6PMU-300 ground attack system (its range is 1 km), and also the C-150F has a slightly lower velocity of the target (300F) km ) due to lower energy and scanning performance MRLS 1300R3 "Wave" (a takeover target at a distance of 41 93 km against km for the C-160FM) also 300R3 - 41-hkanalny radar and 3R4 - 48-channel. The maximum speed of the targeted target for the C-6F SAM systems, limited by 1300 m / s (4700 km / h), indicates that the complex is no longer ready to effectively stop the strikes of promising hypersonic air-assault weapons, which include such missiles as X-300A. Waverider ”,“ Fort-M ”is still able to fight with such goals. But C-51F is still quite capable of such goals as the PLLR AGM-300 “HARM”, “ALARM”, the anti-ship “Harpoons” and other missiles, and therefore is quite ready for the likely war of “today”. The lack of combat capabilities of this complex for the war of the near future outlined the necessary framework for the modernization of the air defense image of the Orlan cruisers, which are already underway.
A similar situation was observed with six KZRAK 3M87 "Dirk", covered the immediate borders of nuclear-powered cruiser "Peter the Great" and "Admiral Nakhimov", despite the high-performance computing facilities CVM governing MSA 3S87 modules allowing SAM 3M11 / 3M11-1 intercept 6 targets per minute, flying at 500 speed m / s. The indicators are impressive to this day, given that the American "Ticonderogs" and "Arly Burke" nothing but the ineffective "Volcano-Falanks" is not observed. But the "Kortikov" in the conditions of the modern MRAU will be completely insufficient.
The low speed of the targets hit for the Dirk (1800 km / h) allows you to intercept only subsonic anti-ship missiles and some air-to-surface missiles in the final leg of the flight, where their speed is about 1,5M (these include short-range tactical missiles JAGM, anti-ship modifications AGM -65F “Maverick”, as well as “SLAM-ER” missiles and “Harpoon”, “LRASM” anti-ship missiles), but there is an unpleasant snag: 3М311 SAM has an altitudinal reach of about 3700 m and 8 km range for standard targets of the RGM type -84 “Harpoon”. The promising low-profile LRASM missiles have an EPR near 0,05 m2, and therefore it will take more time to destroy them, which will affect the overall survivability of the ship during a massive enemy missile attack (all hope is on the Kortik complex).
Another short-range KZRK is the Dagger. The complex forms the middle line of defense of our supercraisers, and, in my opinion, practically has no flaws. Vertical built-in drum PU revolving type 4C95 have a high structural similarity with the TLU B-204А (С-300М complex). Such TLUs allow for the implementation of a more reliable and full-range application of the 9М330-2 missiles, unified with the 9М331 missiles from the Tor-M1 armament set. The MRLS with the HEADLIGHTS, located at the K-12-1 antenna post, allows the Dagger to simultaneously fire at 4 air targets at a distance of 12000 m and speed of 2500 km / h. An important feature of the complex is an automated control system that allows it to work without participation of the calculation.
Most powerful in stories PKR P-700 "Granit", presented by 20 underfloor inclined PU CM-233 with heavy "smart" PCR 3М-45, and today is a formidable weapons capable of breaking through the air defense system organized by the shipboard Aegis BIUS based on the Standard – 2 / 3 KZRK. The 3M-45 missiles have a developed intelligent group application system and the ability to perform energetic anti-aircraft maneuvers on the way up to the target, but against such KZRK as the European “PAAMS” or the Japanese-Dutch version “ESSM” (“Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile”) of the “Granit” rocket may have much lower efficiency, not to mention the B-500 “Basalt” type missiles. The above “Aster-30” (“PAAMS”) and RIM-162 (“ESSM”) missiles are characterized by excellent maneuverability (55 - 62 units) due to the use of gas-dynamic transverse control engines for the first one and for the secondary body with the second, thanks to which they are able to withstand and CRP 3M-45. Thus, the “PAAMS” air defense missile system of the British Daring class (Type 45) destroyers is distinguished by the most powerful MRLS “Sampson”, which allows simultaneously to fire at 12 air targets and accompany around 1000. The detection range can be up to 400 km (targets with 3-4 m2 EPR), and the ESSM SAMs of the Japanese destroyers Akizuki and EM helicopter carriers Hyuga are even more advanced: they are based on the high-performance antenna post with the 4-radar SLCC -3A (AFAR), and each side has a large antenna array (detection and tracking) and small (backlight), they work in the decimeter and centimeter ranges, respectively, the actual firing capacity of the complex (around 30 targets simultaneously) is much higher than that of " Aegis a ”, since the latter formally has 3 to 4 channels, depending on the number of 1-channel radar AN / SPG-62, the official number“ 18 ”is just the number of corrected RIM-67 in the air. The radar FCS-3A corresponds to the parameters of the Russian MRLS “Polyment” and the Dutch APAR, developed by the companies “Thales” and “Mitsubishi Electronics”.
