For my family, as well as for many others in our country, Victory Day is a holy holiday. My father, Ivan Vasilievich Mukhin, took a direct part in the hostilities on the fronts of World War II. In the period from July 26, 1942 to November 16, 1945 he served as commander of the 86th tank (86th brigade) and the 12th self-propelled artillery (12th SABr) brigades. Thanks to the materials received in the Central Archive of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation at the command posts equipped and guarded by my father, I was able to describe the military operations of the 86th RBR and the 12th SABR.
ALL WAR UNDER SIGHT
As you know, command posts (CP) are the primary targets for the means of defeating the enemy. The father of the war was under the gun of the enemy. Over the entire period he received three injuries: first, the bullet made a shallow furrow along the head, the second bullet demolished half of the eyebrow of the right eye, and he involuntarily blinked his whole life with this eye, the third — the bullet injured his right forearm without touching the bones. Mother believes that all this is due to the fact that she and we, the children, prayed to God every morning and evening.
The first part of my father's combat path relates to the participation of the 86 th BR in the defensive operation of the Bryansk Front in the Voronezh sector.
8 August 1942, the brigade was assigned the task of mastering the height of 229 together with the 218,2 Rifle Brigade (CPR). The tanks of the 86 th brigade, despite the large number of minefields and strong anti-tank defenses, captured the height and held it for a day, until the 229 th infantry regiment approached.
On August 9, the brigade received the task of bringing the 229 th infantry to the Long Grove, combing it with fire, thus giving the infantry the opportunity to occupy the forest. The tanks approached the forest, combed it with fire, but the infantry did not occupy the forest.
On August 10, the brigade received a categorical order - to capture the height of 218,2, the Long grove and draw infantry at any cost. Tanks to 15.00 10 August captured the height and by the end of the day captured the southern edge of the grove Long to the trail inclusive. The 229 Corps infantry came out in groups of 50 – 100 people by the morning of August 11 of the year 1942. From 11 August to 15 August 1942, tanks 86-nd TRB held the height 218,2 and the southern edge of Long grove.
On August 17, on the basis of a new order, the brigade made the delivery of its section of the 240 Infantry Division (SD) and moved to a new area of concentration to take up initial positions.
According to an order from the 38 Army from 8 September 1942, the 86 Brigade marched to a new concentration area and took the initial positions of joint action with the 240-th SD, located in the East Pribytkovo forest to participate in an offensive operation. The purpose of the latter was to divert part of the enemy forces from the southern outskirts of Voronezh - for the development of the 40 th army to liberate this city.
On the night of September 15, 1942, 86-th TBr received the task to break through the front line of the enemy defense at the turn of the 111 mark - Untitled khutor - southern Verilovka and reach the line Panskaya Gnezdilovka - Razdolnoye. In 07.00 15 September, at a signal from the rocket, the brigade rushed to the front of the enemy, opening heavy fire and crushing Nazi tracks.
Having broken through the front line of the enemy defense, by September 17.00 15 the brigade reached the boundary of the northeastern outskirts of Gnezdilovo - Wet - farm Nameless. The enemy, shot down by our units and having suffered heavy losses in manpower and equipment, hastily retreated, leaving many of the corpses of their soldiers and officers on the battlefield. However, the 240 infantry SD infantry lagged behind the tanks and failed to gain a foothold on the achieved lines. The enemy pulled up his forces at night, in the area of the grove Rarekaya created strong strongholds and put up fierce resistance to the advancing units at the turn of Churikovo-Rubtsovo – Sklyaevo-5 – Sklyaevo-4 – Olkhovatka.
The measures taken by the enemy led to the fact that the task of capturing Olkhovatka was not fulfilled - the infantry of the 240 th SD and 250 of the CPR under the enemy's stormy fire lay down and could not advance, having lost support from the infantry, some were blown up in front of the front edge of the mines, some entered into combat with the enemy. All tanks with an assault force that have broken into Olkhovatka are considered destroyed.
At the beginning of the operation, there were 86 tanks in the 65 tank regiment, including the T-44 tank and the X-NUMX tank T-34. As a result of the described combat operations, the brigade suffered the following losses: killed - 21 man, injured - 60 man, burned 58 tank, exploded on mines - 70 tank, destroyed - 21 tanks.
