Russia's contribution to the UN peacekeeping operations is still provided by the participation of helicopter groups. Photos from www.un.org
Famous writer Valentin Pikul in historical the miniature “Two Pictures” emphasized: “I sometimes think: how many battle scenes are in Russian painting and how few paintings are devoted to diplomacy.”
Following the logic of these words, we can say that we have written a lot of articles about military technologies, but not one where it would be said about the use of military technologies in the framework of UN peacekeeping operations.
On the other hand, at the beginning of October 2015, we had a “Innovation Day of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation”, in the scope of which the funds for UN peacekeeping operations were also announced: and telecommunications technology, cyber security, optics, security of military facilities, integrated laboratories, simulators, simulators, other scientific developments and practical samples. ”
Let's try to project these words to peacemaking.
YIELD PEACEKEEPING AUTUMN
Autumn 2015 of the year was fruitful, as for talking about peacekeeping.
Let us pay attention to the “Report of the Panel of Experts on Technology and Innovation in UN Peacekeeping”, as well as other UN materials, including the “Report of the High-Level Independent Panel on Peace Operations on uniting our forces for peace: politics, partnership and people".
The report proposed more than 100 recommendations, and the 50 lines of the last report are devoted exclusively to technology and innovation.
Magically attracted the following words: "The report contains forward-looking and practical recommendations." In mid-September, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon presented a report about 2015 initiatives, which was very ambitiously entitled: “The Future of United Nations Peace Operations: Implementing the Recommendations of the High-Level Independent Panel on Peace Operations.”
The report also contains a link to the Technology Expert Group.
The group of experts provided a list of those agencies and missions with which it consulted, accepted written proposals. The list includes 40 institutions and research centers, but unfortunately there are no Russian centers (peacekeeping institutes) studying and dealing with peacekeeping.
The proposals and recommendations of the two expert groups are also mentioned in the “Secretary General’s Report on the Organization’s Work”: “The Independent High-Level Group presented a series of important recommendations to ensure that the operations carried out by the UN continue to meet the goals set.”
In addition, at the end of September this year, a peacekeeping summit was held at UN Headquarters. We also note that US President Barack Obama issued a memorandum of peacekeeping, which gave clear instructions to the relevant departments. The UN General Assembly also heard a message from the UN Secretary General regarding peacekeeping.
IN THE LABYRINTH AND PARADIGM OF TERMINOLOGY
The report of the specialists is full of military technical terminology and contains about 100 abbreviations and symbols. For example, you can write as many 20 special terms from one scheme. Mention should be made of the trendy expressions “digital peacemaker” and “e-diplomacy” (eDiplomacy), denoting the use of the Internet and information and communication technologies (ICT) to solve diplomatic and peacekeeping tasks.
The term “platform” was lucky; its paradigm includes a dozen definitions: informational, mobile, monitoring, web-based, tracking, video surveillance, reconnaissance, surveillance, reconnaissance, and others. Here we come to the definition of concepts and meanings. The meaning is wider than the concept, here the “platform” is the architecture and the system of elements.
Important attention is paid to operational issues: command and control, monitoring and reconnaissance, IT communication and information management, use, processing and dissemination of information, protection of civilians.
Much attention is paid to interoperability, which includes interoperability, interoperability, interoperability, interoperability, interoperability, not only in terms of the tactics of the units, but also information technology architecture.
Another term is connectedness: network connection, connectivity, ability to connect to other electronic systems.
Many contingents have different communications equipment, which makes interaction difficult. The way out is to create a communication structure for the UN mission in which peacekeeping contingents will be connected. In this regard, experts suggest using Western 20-foot containers as a base for placing communications equipment as part of peacekeeping operations.
It is noteworthy that at the Russian Exhibition of Arms, military equipment and ammunition Russian Expo Arms, which took place recently in Nizhny Tagil, Russian developments were already present. “Great interest among military delegations from different countries of the world, as well as among specialists and experts, was caused by a mobile operational headquarters consisting of three containers, shown by Project-Technique Corporation. Deployed in just 30 minutes, it allows you to comfortably accommodate the workplaces of officers of a combined-arms brigade. Only one or two people are enough to deploy such a headquarters, ”a correspondent from one of the central newspapers accredited to the event said.