Based on the above parameters of armaments and avionics of modern warships of developed fleets, it is possible to make a disappointing conclusion that the overall combat potential of the surface component of the Russian Navy has many flaws, which can be corrected only by accelerating the pace of construction of new ships and at the moment it is happening with TARKR pr. 1144.2 "Admiral Nakhimov", which 12 has been idle for years at the pier of OAO PO Sevmash, waiting for at least some plans for its further fate.
And in December 2011, the further direction of work on one of the best warships in history was clarified. The then General Director of Sevmash, Andrei Dyachkov, said that the work on improving the Admiral Nakhimov cruiser, which would begin as early as 2012, would primarily affect the expansion of the rocket armament range, and a significant improvement in the parameters of the onboard electronic equipment of the ship, which gave an overview of his future appearance and appointment in the Russian Navy.
At first, it was believed that the updated Nakhimov air defense system - PRO would be represented by the C-400 air defense missile system, but just a few days ago it became known that the element base would remain the same, with the only difference being that the upgraded cruiser will receive equivalent bow and stern ships The S-300FM “Fort-M” air defense missile system with significantly increased combat capabilities in comparison with those installed on the Peter the Great TARKR and all RKR Atlant 1164 (Glory class).
Tactical and technical parameters of the "Fort" is planned to increase at the expense of improvements in software and mathematical control algorithm MRLS 4R48, including an increase in capacity and energy potential PFAR, as well as through the introduction of ammunition, not only does anti-aircraft missiles 5V55RM, 48N6E / E2 but completely new long-range missiles 48H6DMK with active radar seeker, which will finally open up new opportunities for the air defense of our fleet, which is slightly lower. Information on the modernization of Fort-M at Admiral Nakhimov appeared thanks to the Sevmash procurement website, where at the end of 2014, data were published regarding the Sevmash contract with the Almaz Scientific and Production Association for the supply of two Fort-M complexes "Total cost of about 5 billion rubles.
WHAT IS THE SECRET OF SUCCESS OF THE MODERNIZED FORT-M VERSION?
It is quite clear that sometimes a small correction and refinement of the existing architecture can be much more profitable and faster than complex restructuring, especially since new, much more attractive projects are already on the horizon. This is also the case with Nakhimov in the light of the first developments and plans for the Squall project of the super-destroyer Ave. XNUME. “Sevmash” acted quite prudently, not to install the C-23560 or Polimen-Redut complex on the cruiser, because the installation of absolutely new equipment, including the fitting of the TLU B-400A caliber to the 203X9X96 or 2X9 caliber, as well as the installation of new the firing MRLS would have resulted in absolutely astronomical sums exceeding 100 billion rubles; and at stake were spending on replacing the ship's anti-ship missile system.
The 48H6DMK anti-aircraft missiles that will be part of the Admiral Nakhimov updated Forts are the most radically modernized modifications of the well-known 48H6Х2 / Е3. Their maximum range is increased by 50 km and is 250 km, but unlike the previous ones, it is equipped with ARGSN, which will allow our cruiser to conduct full-fledged over-the-horizon shelling of low-flying air targets, which will be greatly facilitated.
