Military Review

How to divide the German fleet. Part I

40



During the period of the end of the Second World War, the once powerful fleet of Nazi Germany was in a state that could be described in one word - ruins. About half of the ships were destroyed during the hostilities, part of the Germans themselves flooded before surrender. All four German battleships, three so-called "pocket battleships", two of three heavy cruisers were killed. The hull of another unfinished heavy cruiser was located in Koenigsberg, in Szczecin, the unfinished aircraft carrier Graf Zeppelin sank. Of the six light cruisers, only one survived, of the 42 25 destroyers killed in the fighting, another 4 were scuttled or badly damaged in their bases. 1188 submarines 778 were destroyed during the war, 224 flooded the crews themselves during the surrender. According to rough estimates, about a third of German ships remained afloat, much of which was of varying degrees of damage.

Our trophies fleet by the end of the war were relatively small. Like the fascist ground forces, German sailors sought to go west and surrender to our allies. Incidentally, this was also demanded of them by the order of Grand Admiral K. Doenitz, commander-in-chief of the German Navy, appointed by Hitler's successor. In the ports occupied by the Soviet troops, mainly either heavily damaged or unfinished ships and auxiliary vessels that could not go to sea remained. When the Soviet government raised the question of dividing the ships of the German fleet, the British, in the control zone of which the bulk of the German ships were located, were modestly silent, while the Americans seemed to be more concerned about what to do with their giant fleet at that time, because peacetime was too expensive even for them. Therefore, the allies regarding the division of the German fleet mainly supported the Soviet side.

According to the memories of N.G. Kuznetsova, back in April 1945, I. Stalin instructed him to consider the use of captured German ships. By the beginning of the Potsdam Conference, the Main Naval Staff prepared for the Soviet delegation preliminary data on the composition and fate of the German fleet. 23 May I. Stalin sent letters to W. Churchill and G. Truman, where it was stated that, since the surviving ships and ships of Nazi Germany had surrendered to the British and Americans, the question arises of allocating its share to the Soviet Union. The USSR "can with good reason and in justice count at least one-third of the German military and merchant fleet." Stalin also insisted that Soviet specialists should have access to materials on the surrender of the German military and merchant fleets and the opportunity to become familiar with their actual condition.

How to divide the German fleet. Part I


Our party did not receive a concrete answer to this appeal, but both addressees suggested including this issue on the agenda of the upcoming Big Three meeting.

On the morning of July 19, a meeting of the Big Three foreign ministers was held in Potsdam. V.M. Molotov, on behalf of the Soviet delegation, made proposals for the division of the German fleet. They boiled down to the following: transfer to the Soviet Union a third of the German ships, including those that were built and repaired on the day of surrender; hand over a third of the weapons, ammunition and supplies; transfer to the USSR a third of the German merchant fleet; finish the transfer to 1 November 1945 g .; to receive and transfer ships to create a technical commission of representatives of the three powers.

At a meeting of heads of government, which began a few hours later, Churchill proposed to separate questions about the fate of the German merchant fleet and the Navy. Not objecting in principle to dividing the first, he insisted that the German merchant ships should soon be used in the interests of the war with Japan and should be divided later, within the framework of the reparation payments of Germany. Considering the difficulties of transferring them to another theater and the fact that many of them needed serious repairs before, their military use was very problematic. Thus, the British tried to delay the solution of the issue.

Speaking of the Navy, Churchill proposed to destroy the main part of the German submarines and divide only a few of them among the allies to learn new technology and experiments. Churchill’s next sentence apparently alerted Stalin: “As for surface ships, they should be equally distributed between us, provided that we reach a general agreement on all other issues and that we will break away from here in the best possible way.” The head of the Soviet delegation sharply remarked that the Russians are not asking for a gift from the allies and believe that they claim the right of a third of the German fleet. The Soviet side demanded recognition by the allies of this right, but did not object to the use of German merchant ships in the war with Japan. Having achieved this recognition, Stalin offered to return to this issue at the end of the conference. In a conversation with Kuznetsov, he dropped: "I hope that changes will take place in the British delegation soon. Then we will resume the conversation." Changes in the composition of the British delegation really happened - the conservative party lost the parliamentary elections of July 5, which was announced on July 26. The British delegation at the conference was headed by the new Prime Minister C. Attlee.

