Military Review

The project of the main tank "Object 477"

Throughout the eighties, the Soviet defense industry worked on the creation of promising major projects tanks. For several years, leading enterprises in the industry have developed a number of promising projects that could change the face of the armored forces. One of these machines could be “Object 477”, developed by the Kharkov Design Bureau of Mechanical Engineering. This organization developed several projects during the eighties that, however, did not advance beyond prototype testing.

It should be noted that the 477 Object project was not created from scratch. In the early eighties, Kharkov engineers worked on the 490 Object project, the goal of which was to create a new main tank using original layout solutions, a number of major innovations and new weapons. In 1983-84, it was decided to start a new project, which should use some of the existing developments, in addition, it was planned to introduce new ideas. The new project received the cipher "Boxer" and the factory designation "Object 477".

The project of the main tank "Object 477"
One of the latest prototypes of the tank "Object 477". The tower is turned back.

For various reasons, the amount of open information on the development of the KMDB of the eighties leaves much to be desired. The available information is fragmentary in nature and does not yet allow for a complete picture. Most of the information was not published and, apparently, still remains under the top of secrecy. In addition, there are some difficulties associated with the peculiarities of project implementation. According to reports, the Kharkov designers, in collaboration with the Research Institute of Transmash and other organizations, were working on various variants of the tank. Some sentences were studied only in theory, for checking others layouts were used. As a result, the available information may relate to different versions of the project, created in different periods, and thus complicate the construction of the overall picture.

Some problems associated with the designation of the project are also possible. In the early stages, the “477 Object” was called the “Boxer”, but in the second half of the eighties, the development work was renamed the “Hammer”. According to some information, the new name was introduced after the data on the “Boxer” fell into the hands of foreign intelligence. Changing the name of a project can also make it difficult to learn. stories.

In the framework of the projects "490" and "490" (the cipher "Rebel"), several options for arming a promising tank were considered. In the case of "Boxer" this issue was resolved quickly enough. Already in 1984, the customer and the developer decided to equip the prospective armored vehicle with an 152 caliber mm gun. Such weapons made it possible to significantly increase the firepower of the tank, providing a great advantage over the existing and prospective equipment of the conditional enemy.

Projections of one of the variants of the Hammer tank

New weapons with larger ammunition, as well as a number of specific requirements forced the designers to closely study the various configuration options. Together with the related enterprises, the KMDB worked out several variants of the tank's architecture and in 1985, chose the best option. According to some data, in the further development of the project went only along the path approved in 85, although some innovations were being introduced all the time.

The project offered the original layout of the case and a number of other solutions related to the placement of various equipment. Thus, the workplace of the driver was placed in the front of the hull, with a shift to the left side. Next to the driver, on the starboard side, one of the fuel tanks was to be installed. Behind the driver placed the office with the commander and gunner. According to some reports, the commander and the gunner were supposed to work with a common console, with which it was proposed to manage all systems. The places of the commander and the gunner were located below the roof level, however, their layout was made in such a way as to ensure the possibility of using optical sighting devices.

Another version of the tank

Behind the compartment with the crew's workplaces, an additional compartment was placed for storing ammunition. Feed was given to the placement of the engine and transmission. Thus, the “Boxer” / “Hammer” tank had an original layout, based on proven solutions.

Above the commander’s and gunner’s place an automated turret with a set of units should be located to ensure the use of weapons without the direct participation of the crew. For the new tank was proposed original automatic loader. Non-standard layout with the removal of all units of the fighting compartment outside the hull, as well as a large caliber of guns did not allow the use of automatic loading, based on existing solutions.

Exact information about the design of the automatic loader for the tank "Object 477" is missing. According to some information, it was supposed to equip the combat vehicle with a system with several drums. In the aft niche of the uninhabited tower, two drums were to be located, fixed on the horizontal axis. Between them, another smaller drum was planned. In the lateral large drums, various types of ammunition were to be transported, and the middle one was intended for transferring projectiles to the gun. In addition, there were mechanisms for feeding projectiles from laying the hull into the automatic loading of the turret.

The layout of the case. The original location of the crew seats is clearly visible.

