Terrible attacks in the capital of France
As it turned out, seven separate attacks took place on this day in Paris. Unidentified gunmen opened fire in a Paris restaurant in the 10 district, then information appeared about the hostage taking at the Bataclan Theater, where the American rock band was playing. In the hands of the terrorists was about 100 people. Two or three explosions sounded near the Stade de France stadium, where a friendly match was being played between the teams of France and Germany, which was attended by the French President Francois Hollande himself. The victims of three suicide bombers who blew themselves up at the stadium were three people. Much greater sacrifices occurred in the restaurant and theater. About a hundred people died in the theater. The police could not free the hostages because the terrorists who had captured them refused to negotiate. After the terrorist attacks that took place, the victims of which were at least 153 people, the French government announced the introduction of a state of emergency and the closure of state borders. Shortly after the terrorist attacks, military units numbering 1500 troops were brought into Paris to help the police and gendarmes in ensuring security. In 04.58, the French police put on a wanted list a group of terrorists accused of participating in terrorist attacks. The number of extremists who are hiding in the territory of the French capital, according to the media, can reach six to seven people. However, the scale of the measures taken suggests that in fact in Paris and its environs there may be much more radicals than French newsmen and the townsfolk can imagine. At 05.35, French authorities reported that seven terrorists who were directly involved in the attacks on the territory of the capital were destroyed. Three of them blew themselves up during the storming of the Bataklan concert hall by police special forces. It seems that in the history of France a new era has begun, in which the republic will have to actually live in wartime conditions.
Almost immediately after the attacks, the responsibility for them was taken by the international terrorist organization Islamic State, which was banned by a court decision in the Russian Federation. The statement of the IG, who took responsibility for the "nightmare night" in the French capital, says that this is revenge for Syria. IG called the terrorist attacks "French 11 September." Naturally, the bloody events that occurred stirred up not only France and Europe, but the whole world. The leaders of the countries of the world and international organizations expressed their condolences to the French people. In a number of states, police security measures have been strengthened. However, besides common phrases about the terrible threat of international terrorism and the need to consolidate the world community to confront terrorists, neither the French leadership nor the leaders of other European countries are in a hurry to pay attention to the situation in most countries of Western Europe. A few decades ago, the bombings, hostage-taking, shooting on the streets were perceived by the same French as elements of the life of the Middle Eastern or African states, at least - of neighboring Italy, where the Red Brigades, right-wing radicals and the mafia raged. In France itself, as in most European countries, it was calm. Isolated terrorist acts of leftist or ultra-right groups have never led to such consequences for society as the attacks of terrorists - "jihadists". What happened in France 13 November 2015 of the year was made possible thanks to the policy of the French leadership, or rather the common line, which is implemented by the governments of most European countries within the European Union.
The transformation of European countries into a shelter for migrants from all over the world, regardless of the cultural level of these migrants, their readiness to adapt to the new living conditions in the host society, brings its bloody fruits. Europe is gradually turning into a place unsafe for Europeans themselves. And European politicians themselves are responsible for this - those that have always emphasized the priority of the multicultural model of national politics, focused on the United States, refusing to protect their own interests - in Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa. Neither France, nor Italy, nor Germany has ever benefited the overthrow of Gaddafi or Hussein, nor the civil war in Syria, which aims to overthrow Bashar al-Assad. The Arab regimes, albeit authoritarian, tough, applying repression, were still able to maintain relative stability in the territories under their control. This stability was beneficial, including Europe. At least, until recently, Europe did not know about hundreds of thousands of Syrian, Iraqi or Libyan refugees. The same Gaddafi regime created obstacles for African migrants who tried to get to Europe through the territory of Libya. In his testament, Muammar Gaddafi openly warned the European states that took part in the armed aggression against Libya: “You bombed the wall, did not let the flow of African migration to Europe, the wall that stopped the Al Qaeda terrorists. This wall was Libya. You destroy it. ” Until the overthrow of Gaddafi, Libya remained one of the most attractive countries for African migrants. High oil revenues caused the low prestige of heavy and unskilled labor among Libyans; therefore, such vacancies were occupied by migrants from the underdeveloped countries of Tropical Africa.