30 July new Soviet proposals were submitted for consideration by the conference. They took into account the point of view of the British delegation on the fate of German submarines - the main part of them was proposed to be destroyed. At the same time, the British delegation made their proposals. In a detailed memorandum on this issue, the British reaffirmed their position with regard to submarines and, without disputing the need for dividing surface ships, indicated that the Romanian and Bulgarian ships inherited by the USSR should be taken into account and the share of France should be singled out. Obviously, to a certain extent they tried to smooth the unpleasant aftertaste in relations with the French, which remained after the British formation struck at the French ships in Algeria controlled by the Vichy government in July 1940. As for the Romanian and Bulgarian ships, then, as you know, at the Potsdam Conference, the Soviet delegation, given that at the last stage of the war, these countries were on the side of the anti-Hitler coalition, demanded a different attitude to them than to defeated Germany. Most of the Bulgarian, and then the Romanian ships, inherited by the USSR in 1944, were returned to these countries shortly after the war.

In addition, the British believed that the section would take considerable time: it would require the compilation of lists of ships, an inventory, and the coordination of many technical issues. And finally, since the German crews remained aboard their ships, the British delegation feared their sinking, as happened after the end of the First World War. Therefore, the British insisted that the entire preparation for the section remained secret.

31 July gathered a special commission to develop recommendations on the distribution of the German naval and merchant fleets. The Soviet side in the commission was represented by the Narkom Navy Admiral of the Fleet N. G. Kuznetsov and the head of the political department of the Soviet military administration in Germany A. Sobolev. The US delegation to the commission was headed by Vice Admiral S. Cook, the British delegation was Rear Admiral E. McCarthy. The Commission recommended that all German surface ships be separated, with the exception of the sunken and taken by the Germans from the Allies (the latter returned to their previous owners), as well as ships under construction and repair, which could be brought to a state of readiness for launching to sea within six months. At the same time, the works were to be completed without an increase in the number of skilled workers in German shipyards and without the resumption of the activities of German shipbuilding and related industries.



This moment is especially important, since the strict deadlines for the completion and repair of ships established by the conference now sometimes cause bewilderment. The fact is that the decision on the division of the fleet should not have come into conflict with another decision of the conference — on the demilitarization of Germany, including the elimination of military production. The commission did not agree on the fate of submarines: the British and Americans proposed to divide no more than 30 submarines between the allies, the Soviet side believed that this figure should be three times as much. Looking ahead, we note that in the final decision of the conference passed the proposal of the Western allies. The Commission recommended to ensure that the ships transferred under the division of stocks of weapons, supplies and ammunition. To address the specific issues of the distribution of the German ships, it was proposed to create a triple naval commission, which was supposed to begin work on August 15. The section of the German fleet should have been completed by February 15 1946, i.e. six months after the start of this commission.

In the evening of July 31, a meeting of senior naval commanders - members of the delegations gathered. N. Kuznetsov, who chaired, as well as fleet admirals E. King (USA) and E. Cunningham (Great Britain), took part in it, and diplomatic advisers and naval experts were present. After long disputes, Kuznetsov proposed to divide all the ships into three approximately equal groups, and then draw lots. This offer was accepted. The next day, he was approved at a meeting of heads of government. Now it was necessary to implement the decision.

The Soviet side in the Tripartite Naval Commission was represented by Admiral GI Levchenko and Rear Engineer Admiral N.V. Alekseev. The delegation’s technical staff included 14 people. It was planned to attract officers from the squads formed in the Baltic Fleet for acceptance of German ships and from the Naval Division of the Soviet Military Administration in Germany. The British delegation included Vice Admiral J. Miles and Rear Admiral V. Perry, the American delegation, Vice Admiral R. Gormley and Commodore X. Rap. A preliminary informal meeting of the commission members took place on August 14. It was decided that the heads of the delegations would take turns to chair the meetings in alphabetical order and that a technical subcommittee would be created to compile and refine the lists of German ships.