For a significant increase in the firepower of the prospective tank, it was decided to use a new 152 caliber mm gun. Various sources in the context of the “Boxer” project mention LP-83, 2А73 and М-3 guns. It was planned to mount one or two twin machine guns of caliber 7,62 mm on one installation with a gun. Also could be used large-caliber anti-aircraft machine gun. Some sources mention that in the later stages of the project it was proposed to use the original anti-aircraft gun with an automatic gun caliber 23 or 30 mm. Such weapons could be used not only for hitting air targets, but also for destroying ground targets with weak defenses, for which the 152-mm gun is excessive.

Perspective tank was supposed to get a so-called. tank information management system (TIUS). Such equipment was supposed to provide communication with other combat vehicles, the processing of incoming information, weapon control and firing at the detected targets. To enhance the combat qualities of the TIUS it was proposed to include several types of optical, day and night sights.

In the early stages of the project, several power plant options were considered. The tank could get a four-or two-stroke diesel boxer or X-shaped layout. Prospects for gas turbine engines were also studied. According to some reports, the armored vehicle should have had an engine power up to 1600 hp. This made it possible to provide a sufficiently high specific power with good mobility with a combat mass at the level of 50 tons.

One of the running layouts of the Hammer. The remains of the machine are stored in the Institute of Technical Research

The chassis should have seven road wheels on board. A torsion bar suspension was offered with additional shock absorbers on the front and rear pairs of rollers. In front of the hull there were guide wheels, in the aft - leading wheels. It is known that during the construction of undercarriage models and prototypes, the undercarriage design was repeatedly modified. Also changed the composition of the power plant and transmission.

The tank "Object 477" was to receive a powerful reservation and a set of additional funds designed to increase the level of protection. So, in the frontal part of the body it was proposed to install a combined armored obstacle with an envelope of more than 1 m along the projectile. There is also information about the strengthening of the sides and roof of the hull. On a preserved photograph of one of the prototypes, you can see that the upper front part of the case was equipped with dynamic protection units. Similarly, it was probably planned to protect the side projection. Some sources mention the work on the choice of active protection complex, which could increase the survivability of the armored vehicle.

Design work continued until mid-decade. At the beginning of the second half of the eighties began the assembly of the first running models and prototypes of the promising tank. In the future, Kharkov specialists built more than a dozen different-purpose machines. It is known about the existence of four running layouts and eight prototypes with a different composition of equipment. All this technique was actively used in trials at various test sites. Apparently, some inspections of this technique were carried out on landfills in the territory of the RSFSR, with the result that part of the mockups and prototypes remained in Russia and are stored in various organizations.

One of the running layouts of the Hammer. The remains of the machine are stored in the Institute of Technical Research

The first prototype with incomplete equipment was built in 1987 year. This machine had a full-fledged power plant and gun, but it was not equipped with an aiming complex and an automatic loader. By the time the pilot tank was built, there were no workable samples of this equipment. In particular, the automatic loader normally worked on the stand, but “refused” to perform its functions on the tank. However, this did not prevent the beginning of the test. Later, a prototype with incomplete equipment was shown to representatives of the military department and representatives of several ministries.

At the end of the eighties, the project “Object 477А” appeared, differing from the base “Hammer” with some modifications. As far as we know, the modified version of the promising tank was different for a different undercarriage design, a modified power plant and the equipment. In addition, it was proposed to use an auxiliary power unit.

How far 477 Object prototypes have progressed is unknown. There is evidence of the existence of several prototypes, which were used in various tests, but the details of their checks are missing. Nevertheless, it is known that the “Boxer” / “Hammer” project ended in failure. Despite the introduction of several new ideas and the solution of a number of important issues, the project had no prospects in the existing situation.

One of the running layouts of the Hammer. The remains of the machine are stored in the Institute of Technical Research

The prospective main tank "Object 477" was developed from the mid-eighties, and the tests started at the end of the decade. By this time, serious economic and political problems had begun in the country, which, among other things, had hit the defense industry. Further development of the project was not excluded, but the possibility of starting the full-fledged construction of new tanks was completely absent.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the KMDB specialists attempted to continue the development of a promising project, but all efforts did not lead to the expected results. There is information about the creation of updated projects and even the construction of several prototypes. However, the former Soviet republics did not experience the best period in their history, and the economic situation did not allow them to engage in projects of promising armored vehicles.