Equipping and equipping a “digital peacemaker” (military man),
identified in the report of the UN expert group.
identified in the report of the UN expert group.
Let us dwell in more detail on the technologies that UN experts propose to apply in the framework of the concept of “digital peacemaker”. The main elements of the set of special equipment and weapons, which are supposed to be equipped with a digital peacemaker in the foreseeable future, are presented in this illustration (“Digital peacemaker: soldier”) taken from the report. At the same time, in the preface to the illustration it is said that for one and a half years it is proposed to provide peacekeepers with everything they need. Digital (electronic peacemaker) - a matter of the future.
Military peacekeepers need a wide range of integrated communication, information sharing, and command and control networks. They need real-time knowledge of the situation, early warning information to allow peacekeepers to fulfill their mandates responding to threats. They should also immediately report incidents and events during the automatic identification and identification of units.
1) In the future, the “visor” (visor) will be used as a “helmet display monitor” to provide access to real-time situational information, displayed data and media stream received from surveillance systems or wearable cameras.
2) Special mobility aids, such as mine-proof machines, sophisticated sensor kits provide additional protection for units.
3) Machines that act as the main technological nodes that provide mobile communications command centers with communications, and also act as mobile operational and analytical points for advanced units.
4) Physiological sensors provide the peacekeeper, command centers and the closest medical personnel with real-time readings and indications of possible warnings in emergency situations in order to prevent an urgent medical response.
5) A contribution is made and an overall operational picture is created, acting as part of an integrated peacekeeping network.
6) Advanced technologies, including fuel cells, solar batteries, mini-class unmanned aerial vehicles and robots, can increase the mobility, performance, endurance, range and payload of military contingents.
7) Peacekeepers maintain uninterrupted communication with headquarters at all levels to ensure safe and reliable microphone and data communications.
8) Thermal sensors, night vision cameras and chemical sensors are integrated into the personal equipment and uniforms of the peacekeepers.
9) Non-lethal means increase the ability of peacekeepers to respond to threats.
10) Synthesis of information and improved information tools that receive information from open sources, information from airborne and space surveillance, cartographic data and other data from remote sources, images of commercial satellite cameras and sophisticated sensory tools contribute to decision making on tactical, operational and strategic levels.
11) Provides access to a special level of displaying cartographic information in real time for the purpose of increased situational awareness through durable tablets or the use of smartphones in any place and at any time.
12) Maintenance and geolocation of individuals and machines improves safety, knowledge of the situation, and contributes to the management and control during the operation.
13) Displaying, using symbols, the overall operational picture of the situation facilitates quick and well-informed decision making, facilitates coordinated actions, ensuring overcoming language barriers where they exist.
SEVEN IN ONE
In many peacekeeping structures, the greatest attention is paid to management.
First, the C2 system (command and control) is explained, it is proposed to use it with the help of GIS, then C4I is added, and when referring to suppliers, the integrated control system C4ISR is mentioned. As they say, seven in one.
We decipher the term: command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance - this means translated from English command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance, network management systems, communications, intelligence gathering, surveillance, intelligence terrain, data transfer. We note that the C2 and C4ISR architecture allows: to determine the position of their units, displaying them on electronic maps; detect the position of the enemy and his movement; choose the route and give target designation.
We will confirm this thesis with the description of the “digital peacemaker” given in one of the mentioned reports: “Military peacekeepers need a wide range of integrated communication, information exchange, as well as command and control networks. They need real-time knowledge of the situation, early warning information to allow peacekeepers to fulfill their mandates responding to threats. They should also immediately report incidents and events during the automatic identification and identification of units. ”
The use of the following Russian complex brings our fighter closer to the “digital peacemaker”: “The newest control and communications complex“ Strelets ”enters the army and allows you to control the location and condition of military personnel. The complex consists of a bracelet, resembling a watch, and the commander’s console. The device is worn on the arm and allows you to control the location of the fighter, his physical condition. In the event of a contingency, information is promptly received by the console, including the removal of a bracelet or a fighter's immobility, within 45 seconds. The complex can switch to radio beacon mode by transmitting a signal over a distance of 50 km. ”
In October, 2015, in one of the domestic editions, a message appeared about the outfit of Russian peacekeepers: “Russian peacekeepers received the outfit of a“ soldier of the future ”. The note stated: “The“ Warrior ”outfit includes more than 40 elements, including composite armor, targeting and communications equipment, GLONASS-based navigation equipment, as well as knee pads, elbow pads, goggles, multi-function knives and other tools. In total, the peacekeepers received more than 1 thousand sets of four modifications for commanders, machine-gunners, snipers and shooters within the first batch. ”
These new technologies are on a par with the “digital peacemaker” proposed by the experts on UN peacekeeping operations.