On August 15, the first meeting of the Tripartite Naval Commission took place in the building of the Allied Control Council in Berlin. It was decided that first of all it was necessary to compile lists of German ships with the name, type, place of stay and state of each. Decided first to do section minesweepers, submarines, and then the rest of the ships. However, the head of the British delegation said that he would not discuss the issue of minesweepers and submarines until they received their full list and additional instructions. In addition, Admiral J. Miles suggested that the auxiliary ships of the German Navy, previously registered with Lloyd, be considered commercial and exclude them from the section. The heads of the USSR and US delegations did not agree with this and decided: let each delegation present its own version of the definition of what to consider as an auxiliary naval vessel. Soon the Americans proposed to consider as such special construction ships and converted from commercial ones. The head of the Soviet delegation, Admiral Levchenko, supported this proposal. The British agreed.

A Technical Subcommittee was created to compile the lists of ships to be divided. The Soviet side was represented by Rear Admiral N.V. Alekseev and the engineer-captain of 1 rank V.I. Golovin, English - Lieutenant Commander G. Watkins and American - Captain A. Graubart. To conduct on-site inspections, tripartite groups of experts were formed who had to refine the lists, familiarize themselves with the technical condition of the ships and pre-divide them into three groups: A - ships that do not require repair, B - unfinished and damaged ships, which alert will take no more six months, and C - the ships, the bringing of which in readiness will take longer and therefore must be destroyed. The first group of experts flew to England, the second worked in the ports occupied by Soviet troops, the third, went through Copenhagen to survey the Norwegian ports, the fourth was formed in the United States of those who were there.

The work of experts continued from the end of August to the second half of September. The ports adjusted the lists of ships in the ports, clarified their technical condition. As a result, the original list, which included the ship's 1382, expanded to 1877 units. Inspecting groups inspected the order of 30% of ships, mostly typical. It was not possible to do more because of the lack of time and due to the fact that a significant part of the ships and vessels were at sea at the crossings, or in the places of carrying out sweeping works. As it turned out, the British had already transferred part of the ships to the Danes and Norwegians. At the same time, the technical maintenance and operation of the ships were carried out by German crews who retained the ship’s organization, form and insignia of Kriegsmarine.



Soviet representatives faced obstacles posed by the British. They did not allow for detailed inspection of ships, prevented the survey of German crews. However, many of the auxiliary mechanisms on the ships were dismantled, and the British took some of the equipment (especially radio and radar). Thus, complete data on auxiliary vessels could not be obtained. However, extensive material was obtained that served as the basis for further work.

We give data on the state of some large German ships, the fate of which is usually of particular interest. The aircraft carrier "Count Zeppelin" was sunk by its crew in shallow water with a technical readiness of the ship of approximately 85%. After the ship was lifted by the BF emergency response service (ACC), the degree of readiness was estimated at about 50%. Turbines were blown up on an aircraft carrier. The completion of the ship required three to four years, and it was classified by experts as category C. Heavy cruisers ("pocket battleships") "Admiral Scheer" and "Lyuttsov", as well as light cruisers "Emden" and "Cologne", according to experts not subject to. There were no boilers on the Cologne cruiser, and its hull was cut almost to the diametric plane in a collision with the heavy cruiser Prince Eugen. Unfinished heavy cruiser Seydlitz damaged by Soviet aviation and flooded by the crew, the ACC BF was raised. The ship's readiness with operational mechanisms was about 65%, but there was no armament. It was impossible to finish the ship according to the German project, and remaking it under ours weapon it would be too expensive, especially since there were no ready-made 203 mm caliber artillery systems in the USSR.



To be continued.