Over the past years, the possibility of continuing work on the Hammer or projects that have become its development has been repeatedly mentioned. However, an independent Ukraine is not able to implement such plans. Enterprises from all over the USSR took part in the creation of new armored vehicles, which made it possible to solve all the arising tasks and produce modern combat vehicles. The collapse of the Soviet Union led to a break in industrial relations, which seriously limited the possibilities of Ukrainian enterprises. Recent developments of a political and economic nature completely deprive the country of the possibility of developing modern tanks. Apparently, all the bold and unusual projects of the KMDF, developed since the beginning of the eighties, will remain on paper.

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  1. inkass_98
    inkass_98 23 November 2015 07: 34
    Actually, there is nothing to add after the last paragraph. The development was interesting, but the collapse of the country put an end to it, as well as on many other projects. And the current Kharkov steam locomotive building can only puff up its cheeks, and puff up with "Oplot", which they cannot even produce properly.
    1. Cruorvult
      Cruorvult 23 November 2015 08: 07
      IMHO did not put an end to the collapse of the country, but the fact that at that time information technology could not allow to make an effective uninhabited tower and surveillance systems.
      2. In another article, they wrote right there that the tank could not fire more than one shot at the training ground, due to a complex loading system with three reels.
      3. The opinion was expressed that the location of the crew was unsuccessful.
    2. Malkor
      Malkor 23 November 2015 19: 29
      In what condition are the models of this tank in the same now, and the whole of Ukraine.
      1. Starover_Z
        Starover_Z 23 November 2015 19: 41
        One of the running layouts of the Hammer. The remains of the machine are stored in the Institute of Technical Research

        Well "stored", great! Straight "forever", almost like pyramids!
      2. shifro
        shifro 28 November 2015 09: 55
        In the photo, the sample is similar to the target (model of the tank) during testing
  2. Cruorvult
    Cruorvult 23 November 2015 07: 38
    Not enough pictures, here on the site appeared, but it is not clear 477 or 490 object.
    1. Kars
      Kars 23 November 2015 09: 30
      1. cosmos111
        cosmos111 23 November 2015 11: 00
        Quote: CruorVult
        Not enough pictures, here on the site appeared, but it is not clear 477 or 490 object.

        YES ... little info ...

        477 object ???

        1. The comment was deleted.
        2. cosmos111
          cosmos111 23 November 2015 11: 08
          and more pictures of Object 477A
          1. cosmos111
            cosmos111 23 November 2015 11: 11
            Quote: cosmos111
            Object 477A

            1. The comment was deleted.
            2. cosmos111
              cosmos111 23 November 2015 13: 19
              Object 477, MECHANISM ... LEFT, RIGHT FUEL TANK FOR 1290 liters ....

              suspension: top photo of T-15, below, "Object 477" (or 490)
          2. cosmos111
            cosmos111 23 November 2015 13: 46
            Object 477A

            1. cosmos111
              cosmos111 23 November 2015 14: 15
              One of the latest prototypes of the tank "Object 477". The tower is turned back.

              and the hatch on the Object 477 tower ???

              comparison of the frontal projection of the T-14 and "Object 477"
  3. ImPerts
    ImPerts 23 November 2015 07: 59
    I understand that this is a modernized "Boxer" aka "Hammer":
    1. Riv
      Riv 23 November 2015 15: 47
      Modernization has reached apofigeya. Or even oppeosis.
  4. Engineer
    Engineer 23 November 2015 08: 56
    Of course, the tank had an original layout, but with a disdainful attitude towards the safety of the crew, pressing Morozov school: the mechanic sat at the ammunition rack, and the commander and gunner on the loading rams. So, comparisons of Armata and Molot, especially at the suggestion of Ukrainian "specialists", are simply laughter.
    1. Mik13
      Mik13 23 November 2015 15: 16
      Quote: Engineer
      Of course, the tank had an original layout, but with a pressure on the Morozov school it didn’t give a damn about crew safety: the driver was sitting at the combat station, and the commander and gunner were on loading rams.