The civil war, the NATO aggression and the subsequent actual “somalization” of Libya, that is, its transformation into a territory of chaos, led to the relocation of these migrants to Europe. Moreover, they were joined by people from war-torn Libya. And this is only one of the directions of migration. Hundreds of thousands of immigrants from Syria and Iraq, Yemen and Sudan, Somalia and Eritrea, Afghanistan and Mali moved to Europe. The EU countries, instead of considering and implementing an effective policy to prevent the resettlement of such a large number of refugees and migrants, have introduced a quota system, according to which every European country undertakes to place a certain number of foreign migrants on its territory. It is noteworthy that the countries of Eastern Europe, especially Hungary and Slovakia, were the most radical against the quotas. Western Europe, primarily France and Germany, accepted the bulk of Middle Eastern and African refugees and migrants. However, the reasons for the monstrous events that took place on Friday 13 November in France, were laid much earlier. They are based on French foreign policy in the Middle East and Africa, as well as miscalculations of migration and national policies. In fact, a favorable environment has emerged in France for the spread of extremist views that can develop into terrorist activities. To commit terrorist attacks in France, there is no longer any sense to penetrate foreign terrorists - among French citizens and migrants permanently residing in the country, so much of them sympathize with radical fundamentalist sentiments. The spread of the ideology of radical Islam becomes possible thanks to the social deprivation of the migrant environment, the social and economic problems of French society as a whole, and finally - the absolutely inadequate, “toothless” policy of the French leadership, which does not make any real efforts to correct the situation. fix - the percentage of migrants and their descendants who live in France and have long considered themselves to be “French” when it suits them) is too large).
Multiculturalism and European "suicide"
When Dominique Wenner, the 78-year-old French right-wing writer and historian, shot himself in front of the altar of the Notre-Dame de Paris, his action was called "European Suicide." Wenner warned the French about the risks that the further continuation of the policy of multiculturalism and tolerance, resulting in the gradual replacement of the population and the loss of European cultural values, entails. Levoliberal and Social Democratic governments of Europe pursue a policy aimed at actually destroying the national identities of European states, at decomposing European society, which is unable not only to "digest" the multimillion masses of migrants, but also to protect themselves from possible acts of aggression from migrants. At one time, the famous French philosopher Jean Baudrillard rightly remarked: “A society that itself is undergoing a process of disintegration cannot integrate immigrants. Their problems were at the same time a direct consequence of this process and an involuntary indicator of the degree of disunity of the present world. The cruel truth is that if we now put the problem of immigrants behind the brackets, we will still rush into the void in search of our own identity. Immigrants and their problems are only symptoms of the disintegration of our society, fighting with oneself ”(quoted in: Baudrillard J. Your mother! // http://inosmi.ru/world/20051121/223783.html). For several decades of active Arab-African immigration to France, a multimillion-strong stratum of the population has been formed in the country, alien in ethnic, cultural, confessional relations to the European population of the country. A significant part of the representatives of this stratum refers to European culture and Europeans with poorly concealed disdain, and even with outright hatred. This hatred does not prevent them from living in France, enjoying social benefits, the achievements of French civilization, but it does not respect the local population, its culture and traditions. There is an insurmountable cultural conflict between visitors and the indigenous population. The French government, leftist and liberal political parties claim that the basis of the negative behavior of migrants from Asian and African countries is their social deprivation, that is, living in unsatisfactory conditions, lack of work, and good education. Therefore, the integration of migrants into French society is associated with the improvement of their social and living conditions, the promotion of tolerance towards visitors in schools, universities, enterprises and residential areas.