TECHNOLOGIES ARE TALKED IN ACADEMIES AND AT CADETS SCHOOLS
Management issues such as the “network-centric war” and the “electronic army” are discussed not only in our military technical literature, but also in the Academy of the General Staff of the Russian Armed Forces.
Recently, the Cadet School of IT-technologies of the Military Academy of Communications named after Marshal of the Soviet Union S.M. Budyonny. The admission conditions are posted on the website of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, showing cabinets of network technologies and multimedia equipment, software. Without specialists in the field of information technology and cybernetics of the modern army can not do, but in peacekeeping - all the more.
Questions of automatic control of troops are worked out in the Airborne Forces.
During the exercises of the Russian Airborne Forces at the end of August 2015, Airborne Troops Commander Colonel-General Vladimir Shamanov stated that the Andromeda-D automatic airborne control system provides the entire complex of multi-service services that were previously available only at stationary control centers; increased mobility, the deployment of modern multimedia equipment, providing both the provision of typical information services - open and closed telephone and telegraph communication, data transmission, and video conferencing and facsimile communication from the Airborne Command level to the command and observation post of the commander of the parachute or airborne assault battalion .
The paratroopers are capable of solving the tasks of carrying out peacekeeping activities in accordance with international obligations. Words about the use of the complex with the mythological name "Andromeda" were also heard in radio programs. You need to add paratroopers knowledge of the English language, and the peacekeeping contingent is ready for landing on any continent.
FROM A STRAWBERRY TO CABLES
Improving technology in peacekeeping is considered by international experts in the following areas: safety and security, shelter (housing), water, communications and information technology, energy, health and well-being, mobility. All this is recorded in one sentence: "Ensuring safety and security, organizing the work of shelters and camps, ensuring the health and well-being of staff and the protection of civilians."
As they say, the straw is useful in peacemaking. For peacekeepers, it is proposed for an emergency to have a personal “straw for water purification” (sounds poetic - “personal waterpurification straw”).
It is known that unmanned aerial vehicles were used in various UN peacekeeping missions before, but then they belonged to separate peacekeeping contingents. Now, the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations has completed the procurement process of 11 unmanned aerial vehicles for the UN mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The first drone was delivered to the duty station at the beginning of December 2014. The transfer ceremony was attended by the head of the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations Frenchman Herve Ladsus.
The supplier selected is Italian company Selex ES. The model of an unmanned aerial vehicle is called "Falco" (Falco - Falcon). It is a platform for reconnaissance vehicles of medium altitude and range capable of carrying a diverse payload, including several types of highly sensitive sensors.
The commander of the forces of MONUSCO (Congo) noted that in a vast area of the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, one peacekeeper accounts for 118 square meters. km He added that in this situation, the presence of drones in the arsenal of peacekeepers will strengthen the mission’s potential and will help increase its efficiency with more efficient use of resources. Soon, however, as a result of an extraordinary situation, one of these UAVs crashed.
However, the use of unmanned aerial vehicles in the interests of UN peacekeeping missions is not always found in some or other members of this organization. For example, when extending the UN mission in South Sudan, the representative of the Russian Federation abstained from the UN Security Council. One of the motives - drones violate the sovereignty of South Sudan.
Experts pay attention to weapon non-lethal (non-lethal) action (OND), which in normal use should not result in death or serious injury to those against whom it is directed. The main purpose of using such weapons is neutralization, not defeat; damage to the health and physical condition of people at the same time should be minimized. As such weapons can be used smoke grenades, rubber bullets, tear gases, painful noise, water cannons, etc.