Of the remaining tanks, a separate company was organized, assigned to the southern bank of the River Vereika with the task of being ready to repel enemy counterattacks in Olkhovatka and carry out the restoration of wrecked tanks evacuated from the battlefield from Olkhovatka.
HEAVY LESSONS OF SKILLS TO FIGHT
Enemy defense on the front was a strongly fortified bridgehead, which led to the fact that the task to seize Olkhovatka was not completed. There were several reasons for this.
First, before the beginning of the offensive near Olkhovatka, our troops did not receive accurate information about the enemy’s defense and its assets, especially the minefields. General information was given by combined-arms reconnaissance, while the units that were on the defensive did not strive to produce power reconnaissance in the area. As a result, the tanks had to act blindly, falling under enemy flank fire.
Secondly, despite the exercises conducted in the rear, the infantry in combat was not sufficiently flexible and did not give adequate support to the tanks, often left them in combat with anti-tank weapons, especially with termites, as a result of which the brigades suffered heavy losses.
Thirdly, the tactics of using tanks in striking was chosen incorrectly - the attack was carried out in the forehead on the enemy's means of defense located on the front. The infantry on the near frontiers was not enough, artillery processing was weak, which did not even ensure the entry of all tanks into Olkhovatka.
Fourth, despite a sufficient number of aircraft, their interaction with ground units was weak, resulting in occasional aviation bombed their battle formations.
Fifthly, planning the operation in the area of Olkhovatka, the command did not sufficiently study the enemy’s defenses. This gave the enemy the opportunity to assemble the escaped units from the forward edge of the defense in the Rare Grove and turn it into a strong center of resistance, the capture of which lasted five days. It should be noted that, knowing what the plan was to take Olkhovatka, one of the major centers of resistance, the Germans did not reckon with anything, threw everything that was possible to thwart the offensive, and they succeeded.
After receiving awards
in the district of Gorse-Lyubbikov.
March 7 1945 year.
Photo courtesy of the author
in the district of Gorse-Lyubbikov.
March 7 1945 year.
Photo courtesy of the author
GOAL - KHARKOV
At the end of December 1942, the Stavka ordered the Voronezh Front, commanded by General F.I. Golikov, in cooperation with the left wing of the Bryansk Front, defeat the enemy troops on the upper Don (German 2 and 2 Hungarian armies, the Italian Alpine Corps and the German 24 corps), and then develop success in Kharkov.
At the first stage of the offensive, it was planned to crush the ostrozhsko-rassoshanskaya grouping by attacking three strikes in converging directions: the 40 army from the north, the 18 separate rifle corps from the east and the 3 tank army from the south. The 40 army was attached to the 86-I, 116-I and 150-I TBR.
13 January 1943 received a verbal order from the commander of the 40 Army: The 86 TBC was to force the Don River near Novozadonsk and concentrate in the village of Uryv in the morning.
On January 13 in 10.00, the brigade launched an offensive and went to 15.00 towards the village of Boldyrevka. In the future, interacting with the 107-th SD and 340-th SD, the team mastered the settlements of Boldyrevka, Oak, Novo-Ivanovsky, Yablochnoe, Tens, KHL. “Red Plowman”, Soldier, Prilepy, Thorn, Berezovka, Peskovatka, Ride, New Way, Lesnoye Ukolovo, Shubnoye, Gubarevka, Orlov, Pisarevka, Osinovka, Gumny, V. Olshany and Ilovskoe.
January 17 brigade swiftly pursued a hurriedly retreating enemy, destroying his manpower and equipment. On January 20, a brigade overtook a departing enemy in the Gumny area - V. Olshan, moving from Ostrogozhsk to Alekseyevka, and defeated his convoy, destroying a large number of manpower and equipment.
As a result of the fighting with 13 on 23, in January, the brigade occupied 22 settlements and destroyed 13 050 enemy soldiers and officers, 42 tank and many other equipment, and also captured 2171 soldier and officer. Fighting brigades differed maneuverability, coherence, swiftness in the performance of combat missions.