However, numerous social measures taken by the French government in relation to Arab-African and other migrants do not give the desired result. Moreover, the visitors do not cease to hate the French society that accepted them as much as they would hate it before receiving social benefits. Living conditions in an atomized European megalopolis themselves force migrants to stumble into groups, diasporas, and strive to preserve national and religious identity by any means. Broad layers of migrants are not assimilated into the French (German, Belgian, Spanish) society. Migrants position themselves as cohesive communities, and they consider radical Islam as the only teaching that can become an effective alternative to the European way of life. As a result, migrants actually refuse to accept the lifestyle, culture and ideological attitudes of the host society. This reluctance is transformed in practice into participation in mass riots and protest movements, in the activities of extremist and terrorist groups. European culture and its achievements for the radically-minded part of migrants who are not going to assimilate and coexist in general peacefully with the European population, are of absolutely no value. It is difficult not to agree with the words of the philosopher Jean Baudrillard mentioned above: “Western culture rests only on the desire of all the others to gain access to it. And when the slightest signs of a weakening of this desire appear, it loses not only its superiority in the eyes of the rest of the world, but also the attractiveness in its own eyes. But the harness and rob the best that it can offer - cars, schools, shopping centers. Kindergartens! That is what we wanted to integrate immigrants with, we were going to coddle with them! . . 'Fuck!' - here, in essence, is their answer. And the more we try to nurse with them, the more often they will send us by mother. We need to revise our humanitarian psychology "(Quoted in: Baudrillard J. Your mother! // http://inosmi.ru/world/20051121/223783.html).
Considering the waves of Arab-African migration to France, it should be noted that only the last, “fourth” wave of migration brings so many problems to French society. The first three waves of migration passed relatively unnoticed by France. A number of Algerian, Moroccan and Tunisian Arabs and Berbers worked at French enterprises and construction sites, but they did not cause serious trouble to the local population. The cultural part of the Algerian emigration generally focused on assimilation in French society and the adoption of French culture, many immigrants rejected their native culture in the name of European values. With the beginning of the "fourth wave", which came on the 1980-e - 1990-s, the situation has changed. Firstly, the migrants of the “fourth wave” are Arabs and Africans who do not want to assimilate and perceive French culture. Secondly, they are focused not so much on work as on living in France, preferably on social benefits. Thirdly, migrants arriving in France no longer dissolve in the surrounding French society, but find shelter in areas densely populated by their fellow tribesmen in French cities and rural areas. Many suburbs of large French cities have long been turned into Arab and African towns, where the European population is almost absent. Finally, the scale of migration has also increased - as French sociologists calculated, they used to make up the 0,7 person per workplace, and now the 3-4 person per workplace. Accordingly, a significant portion of migrants remain unemployed, which, in turn, contributes to the further aggravation of the social situation in the country. For several decades, the second generation of descendants of migrants has grown up in the country, which are French citizens and have rights to social benefits. Naturally, the descendants of migrants are no longer willing to work in low-paid and hard work, but prefer to live on benefits, thereby replenishing the marginal segments of the French population. It is noteworthy that the assimilation of immigrants from Arab-African families is more difficult in the second generation than in the first. French historian and anthropologist Fernand Braudel notes that in modern France, the children of Muslim immigrants "found themselves in the position of outcast and themselves reject assimilation, which often succeeded their fathers." Religious identity for Arab-African migrants replaces national identity — they never became French; Algerians, Moroccans, or Senegalese actually ceased to be. The only thing that unites numerous descendants of Arab-African migrants, many of whom do not know another language other than French, is religion. Islam becomes the basis of the identity of migrants of the second and third generation, as well as a kind of “cultural bridge” connecting them with their homeland.