      Yes, you are right, of course. It is good that the designers of Nizhny Tagil were able to overcome such a shameful flaw when they designed the T-72.
      By the way, and in combat use, the difference is also noticeable. If the T-64 breaks into pieces immediately when it enters the BC, the T-72 compares favorably with the horizontal arrangement of charges in the carousel, so it first burns out completely, and breaks into pieces after 2-3 minutes.
      1. kugelblitz
        kugelblitz 15 January 2017 08: 53
        In general, the Leningrad designers for the 299 object were the first to submit the idea of ​​armored capsules, just as the 152 mm gun was developed specifically for him, and not for the Hammer. Kharkov residents stole its first prototype for themselves.
  5. Polkovodetz
    Polkovodetz 23 November 2015 08: 57
    It would be an interesting car, thirty years ago, only one step to Armata remained. Technical difficulties could be solved.
    On the other hand, this machine could inherit the flaws of the T-64.
    Firstly, the T-64 was obviously not sufficiently durable chassis, due to its appearance on the Object 430 tank, which had heavy weight requirements (not more than 36 tons). Therefore, the chassis was facilitated as much as possible and in this form it migrated to Object 432 (T-64). This in turn put an end to the possibility of deep modernization of the T-64, the chassis was too weak. Here is the same chassis, only extended by one roller and with one additional hydraulic shock absorber. How viable this design is remains a question.
    Secondly, a Kharkiv two-stroke diesel engine of the 6TD family would probably be put on this car. And what does it mean? So the production of the machine would again be dependent on the engine, so again it would not be possible to establish mass production at all tank-building plants of the country. We add here the economic component, the 5TD and 6TD diesel engines, with all modifications, are used only on military equipment, they have no civilian use. To give whole plants only for the needs of the army, in peacetime, this is too much.

    The advantages of the car definitely include weapons. By the end of the 70s, it became obvious that the reserve for increasing the firepower of 120-125mm guns was coming to an end. Tank protection began to exceed the capabilities of weapons. Therefore, the use of 477mm caliber guns at Object 152 was a large, high-quality step forward. In this, Armata loses.
    1. homedition
      homedition 23 November 2015 09: 39
      Quote: Polkovodetz
      In this, Armata loses.

      I do not think she is losing. They put the gun that is adequate to its tasks, with the prospect of installing a larger caliber.
  6. GRAY
    GRAY 23 November 2015 09: 38
    Hatches are thin.
    1. Ezhaak
      Ezhaak 23 November 2015 11: 01
      Quote: GRAY
      Hatches are thin.

      Yeah. And instead of a gun, a piece of pipe of suitable diameter.
      And you do not need to read the captions under the photos. And anyway, what for you need to read. And so it goes.
  7. kugelblitz
    kugelblitz 23 November 2015 10: 56
    The main disadvantage here is the ammunition in the crew compartment, and even the fuel tank next to the driver. SU-76 reminded for some reason. In general, Kharkovites were in their repertoire, the idea is interesting, but as always extremely raw.
    The Leningrad project was for example much more interesting and much more thought out in terms of crew protection.
  8. qwert
    qwert 23 November 2015 11: 16
    Kharkov Design Bureau has traditionally been the most experienced and strongest in the USSR. Definitely in the end would have created another masterpiece. Surely they would take into account all the good ideas from colleagues, including Leningraders.

    Well, I apologize for the offtopic. Can anyone explain why Armata got so big? Why and what is the point? In fact, the removal of weapons and the placement of a part of the back-set in a niche should have made it possible to further reduce the dimension, however ....
    1. Locksmith
      Locksmith 23 November 2015 11: 42
      Quote: qwert
      Can anyone explain why Armata got so big? Why and what is the point?