February 15 Soviet troops began storming Kharkov. Under the threat of encirclement, the SS tank corps left the city.
From the moment of arrival in Kharkov, the brigade entered into the disposal of the “Headquarters of the Group of Forces for the Defense of Kharkov — as a mobile anti-tank reserve of the group headquarters, having 17 tanks T-34 and 12 tanks T-70”.
March 4 German troops launched an attack on Kharkov from the south. From 8 to 13 in March, the brigade led heavy continuous battles with the enemy in different directions of the enemy's approach to Kharkov. 10 March, the enemy came close to the city. March 12 began street fighting, and March 14 Kharkov and located in its area 3-I TA and 86-I TBR were completely surrounded.
86-I brigade was subjected to fierce shelling from the superior forces of tanks, self-propelled guns and artillery of the enemy. Crews of tanks showed heroism, selflessly fought, for days without leaving the battlefield. Tanks one after another failed. A brigade with a fight, and then alone went out of the encirclement. On March 15, the brigade left the encirclement in the Olshany area and proceeded to put together the remaining forces and assets.
9 April 1943 of the year was received the order of the commander of the Voronezh front to transfer the brigade by rail Valuyki - Art. Oskol and concentrate in Skorodnom. The command of the brigade proceeded to manning the brigade with personnel, materiel and weapons.
By the end of April 28, the brigade moved from Skorodnoye to Green Island and Forest Vost. Green Island and took up the defense, conducting completing and conducting training of personnel to perform combat operations. Before the occupation of their defense areas, personnel made excavation works on a fragment of pits for tanks and rifle trenches and dugouts for personnel. It should be noted that the personnel who arrived at the brigade arrived from prison and from the areas occupied by the Germans, as a result of which there were cases of desertion, theft and injury from inability to handle weapons.
In 15.30 4 July, the enemy, under the cover of a smoke screen, launched an offensive on the 71 th Guards section. The SD (6-I Guards. Army) with a force of up to two infantry divisions and one SS tank division, shot down the guard of the division and continued to advance north and northeast.
On July 5, under the cover of a smoke screen, the enemy launched an offensive and broke through the defenses on the 71 th Guards section. Recounted The brigade was ordered by 5 on July to take the Green Island – Rokitnaya – Kobylevka – Melovoye route and take up defense with the task of preventing the tanks and infantry from breaking through to the north. And on July 6, the brigade was assigned the task of focusing on 24.00 in the forest north of the MTS Krasnooktyabrskaya and entering the submission of the commander of 1TA with the task of preventing the enemy from breaking through to Oboyan. The brigade took up the defense.
By the end of the first half of the day, on July 8, the enemy launched an offensive by force to 70 tanks, having on approach in the area of Merry to 100 tanks. The tank battle took place with a clear superiority of forces from the enemy, with a strong impact of his aircraft. Tankers 86-th TBR courageously fought with the enemy. So, Captain Guba shot down six German Tiger tanks in battle. Other crews had from one to three tanks.
After the fighting on the Belgorod highway, the brigade concentrated in the Obukhovka area. July 16 brigade personnel was assembled to sum up its combat operations on the Belgorod highway. A dinner was arranged for the personnel and money awards were presented to the fighters and commanders who destroyed the German tanks. Some crews received 7 – 10 thousand rubles. For example, the captain Guba received 10 thousand rubles.
HOT MAY 1944-GO
On the basis of the directive of the General Staff on the basis of the 86-th TBR, the 12-i self-propelled artillery brigade was formed, in which there were 65 self-propelled artillery installations. The formation of the brigade took place from February 25 to March 24 1944 at the Tula military camp of Moscow Military District, located in the Tula region (village Sevryukovo, 500 grove to the west). From 24 March to 9 on April 1944, the crew followed the theater of military operations along the route Art. Khomyakovo – Tula – Orel – Kursk – Lgov – Kiev – Korosten – Sarany – Rovno – Lutsk, where it unloaded and entered the 69 Army of the 1 Belarusian Front.
From 9 April 1944 onwards The Trosianka Brigade was making knocks and preparing for hostilities, and by April 15 made a march and concentrated in the Volchak – Svinazhin area, taking up defense.