For missiles equipped with a semi-active radar GPS, constant illumination of a multi-purpose ground or shipborne radar is required, which for high accuracy of the missile defense system to reach the target should work exclusively in G / X (centimeter) or even at higher frequency bands , the US Patriot AN / MPQ-30 complex on-load tap-changer, and anti-aircraft missiles with active radar seeker only need to correct the missile’s flight (target designation) on the cruise and final trajectory; ARGSN interceptor missiles (usually work on the J / X / G-bands). When shooting beyond the horizon at a cruise missile, RCC or UAV, targeting missiles with active hf is greatly simplified, since for conventional target designation (not to be confused with light and accurate auto tracking) almost any ground, air or sea radar can be used, including S-or E-range radars. At such frequencies, many surveillance radars, including Fregat-MAE / M6E type surveyed radar, ground-based 3НХNUMXЕ round-robin satellites, as well as the radar stations of the RTR Nebo-M mobile complex, A-41 and D-AO helicopter, and 4. In other words, targeting a missile at a target can be accomplished by any multi-purpose fighter or a flying radar, in the zone and radius of which the air target is located, which is unattainable for shipborne radar weapons due to low radio horizon.
At these frequencies, Sampson radars of British EM Dering and EMPAR French frigates La Fayette function. But there is also a lack of S-band type of target designation: a two-way or one-way MRLS cannot adjust the convergence with a target at the time of turning the antenna array, when the radiation pattern for a moment leaves the direction of the missile to see if at that moment ARGSN gives a fault, the radar may not have time to correct the missile again on the target, so the concept of shipboard defense, in which SAM systems are equipped with ARGSN, and the MRLS work in the X-band, continues to be the most advanced. Such a principle will be applied just in the improved Fort-M KZRK and the new Polyment-Redut complexes. The most well-known foreign example of such KZRK can be considered the Israeli “Barak-8”, which is installed on board the Indian destroyers of the 15A Ave. “Calcutta”.
The use of long-range missiles 48H6DMK as a means of over-the-horizon interception in the Nakhimov ammunition will make the survivability of the NG CG of the Northern Fleet higher than ever before, in my opinion all ships of the 1144 and 1164 projects must be reequipped for such ZUR. The high-speed flight of the ZNUMXN48E family of missiles (up to 6 km / h) allows you to intercept almost any speed targets in pursuit, which only such systems as the Patriot PAC-7000 and SM-2 can do today. So, for example, in the US Navy, the advantages of over-the-horizon interception were seen a long time ago and even several large ocean tests were conducted with the participation of the Aegis system ships, the last of which was held in the autumn of 3.
The American missile cruiser “Chancellorsville” (CG 62) of the “Ticonderoga” class launched two new SM-6 ERAM (RIM-174) anti-aircraft guided missiles at a remote out-of-horizon target. carrier "Chancellorsville", then control over the radio link tactical communications "Link-99" passed to "Aegis" - the destroyer DDG 16 "Sampson", which had already made the final targeting in his area of view, - a classic of the genre of network-centric warfare. Low-altitude LA-imitators of anti-ship missiles were successfully intercepted, which suggests the correct concept of the implementation of over-the-horizon qualities of sea-based anti-aircraft missile systems.
As I mentioned at the beginning of the article, the long-range characteristics of the Dirk “Dirk”, as well as their very low speed of the target to be hit, will not allow to confidently “hold” the ship’s near line from the blows of modern high-speed EHVs, therefore it was decided to re-equip the Admiral Nakhimov with an upgraded version of the famous ZRAK - “Kortik-M” (3М87-1), which differs from the standard “Dirk” by the upgraded element base of the RLPK and OLPK, as well as the possibility of using two quadruple quadruple systems with the 57Е6 complex "Pantsir-С1" or "Pantsir-M" ("Mace").
These missiles have a maximum range of 20 km and an interception ceiling of 15 km, and the maximum speed of the targeted target is 1000 m / s, which makes it possible to shoot down six combat modules not only of the 36 flying PKR or PRLR, but also ballistic objects at speeds of 3600 km / h. However, in the standard “Kortik” configuration with 3М311 / -1 missiles, the number of target channels will not be lower than 6, and the speed of the target being hit will increase to 900 m with an appropriate refinement of the radio-electronic part of the RLC of the combat module and the installation of a higher-quality matrix optical-electronic sight. / s, it is these target speed limits that are indicated for the 3М311 SAM in the relevant literature of authoritative sources.