Sources:
Kuznetsov N. The course to victory. M .: Voenizdat, 1987. C. 440-443.
Sanakoev S., Tsybulevsky B. Tehran - Yalta - Potsdam. M .: International Relations, 1970. C.172-186.
Patyanin S., Morozov M., Nagirnyak V. Krigsmarine. The Navy of the Third Reich. M .: Eksmo, 2009. C. 49-50, 55, 63-64.
Komarov A. End Krigsmarine // Sea collection. 1995. No.9. C. 76-82.
Sofronov T. Japanese and German warships transferred to the Soviet Union // News of the Irkutsk State University. 2014. T.7. With 140-145.
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  1. WYCCTPUJIA
    WYCCTPUJIA 13 November 2015 06: 20 New
    20
    Thanks to the author for the pages of history after the Great Patriotic War !!! After all, some German ships and submarines have long served. Our shipbuilders used some ideas when building our ships. And some OUR DAYS ARE USED ON THE FLEET !!!!! Kruzenshtern (bark) !!!!
  2. Serg65
    Serg65 13 November 2015 06: 56 New
    14
    In the 80-ies of the last century in the main base of the Black Sea Fleet in the city of Sevastopol, I happened to see several captured ships and vessels. In truth, there was only one trophy ship - this is the former Romanian mine-layer “Amiral Murgescu”, and in the 80's PMR-76. According to official figures, in 1988, it was excluded from the lists and scrapped, but in 2014, it flashed in the photos of the Ochakov BCP flooded at the entrance to Donuzlav.
  3. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
    Andrei from Chelyabinsk 13 November 2015 07: 13 New
    +7
    Thank you very much, very nice article!
  4. Serg65
    Serg65 13 November 2015 07: 29 New
    12
    The most famous trophy was the command ship Angara, the former submarine command ship of Gross Admiral Karl Doenitz.
    1. WYCCTPUJIA
      WYCCTPUJIA 13 November 2015 09: 19 New
      +7
      It was ...
    2. WYCCTPUJIA
      WYCCTPUJIA 13 November 2015 09: 19 New
      +3
      ... and what remains .... sad hi
      1. WYCCTPUJIA
        WYCCTPUJIA 13 November 2015 09: 25 New
        0
        http://fleetphoto.ru/photo/145327/
      2. Serg65
        Serg65 13 November 2015 09: 38 New
        +6
        WYCCTPUJIA Once the service for sailors on the Angara was considered "hellish", there were too many copper parts, some of the rails had heard enough mats laughing
    3. WYCCTPUJIA
      WYCCTPUJIA 13 November 2015 09: 25 New
      0
      http://fleetphoto.ru/photo/88940/
    4. bistrov.
      bistrov. 13 November 2015 16: 01 New
      +8
      Quote: Serg65
      The most famous trophy was the command ship Angara

      The passenger steamer "Admiral Nakhimov", which sailed along the Black Sea-Caucasian line, is also a former German steamship "Berlin". At one time, in 1985, I had to visit the "Admiral Nakhimov". It was struck by its luxurious interior decoration: various precious woods, bronze, gilding, carpets. In 1986, the "Admiral Nakhimov" sank as a result of a collision in the Novorossiysk Bay. More than 400 people died.
      1. Serg65
        Serg65 13 November 2015 17: 14 New
        +7
        Quote: bistrov.
        Passenger steamer "Admiral Nakhimov"

        I had to participate in the raising of the dead, at that time I went to KIL-25, we put barrels around Nakhimov, and then we built a sarcophagus.
  5. Mera joota
    Mera joota 13 November 2015 07: 29 New
    +2
    The big problem after the war was the employment of German workers, both released from captivity and those remaining at nationalized enterprises. Therefore, the question of completing Seidlitz or Count Zeppelin could be decided in a short time. It would be a desire ...
    For example, the production of the Fau-2 was restored quickly, despite the fact that it was practically destroyed by the Allied aviation. Therefore, the reference to the difficulty of restoring the same Zeppelin is only a screen of lack of interest on the part of the Soviet Navy.
    1. Serg65
      Serg65 13 November 2015 07: 51 New
      +7
      Quote: Mera Joota
      For example, the production of the Fau-2 was restored quickly, despite the fact that it was practically destroyed by the Allied aviation. Therefore, the reference to the difficulty of restoring the same Zeppelin is only a screen of lack of interest on the part of the Soviet Navy.

      Oh, these experts on the interests of the USSR and the USSR Navy in particular !!!! What is V-2 and what is Zeppelin? On Fau, most of the documentation was available, and specialists were present. And from "Zeppelin" only the body. Moreover, Fau was a promising weapon at that time! Do not forget that the country lay in ruins, even more familiar and mastered "Petropavlovsk" was not completed.
    2. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
      Andrei from Chelyabinsk 13 November 2015 17: 29 New
      +6
      Quote: Mera Joota
      Therefore, the question of completing Seidlitz or Count Zeppelin could be decided in a short time. It would be a desire ...