      Because this is an improved version of the T95, which was under a 152 mm cannon, which would rise on the armature, if necessary, and such a load on the chassis in the form of armor, etc., requires a chassis area, and there is nowhere to grow in breadth (the Germans' bad experience can the width of their T6 and Panther tanks during the Second World War), hence the increase in length.
  9. Operator
    Operator 23 November 2015 12: 44
    Projects and experimental tanks KHKBM, 1972-1993 years:

    object 450 "T-74", 1972 - a project of a tank in accordance with the concept of a new medium tank "NST", approved by the USSR Ministry of Defense following a review of tank projects, including object 225/226 (KB LKZ) and object 780 (KB ChTZ), gun carriage, 125-mm smooth-bore cannon with unitary rounds, chief designer A.A. Morozov

    object 490 "Topol", 1981 - a project of a tank, a low-profile turret, a 125-mm smooth-bore cannon with unitary shots, a crew of 2 people in the fighting compartment under the tower, replenishing a transverse conveyor AZ in the hull, a consumable conveyor AZ in the aft niche of the tower, 14 - rolling undercarriage of the T-64 type, lead designer E.A. Morozov

    Object 490A "Rebel", 1983 - experimental tank, gun mount, 130-mm rifled gun ZIF-92 with unitary shots 1360 mm long, crew of 3 people in the hull, MV on the left in the control compartment, CT and NO under the tower in fighting compartment, segmental conveyor AZ on the floor of the tower with a vertical arrangement of 30 rounds, weight 50 tons, leading designer V.R. Kovalyukh
    Dimensions, mm: 8000 track length, 3400 track width (1-T railway rolling stock dimension), 5000 track support surface, 2000 carriage roof height, 9350 front gun length, 3580 screen width, 1999 line of fire , track roller diameter 555, track width 600

    object 477 "Boxer / Hammer", 1987 - low-profile turret moved forward, 152 mm smoothbore gun LP-83 with separate loading rounds 1380 mm long (780 + 600) "Slate", hull thickness 150 mm, replenishing conveyor AZ for 32 shots in the hull, consumable conveyor AZ for 8 shots on the turret floor, KAZ "Shater-1", weight 55 tons, lead designer B.N. Polyakov
    Dimensions, mm: height on the roof of the tower 2434, length with gun forward 10650, height of the line of fire 2088, length of the supporting surface 5160

    object 477A "Nota", 1991 - high-profile turret on a ring base, 152-mm smoothbore gun LP-91 with separate loading rounds 1800 mm long (1200 + 600) "Zaraisk", hull side thickness 50 mm, three revolving AZ ( two replenishing for 2x12 shots and one consumable for 10 shots), the reload time of the consumable AZ is 35 seconds, the MV is placed in the center, the parts are made of titanium - the annular base of the tower, the hinged frontal module, the side screens, the MTO roof, the hatches KT, NO, MV and self-dredging dump, undercarriage of the T-80 type, weight 62 tons, chief designer M.D. Borisyuk, field tests in 1993 in Kubinka
    Dimensions, mm: width across 3780 screens, diameter of the track roller 670

    object 477A1 "Nota", 1993 - the second copy (not completed), undercarriage of the T-64 type, weight 60 tons, chief designer M.D. Borisyuk.
    1. cosmos111
      cosmos111 23 November 2015 13: 30
      a little, NOT on the topic ... BUT very interesting pictures "Object 292" with a 152,4 mm cannon
      1. cosmos111
        cosmos111 23 November 2015 13: 34
        "Object 292" with a 152,4 mm cannon
        1. kugelblitz
          kugelblitz 15 January 2017 09: 02
          Everything on the topic, this gun was specially developed for object 299, competitor 477. Upon learning of this, it was literally stolen from Leningrad residents.

          Damn, right now I’m looking at 299, due to the currently larger info on Armata, here it is a real prototype, not for nothing Potkin praised this particular project most highly. Apparently 195 was already assembled from elements of both 187 and 299, with time also borrowing the chassis of Leningraders for Armata, but with an Ural X-shaped diesel engine and hydromechanical transmission. Vosche Armata is a kind of alloy of Tagil and St. Petersburg.
    2. cosmos111
      cosmos111 23 November 2015 13: 56
      Quote: Operator
      object 490A "Rebel", 1983 - an experienced tank

      frontal armor, hull and turret-780 mm ...
  10. CRASH
    CRASH 23 November 2015 19: 11
    Armata smells.
  11. aba
    aba 24 November 2015 02: 35
    I read the article and I think that the Union did not fall apart, then we would have had Armata much earlier.
  12. Sobi
    Sobi 24 November 2015 14: 08
    how tired of this copy-paste
    on the last 3 photos of a piece of iron from our Research Institute VNIITransmash (St. Petersburg ... and they do not belong to the "hammer" ....