On April 17, the enemy, having crossed the Turya River, entered the Volchak area. The brigade in cooperation with the partisans of the detachment them. Dzerzhinsky threw the enemy on the western bank of Turiya and took up positions on the outskirts of Volchak.
25 April, the enemy again began to make a breakthrough in the direction of Volchak-Svinaži. On April 27, an enemy with more than one infantry battalion supported by 08.00 tanks and self-propelled guns, after a strong artillery preparation and aerial bombardment, began an offensive from Smolyarnia tract on Svinazhi. To 18, the enemy captured Porkynin, but thanks to the skillful maneuvering, courage and courage of the SU-14.00 crews, the enemy in 76 was knocked out and went to the 23.30 mark, where he went on the defensive.
On April 24, the brigade concentrated and took up defense on the north-western edge of the Radovich forest — the 18.00 mark – Tulichiv with the task of preventing enemy tanks and infantry from the direction of Klux – stake. Donbrova. On April 195,2, the enemy in 30 crossed the Turia River in the Tuzhisk – Mirovich area and with up to two infantry regiments and 07.00 tanks with artillery as a result of stubborn battles pressed the 70 SABr into the Tužisk – Kustyche – Duliba – 12 mark.
The brigade received the task, jointly with the joint venture 920, to dislodge the enemy from the occupied positions. As a result of the rapid onslaught of infantry, with the support of SU-76, the enemy was repulsed on the left bank of Turiya, Duliby, the region of the 180,0 mark, was taken. On the outskirts of Tužisk, Kustyche, Duliba, the enemy deployed a large number of aircraft - from 350 to 400 sorties per day - and a large number of artillery and mortars, which continuously bombarded the battle formations and the area of our units, which hampered their maneuverability.
3 – 4 in May, the enemy carried out defensive work on the Turya River, and the brigade occupied defensive lines and was ready to repel a counterattack from the enemy’s likely directions.
Junior Sergeant I.V. Mukhin worked as a section commander during combat operations of a brigade in the Kharkiv region, Belgorod highway and from April 17 to May 5, 1944, being with his unit at headquarters, skillfully and conscientiously organized headquarters security. For the good protection of the headquarters, the vigilance displayed at the same time, the courage he was awarded the medal "For Military Merit".
BATTLES IN COWEL AREA AND LIBERATION OF POLAND
With the arrival of Soviet troops at the Vilnius – Baranavichy line, the prerequisites were created for the offensive of the left wing of the 1 of the Byelorussian Front from the Kovel area. In the region of the latter, in order to successfully accomplish a breakthrough in advance prepared by the enemy’s defense, it was necessary to create a strong artillery group. At the same time, the bulk of the artillery of the front was on the Bobruisk direction. By decision of the front commander, from 5 to 13 July, an artillery maneuver was carried out from the Bobruisk direction to Kovelskoye, as a result of which conditions were created for a successful breakthrough of enemy defenses in the Kovel area. Superiority over the enemy in artillery was fivefold. At the army breakthrough sites, the average operational density of artillery reached 180 guns and mortars on the 1 km of front, and the maximum - 240.
18 July 1944, the full-time artillery of the first-echelon rifle divisions and part of the reinforcement artillery of the 30-minute artillery preparation provided attack by reconnaissance battalions, which in 05.00 seized the first trench and set the withdrawal of the enemy to the intermediate line along the Vyzhevka River. In 09.00, with the support of fire, all of the artillery brought into battle the main forces of the army. At the same time, the enemy’s attempt to delay our offensive at the intermediate line was frustrated as a result of a rapid attack by infantry and tanks and strong strikes by artillery and aircraft on enemy strongholds. On July 21, having broken the resistance of the enemy on the western bank of the Bug River, the main grouping of the forces of the Belarusian Front began to develop an offensive in the general direction of Warsaw.
For participation in battles in breaking through enemy defenses from the Kovel area by order of the Supreme Commander Marshal of the Soviet Union I.V. Stalin from 20 July 1944, Sergeant I.V. Mukhina was thanked.