Prior to the beginning of the 1990's. in France, the point of view was widespread, providing for the gradual “inclusion” of migrants into French society. First of all, this point of view was shared by socialists and representatives of other left-wing parties and movements, however, many right-wing parties advocated the assimilation of migrants. Indeed, Italian, Portuguese, Polish migrants did not have any problems in terms of assimilation - they “dissolved” fairly quickly in French society, not to mention the second and third generations, which were completely assimilated in the French environment. The increase in the number of Arab-African migrants, with their obvious cultural differences from French society, made French politicians reconsider the specifics of migration policies. Thus, the concept of “melting pot” was replaced by the concept of multiculturalism, that is, the coexistence of different cultures within French society. France was recognized as a multicultural country. The French left talked about the need to find ways of compromise and harmonious coexistence of French European culture with Arab and African cultures of migrants. At the same time, the majority of the right insisted on preserving the concept of assimilation, demanding from migrants unconditional acceptance of the lifestyle, traditions, behavioral attitudes of the host society. As evidenced by the events of recent years, the peaceful coexistence of cultures in France has not happened. The failure of multicultural policy became apparent as early as the 2000s throughout Europe, and France, due to a significant percentage of migrants, became the state where all the flaws of European migration policy manifested themselves most clearly. It is significant that the majority of the French, not striving for coexistence with the cultures of migrants, at the same time did not want them to “dissolve” in French society. So, 64% of French respondents are convinced that Arabs and Africans should not be assimilated, and only according to 9 and 12% of French people do not believe that Italian and Spanish migrants should be assimilated. Thus, a certain selectivity of the French is obvious in the choice of those migrants with whom they would like to adjoin and converge. But the improvement of the economic situation in Italy, Spain, Portugal contributed to the cessation of significant migration flows from these culturally closely related countries to France. Today, the bulk of migrants are Arabs and Africans. Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Syria, Iraq, Senegal, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Cameroon, Chad, Mauritania, Somalia - this is not a complete list of countries in Africa and Asia, from where many thousands of migrants go to France.
The radicalization of migrant youth as a failure of multiculturalism
The spread of radical Islam began, as noted above, precisely among the Arab-African youth, and was the result of the enormous miscalculations of the French leadership in matters of national, migration and youth policy. Despite the fact that millions of migrants live in France today. Since France does not keep official records of the nationality of French citizens, it is difficult to say how many Algerian, Tunisian, Moroccan, Senegalese, etc. citizens live in the country. origin. According to experts, the number of foreign migrants and their descendants in France already threatens the country's national identity. They make up 20% of the total population of France. In Marseille, people from North African countries constitute more than half of the population, there are localities in which Arabs and Africans prevail in numbers over the French population, gradually displacing the latter. According to statistics, about 10% of the population of France is currently Muslim. Virtually all Muslims (except for newly converted French, who, despite the growing popularity of Islam among Europeans, are still not so many), are migrants and children of migrants from Arab countries and Islamic states of Tropical Africa. It is in this environment that radical views are spreading, with which the French government cannot oppose anything. The Arab-African youth is still one of the most socially disadvantaged groups of the French population. Russian sociologist Ye.B. Dementseva stresses that the Arab-African youth of the second generation of migrants is characterized by “dual culture” - they belong to the Western, French culture that surrounds them from the first days of birth, and to the Arab or African culture of their parents and relatives. Among Arab-African youth in France, a specific subculture is being formed, which is a combination of Arab-African Muslim culture and European, French mass culture. French among young descendants of migrants is becoming the main language of communication, especially since people from different countries (with the exception of Arabic) cannot understand each other without resorting to French. Moreover, almost all children of migrants receive education in school in French, while they communicate with their peers from a foreign environment. At the same time, the French language of migrants has a large number of borrowings from the Arabic language, especially greetings, on social and political subjects. The family values have a great influence on the behavior of the second generation of migrants. Individual families of Arab-African migrants are characterized by a steady orientation towards integration into French society. Such families perceive European values and the European way of life; they distance themselves from their fellow tribesmen who do not want to assimilate; they are neutral towards inter-ethnic marriages. The other pole is traditionalist families, focused on preserving national and religious values, refusing not only to integrate into the host society, but also, at times, to interact with it. Some families are actually on the “hotbeds of counterculture” position, as they relate to the surrounding society, to the European way of life in a very negative way and strive to preserve national traditions as much as possible and to protect their descendants from the influence of European culture.