It should be emphasized that today not a single major peacekeeping mission can do without night vision devices. The list of radars, sensors and sensors is impressive. In this case, an example of the use of technical means by experts is the UN mission in Lebanon.
One of the insistent demands of our time is to provide military observers with smartphones, tablets and everything necessary for a year and a half.
Demining and mobility are essential components of the security of peacekeepers. In addition, the commanders of UN missions are asking for more helicopters from the leadership.
It is noted that the use of technology should be one of the key elements of the future program of reforming UN peacekeeping operations: “Synthesis of information and improved information tools that receive information from open sources, information from aerial and space observation, cartographic data and other data received from remote sources, images of commercial satellite cameras and sophisticated sensory tools contribute to decision making at the tactical, operational and strategic levels. ”
RUSSIA IS STILL "FOCUSED" IN PEACEFUL DIRECTION
On the day of the Summit on Peacekeeping at the UN Headquarters in peacekeeping missions were 167 helicopters, 59 aircraft, 11 unmanned aerial vehicles, 7 ships, 350 medical clinics, and 13 248 vehicles. However, peacekeepers require significantly more resources to effectively carry out the tasks assigned to them.
Several countries made “heightened commitments” last year and this year. Ahead of all - the United States. The French made a remarkable commitment - to teach French 25 to thousands of military personnel from other countries. Pakistan, in turn, will allocate 12 dogs.
The memorandum of US President Obama on peacekeeping on seven small pages (preamble and 37 points) states: "In matters of technological support, the United States will strive to become the leading" country - supplier of technology "in UN peacekeeping operations."
It offers assistance in technology, engineering and military areas, including the provision of non-lethal weapons and equipment, as well as medical support. It is also proposed to train peacekeepers with the involvement of American instructors.
The Military Staff Committee of the UN Security Council is not mentioned in the memorandum, although a representative of the rank of Vice-Admiral (Lieutenant-General) with assistants meets in it from the United States. By the way, the title and position are determined by the President of the United States back in 1956 year.
The US mission to the UN is required to issue recommended personnel for peacekeeping missions in a timely manner. In turn, the US Department of Defense, which is mentioned 20 times in the memorandum, is proposed to train military personnel "to serve in leading roles at the UN Headquarters and field missions." The leading role of the United States is mentioned in many paragraphs of the memorandum. At the same time verbs are used to increase, strengthen, deepen, strive.
The Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation is immediately recalled: “the involvement of representatives of the Armed Forces, other troops and agencies in the management of peacekeeping operations, in the process of planning and executing measures for the preparation of operations to maintain (restore) peace”. Words are high, but there is no flight and movement. ”
Note that as of the end of September 2015, in the number of troops supplied that came from 124 countries, the United States occupied the 74 place (79 peacekeepers), and Russia - the 73 place (81 peacekeeper in nine missions: military personnel - 63 (3,48% of 1808 experts of UN peace missions), police officers - 18, including five women).
However, as far as peacekeeping in Russia is concerned, it is still “focused” (as the great diplomat Alexander Gorchakov said, “La Russie ne boude pas; elle se recueille”).
Nevertheless, the “Indestructible Brotherhood - 2015” peacekeeping exercises showed the readiness of our peacekeepers to act internationally. “Training and combat tasks for negotiating, escorting humanitarian supplies, patrolling and serving at checkpoints and observation posts, neutralizing illegal armed formations have been worked out,” the Russian press reported on the results of the exercise.
Our ministries of foreign affairs and defense, as well as peacekeeping institutions, appear to take a look at modern peacekeeping from the height of the 21st century, since the word “summit” has a high paradigm: peak, highest point, zenith, and further lexicographical source. Let us recall the immortal aphorism “knowledge is power”, and knowledge and modern technologies at the disposal of peacekeepers are a reliable compass in conducting peacekeeping operations.
Now on the watch of the world under the flag of the UN is a new generation of our peacekeepers. They are the heirs of those legendary peacekeepers who in the past century made a deep diplomatic breakthrough and joined the peace process.
We hope that the road will be mastered by walking (Viamsupervadetvadens).