14 January 1945 of the year The 12 brigade with its full complement is attached to the 61 SC operational subordination and together with it keeps the bridgehead defense on the Vistula River in the area of Brzescie, Janowitz. The enemy had been improving his engineering defense for a month and a half, while simultaneously undertaking a series of unsuccessful counterattacks to eliminate the bridgehead on the west bank of the Vistula.
January 14 began an operation to break through the highly fortified enemy defenses on the Vistula River. After a two-hour artillery preparation, the troops went on the attack, breaking through the defenses of the enemy as a result of a fierce battle. With persistent battles, the brigade continued to carry out the task, reaching the line Flerianów – Gelenów – Jablonów. The enemy began to retreat, acting in small groups of ambushes.
Then the team marched to the Radom area, where it concentrated in 5 km northeast of the city, having the task of riding the Radom-Velagur highway and cutting off the escape routes of the surrounded group from the Yedlnya – Letnisko area.
On January 17 – 18, the enemy, under the blows of army units in scattered groups, retreated in the direction of Lodz. The brigade, as instructed by the 69 Army commander, concentrated in the forest southwest of Potvoruv, and on January 19, on his order, enters a special mobile detachment with the task of pursuing the retreating enemy, preventing him from gaining a foothold on intermediate lines, and being ready to reflect his counterattacks in the lane offensive army in all directions.
20 January by order of the commander of the detachment of the brigade carried out the persecution of the retreating enemy along the route Gmina Potworów-Gmina Klwów-Odzhuval Nova Miasto Gmina Domaniewice-Rozhkovo Wola Ezhezets-Bortoshuvka-Vehnovitse-Kinitse Wielki-Ash-Gmina Lubochnia-County, Popeyavi and further along the highway Lodz and by the end of the day went to the western outskirts of Lodz. After putting the equipment in order, the brigade pursued a retreating enemy along the route Lodz – Konstantinov – Aleksandruv – Pobembice – Nova Unieuw, going to the west bank of the Warta River in the Unieuw region.
21 – 23 January, the brigade received the task to pursue the retreating enemy along the route Uniów – Shpochka – Dombrovice – Wleschyn – Zhyhirem – Piskona – Turek–
Sldkuv-Kzhimishev, where she concentrated in anticipation of further tasks.
On January 24, the enemy hurriedly retreated to Poznan, and the brigade on the orders of the detachment commander pursued the retreating enemy along the route Tulisków – Ryhval – Šroda – Kurnik and fought into the area of Poznan, receiving the task of crossing the Warta River and seizing the city of Poznan. 25 – 26 In January, the enemy firmly held Poznan with the remaining garrison and the assembled retreating units - a fortress prepared for defense in advance. The defense consisted of pillboxes, pillboxes, anti-tank ditches, buildings adapted for long-term defense, forts, etc. As a result, the task assigned to the brigade was not fulfilled due to the large number of pillboxes and the small number of troops for the assault.
On January 27, the 69 Army commander set the task for the detachment to bypass Poznań from the south, reach the south-western outskirts, cut the roads and prevent the enemy from withdrawing from the city to the west. The brigade makes a bypass maneuver along the route Krezing – Kshisinki – Glushina – Chapura – Viry – Kamorniki – Plewiska and concentrated in the Skorzevo region with the task of preventing the enemy from breaking through from Poznan and the reinforcements approaching the surrounded grouping from the west. On January 28, the surrounded garrison continued to defend, while the 12 Brigade, on the orders of the 69 Army Commander, transferred the rear defense sector to the 41 Artillery Brigade, and itself marches along the route Skorzovo – Dobrovo – Wentz – Kovitsa – Calvi – Neprushevo – Alt Dobrovo– Vonsovo, where he occupies a defense south-west of the outskirts of Vonsovo with the task of covering the roads that depart from Vonsovo to the south- and north-west. As a result of the further advance of the Soviet troops, the enemy retreated to the western bank of the Oder River.
For the liberation of the city of Radom by order of the Supreme Commander Marshal of the Soviet Union, Comrade. Stalin from 19 February 1945, Sergeant I.V. Mukhin was again thanked.