But the perception of radical views often does not depend on whether a young man was brought up in a traditional or assimilating migrant family. Many French citizens of Arab-African descent who joined the radicals and went to war in Syria or Iraq are the children of second and third generation migrants. For many of them, radical Islam is the only way to get away from negative social reality. For example, the direct perpetrators of the famous terrorist attack against the magazine Charlie Hebdo Said and Sheriff Kouachi are French citizens of Algerian origin. Apparently, they came from an unfavorable social environment, since they received upbringing and education in an orphanage. It turns out that they did not assimilate religious values in the family, since for a long time their family was a French state social institution. The problem is that from the orphanage, the Kouachi brothers returned to the same Parisian streets, back to the social ghetto. During the years of their life and study in the orphanage, the Kouacha brothers could not integrate into French society, moreover, they felt completely different people than prosperous French and even more prosperous Algerian migrants from full and socially successful families. Meanwhile, in the enclaves of Arab-African migrants on the outskirts of Paris and other French cities, not only drug trafficking and street robberies, car thefts and mass brawls of youth groups, but also the activities of religious fundamentalist organizations became a reality. The role of preachers is usually played by migrants who have recently arrived in France from the countries of the Arab East, and the second and third generations of Arab-African migrants as an attentive audience, and sometimes their French peers from a socially disadvantaged environment. It is in these enclaves that volunteers are recruited for combat operations in the Middle East and North Africa, and assistants of international terrorist organizations in French territory are recruited. The same brothers, Kouachi, before attacking the editorial board of Charlie Hebdo, had time to receive a religious education in Yemen and, quite likely, to take part in hostilities in the Middle East. From there, with combat experience, they, like thousands of descendants of migrants like them, returned to their native France - already as experienced fighters and staunch supporters of radical views.
Needless to say, there are tens of thousands of such radical young migrants of the first, second and third generation in France. Someone is ready to go to the riots in the center of the French capital, someone - to go to war in the Middle East, and some - and make a terrorist attack against their fellow Frenchmen. French Prime Minister Manuel Waltz in June 2015 spoke of 1730 volunteers from France fighting on the side of the forces of the “Islamic State” in the Middle East - in Syria and Iraq. According to the Prime Minister of France, 110 people from among the citizens of the country who went to fight in the Middle East, are already dead - they died during the fighting and air raids. It is increasingly becoming among radical fundamentalists and ethnic French, as well as representatives of other European nationalities. As for France itself, the operational situation here has deteriorated sharply after the influx in 2015 of a new wave of migrants from the countries of the Middle East and North Africa, primarily from Syria. These are no longer labor migrants, but so-called “refugees”. Among the refugees, there are amazingly many men of fighting age. Yes, not all men want and can fight on someone’s side in the Syrian conflict, but among the hundreds of thousands of Syrian citizens who have arrived in Europe, there may well be fighters from radical organizations. How to distinguish them from ordinary refugees? No European police services are powerless against so many new people arriving in the territory of the European Union countries. Each potential fighter may require a whole development, the participation of ten to twenty police officers who deal directly with his person. Law enforcement agencies and special services of European countries simply do not have such forces and resources to track extremist manifestations among refugees from the countries of the Middle East and North Africa.