KZRK "Dagger" is a kind of integral part of self-defense both on ships of small displacement and on Nakhimov. Unlike the Pantsir-M and Kortik-M anti-aircraft missile and artillery complexes, the Dagger is an all-view system, in fact, like all versions of the Fort. 9М331 anti-aircraft missiles are located in vertical launchers 4C95. The rocket has a vertical ejection type of launch with a further inclination towards the target in the initial accelerating part of the trajectory. Vertical launching completely removes the restrictions on the zones of shelling of the Dagger EC, which are observed in all ship-based SPACE, shooting only at the targets in sight (direct fire), which on combat ships is limited to the architecture of the superstructures: for example, combat modules. "Installed on the right side of the stern of the ship, will not be able to fire on anti-ship missiles flying up from the side of the left side, or from the direction of 30 degrees from the longitudinal axis from the front hemisphere (this zone overlaps the main Adstroykoy), "Dagger" and the new air defense system "Shtil" have no such problems.
Special attention is also riveted to the new universal shock anti-ship missile system, which according to the statements of specialists will become the most advanced means of air attack of a naval theater. From now on, 20 heavy P-700 anti-ship missiles, which can be easily intercepted by Aster-15 / 30 or RIM-162 ESSM missiles, will be replaced with more advanced weapons - Onyx and Caliber-NK family anti-ship missiles, work on the universal built-in PUs are maintained by the “KB of special engineering” at the request of Sevmash. It is known that “Admiral Nakhimov” will receive 10 octopus UHFU ZS-14-chem NNXX-less caliber 11442 mm (diameter of the fuselage of the Onyx 670М3 rocket), which can also be equipped with more “thin” 55-3E-type anti-ship missile system with the -year control system. , including the long-range version 54М1 (analogue of "Tomahawk"), and the promising hypersonic RCC 3K-14 "Zircon"; The UHF of the ship will now be designed for 3 prospective anti-ship and strategic cruise missiles that can not only penetrate any conceivable and inconceivable air defense of NATO AUG OVMS, but also deliver crushing blows at enemy command ground points at a distance of 22 km, which was demonstrated by the Caspian Flotilla in a massive rocket attack on the positions of the IG.
CRC 3М55 "Onyx" is much more compact than 3М45 "Granit", their flight speed at an altitude of 20 meters by 500 km / h is higher, maneuverability by a dozen "G" exceeds the "Granite" indicator, below and radar visibility, therefore, intercept such the object is hardly “in the teeth” even of the “sophisticated” SAM “Aster-30”. The impact of the Onyxes will be much more swift and complex than the “skullcapes” “Harpoons” and “LRASMs”, especially considering the fact that all American SAM systems of the SM-2 family have low speed of flight (3,5М) and mediocre maneuverability. At the same time, our SFG of the SF, led by the advanced Nakhimov, the frigate Admiral Gorshkov and the modified BOD Ave 1155, Udaly, will be able to crush any American AUG within a radius of 500 km.
The most formidable strike naval armament of the US Navy, in addition to SSBNs, are Ohio-class multipurpose nuclear submarines and the low-profile attack destroyers Zamvolt. SSGN “Ohio” strategic submarine-carrying submarines, including SSBNs with re-equipment for Tomahawks and silos, can carry up to 154 SLCM BGM-109C / D with a range up to 1000 km, and Zumwalt's 80 to 109 SCRMB BGM-XNM CHMB D-XN CHMB, and EM “Zumwalt” - up to 2500 SCRMB BGM-XNM CHMB DGN CHMB / XNMX / CHNB CHMB, and ZMW “ZHMW” in UVPU Mk57. Also on the 56 "Tomahawks" can take on board all 65 EM "Arly Burke", which leaves a huge imprint on the further modernization of the naval structure of the air defense of the Russian fleet.
After the launch of the Admiral Nakhimov TARKR, the Northern Fleet will finally acquire all the qualities characteristic of modern naval groups, strengthen these qualities and the new frigates of 22350 Ave., but after that only half of the way to the formation of the future fleet will be completed, as SF - a group of regional importance capable of providing guarantees of security only for parts of the Arctic and Atlantic frontiers of our state, while for a full strategic balance with the West in the area of responsibility of the Pacific Fleet, the Baltic Fleet and the Black Sea Fleet is neo We only need to accelerate the production of new destroyers of the Squall project, which in the foreseeable future will completely replace our honorable "veterans" - the Orlans and Atlants.