1 – 3 February 1945, the brigade makes a march along the Altenhof – Bretz – Mushten – Shvibus – Mostchen – Spiegelberg – Laguv route and takes up defense in the Lindov – Malkindorf – Kirschbaum area, preparing to repel the enemy’s attack from Sherizel, Vanderk, Malys. The enemy, providing strong fire resistance, prevents parts of the 61 of the UK, trying to expand the bridgehead on the west bank of the Oder. Parts of the corps continue to conduct fierce battles for expanding the bridgehead in the Klessin area, while the brigade is given the task of marching along the Lindov – Cilzieng – Drossen route and by the end of the day concentrating in the Schwarzes – Forverk – North suburb of Klein – Lyubikhov – Franzenghof with the task of repulsing possible counterattacks the enemy from the directions of Zerbov, Kolov, Drenzig, Reppin.
By order of the Supreme Commander No. 9 and by a decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Council, the brigade was given the title of Radomskaya and awarded the Kutuzov Order of the 3 degree.
After a series of unsuccessful attempts to liquidate the bridgehead of our troops on the west bank of the Oder, the enemy went on the defensive at the turn of Podoltsig-Klessin-Lebus. The length of the defense on the section 61 of the UK - 6 km, depth - to 11 km. The entire depth of the defense consisted of three lines of continuous trenches interconnected by communications.
16 April The 12-I brigade went out to accompany the infantry and break through the enemy’s leading edge on the west bank of the Oder River in the Lebus area in the Lebus strip - the outskirts of Nieder - Ezar - Deberin - Schönflies station. The task is to advance in the direction of Malnov, Kartsig and, by the end of the day, reach the western outskirts of Deberin. The enemy, supported by strong artillery-mortar fire and aviation, stubbornly seeks to hold back our advancing units, counterattacking from the direction of Kartsig. But all his attacks are repulsed. Accompanying the infantry attack, the brigade manages to break through the front edge of the enemy and reach the outskirts of Shenflis, but because of stubborn resistance, it was still impossible to complete the task of the first day.
19 on April, the brigade, in conjunction with the 965 infantry, the 274 th SD, by the end of the day captured the Nider – Ezar, reached the height of 62,7 and continued fighting in the direction of Debbin. By the end of the next day, the brigade with the interacting units had reached the milestone: 1 th GARDEN - Schmerl Mühle, 2 th GARDEN - Fl. Heinerdofer - Forverk, 3 th GARDEN - southern outskirts of Debbin, brigade headquarters - near the Kartsig platform.
21 on April, the brigade occupied Falkenhagen castle, and on April 22, in cooperation with units of the 25 and 61, the UK led offensive battles in the direction of Demnitz, taking control of the points of Arensdorf and Steinhefell, and entered the Spree River (brigade headquarters - Areksdorf). The next day, the brigade captured the town of Demnitz, and by 21.00 the brigade was redeployed to a grove east of Trebus in readiness to cross the Spree and entered into operational subordination to the commander of 117-th SD of 25-SC.
On April 24, a brigade crossed the Spree in the 10.00 area west of Fürstenwalde in 500, successfully repelling the enemy’s counterattack. The next day, the brigade took up defensive positions on the southern outskirts of Fürstenwalde, interacting with the infantry of the 240 joint venture 117 AD. April 26 brigade makes reserve commander 69 Army, headquarters - the northern outskirts of Kolpina.
On May 1, the enemy, under the blows of our units, continued to retreat in a westerly and southwesterly direction, scattered groups of broken units retreat through forests, attacking individual groups of fighters, rear units and headquarters of our units. The brigade received the task of making a march from the Kolpin area to the Kerbelitz area, while committing to combing the forests, disarming and taking prisoners of the enemy.
During the period of hostilities, while on guard of the headquarters, Sergeant I.V. Mukhin showed himself to be a disciplined and skillful warrior, when placing the headquarters he showed exceptional ability and care to ensure the protection of the latter, and while combing the forest in the Klein area, Lyubikhov destroyed two Nazis and captured three. For his diligence and courage, he was awarded the medal "For Courage".
From 5 in May, the brigade moved to a peaceful life, having the task to bring the hardware to full order by 11, to build the living quarters of the personnel, to provide the necessary conditions for combat and political training. Heavy and terrible war ended in victory, our victory.