At the beginning of the second week of November 2015, just before the terrorist attacks in Paris, mass unrest of migrants occurred in the French city of Calais. They began with an attempt by 200 migrants to block the road. The police had to use three hundred grenades with tear gas, but migrants began throwing stones at police officers. In total, Kale has at least 6 thousands of people, mostly immigrants from Eritrea, Sudan and Somalia, as well as refugees from Syria and Afghanistan. The heated situation in Calais forced the leadership of the French Ministry of Internal Affairs to send additional gendarmerie units and special forces more than 450 people to the city. For modern France, the riots perpetrated by migrants from African and Asian countries have long become quite an everyday event. On the outskirts of Paris and a number of other French cities, migrant youth clash with police regularly, but even against this background, the situation of the past year looks most alarming. In particular, if we consider that France is "stuck" in a military campaign in Syria, initiated by the Americans. The fact that the terrorist attacks in Paris have a "Syrian trace", now almost no one doubts. Obviously, it is precisely the war in Syria and Iraq and the uncontrolled migration of “refugees” to Europe that are connected with it that pose the greatest threat to the national security of European states. This is confirmed by reports of the perpetrators of terrorist attacks in Paris 13 in November 2015. So, according to Le Figaro, the first suspect was one Abdulakbak B. 1990 year of birth. The 25-year-old man was a citizen of Syria and had not previously come to the attention of the French police. A young Syrian, according to preliminary data, and set off an explosive device placed on his own body, in the area of the Stade de France stadium. Presumably, Ahmed Almohammed, a Syrian citizen, became the direct organizer and leader of the terrorist attacks. According to European media, he came to France under the guise of a refugee from Syria through the territory of Greece and Serbia. By the way, it was in Serbia that Almohammed filed an application for asylum. Unlike the Syrian citizens of Abdulakbak and Almohammed, 29-year-old Ismail Omar Mostefai was a native and, accordingly, a French citizen. Since 2012 he lived in Chartres and repeatedly came into the view of the French police and intelligence services. However, Omar was watched badly. Moreover, his criminal and extremist activities frankly condoned. It is known that a twenty-nine-year-old man was tried by a French court eight times for various petty offenses. But none of these eight sentences ended in a real prison sentence. Although Mostefai was also in the counterintelligence database as a supporter of radical fundamentalist views, he was also not sanctioned along this line. В 2013-2014 гг. he managed to visit Syria and, apparently, showed considerable activity in the camp of religious fundamentalists. The neglect of the French special services to his person turned out that 13 November 2015 g. Mostefai blew himself up in the Bataklan concert hall.
The fact that the main object of propaganda attention of extremists is the French youth of Arab-African descent and the youth from families of refugees and migrants, is evidenced by the fact that among the suicide bombers in the hall "Bataclan" were two teenagers aged 16-18 years. Young people and adolescents of the second and third generations of migrants are a special case. They feel as full-fledged citizens of France as the ethnic French, because they were born and lived in France since childhood. But, at the same time, they feel their “otherness”, are dissatisfied with their social position and this discontent is transformed into participation in radical movements and extremist organizations. Professor Sorbonne Sophie Body Gandre is engaged in the study of youth ethnocriminal groups in France. According to the researcher, “when black adolescents burn cars, they themselves consider themselves to be French-deprived by the state, and the authorities consider them French” (quoted on: http://gorod.afisha.ru/changes/kak-otnosyatsya-k-priezzhim -v-evrope /). This situation is typical not only for France, but also for most of those European countries where migrants and their descendants make up a rather large part of the population.
The socially disadvantaged environment of “migrant ghettos” is becoming a fertile ground for the spread of radical and extremist views. On the other hand, this environment is constantly being fed by new and new migrants from Asia and Africa. If European countries maximally tightened the migration policy, the penetration of new waves of migrants into the social environment of the outskirts of European cities would be suspended. Accordingly, the descendants of migrants in the second and third generations would receive more incentives for assimilation in the host society, since they would lose contact with “fresh” tribesmen who came from the “historical homeland” and act as main translators of national and religious traditions and worldviews.
The nightmare of 13 in November of 2015, regardless of who actually stood behind the terrorist attacks in Paris, once again drew attention to the enormous problems that Europe faced due to its migration policy. Even if the terrorist attacks in Paris are the machinations of one of the world's special services, they became possible, first of all, due to the absence of a coherent French policy towards foreign migrants. Approximately the same problems - and the rest of European countries. Periodically, the migration situation reminds oneself of bloody victims. Either visitors and local religious fanatics, or "ultra-right" from among the representatives of the indigenous population, shoot and blow up, and completely innocent civilians suffer, including. Having given up the situation with migrants, Europe commits suicide.