      Tell me please, but why was it completed? To replenish the fleet with an aircraft carrier?
      But in the USSR there was no carrier-based aircraft. Of course, our design bureaus could well have developed a carrier-based fighter, but it would have taken a lot of time and money, and there would have been no sense, because the piston machines "were ordered to live long" - they were replaced by jet aircraft. Build jet decks? This is also an option, but we must remember that by the end of the war we did not have conventional jet aircraft. Those. first, it was necessary to develop land-based jet aircraft, and only then on their basis - carrier-based. And there was no need to wait for the rapid appearance of deck vehicles.
      And the Zeppelin was not actually designed for jet aircraft. Those. it, in principle, could be upgraded for jet, but what would it cost? Taking into account the need to create full-fledged catapults, and not what the Germans wanted to put on the Zeppelin? And then - for modernization, you still need to imagine the performance characteristics of aircraft that will be based on an aircraft carrier, and who represented them then?
      So the situation turned out "finish building something, I don't know what" and don't let you get Neptune at the exit "not a mouse, not a frog, but an unknown animal" - turned inside out with fur for mediocre spent resources, and a lot of them were required for modernization.
      What other options? Preserve? And then after years to buy the blown up turbines from the Germans? Force the Germans to make turbines and then conserve? And if it turns out that an aircraft carrier is not suitable for jet aircraft?
      So it turned out a suitcase without a handle. And this despite the fact that the fleet suffered very heavy losses in the Second World War, there was a terrible personnel shortage for skillful commanders (the Baltic large ships, oddly enough, stood all the Second World War at the walls and there were more than good reasons for that) and would prefer any comflot invest not in an aircraft carrier, which will not be understood when, but in the construction of the same destroyers - which you can get faster and make it easier to train personnel for them.
      1. Serg65
        Serg65 13 November 2015 20: 09 New
        +3
        Andrei from Chelyabinsk hi Hello noble don, are you fighting for your homeland again? drinks
        1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
          Andrei from Chelyabinsk 14 November 2015 11: 47 New
          +2
          Quote: Serg65
          Hello noble don, are you fighting for your homeland again?

          Hi Hi! hi Yeah, I'm at war :))) On my T-shirt it says exactly like this - "Dad does not sit on the Internet, Dad is fighting for the Motherland!" laughing
          1. Serg65
            Serg65 14 November 2015 12: 24 New
            +1
            Quote: Andrey from Chelyabinsk
            "Dad is not on the Internet, Dad is fighting for the Motherland!"

            laughing good bully
    3. The comment was deleted.
  6. Serg65
    Serg65 13 November 2015 07: 32 New
    +6
    Until 1988 the Aquarius "Fiolent" was in the 16th brigade, it was rumored that he was the personal tanker "Tirpitz", he bore the name "Karnten" then.
  7. Serg65
    Serg65 13 November 2015 07: 40 New
    17
    Well, the longest-liver turned out to be MMT "Istra", it began its service on January 1, 41 under the name "Else", has seen in its lifetime as much as God forbid everyone! The longevity of the "Istra" will be explained by galvanized tanks in which aviation kerosene is transported smile ... The Istra tanker still serves Russia faithfully.
  8. Silman1985
    Silman1985 13 November 2015 07: 43 New
    +7
    It was necessary in those years to take everything away from them ... The Poles want to sue Russia for occupation, namely, at the expense of Russia, they restored the lives of Poland and many other countries, why does Russia not sue Germany? So it would be fair!
    1. Army soldier2
      Army soldier2 13 November 2015 09: 10 New
      +9
      Moreover, they also got access to the sea thanks to Stalin.
      And all these claims against Poles in Russia and other Baltic states have no legal perspective. Just Russophobia ...
    2. Army soldier2
      Army soldier2 13 November 2015 09: 10 New
      0
      Moreover, they also got access to the sea thanks to Stalin.
      And all these claims against Poles in Russia and other Baltic states have no legal perspective. Just Russophobia ...
    3. naitchanter
      naitchanter 20 November 2015 10: 45 New
      0
      But Russia does not need to sue. After the division of Germany into Eastern and Western Soviet Union refused to exact reparations. Accordingly, after the unification of Germany, he claimed for these payments. In theory, this was supposed to be one of the conditions for unification, but Gorbi and others like him were not considered necessary. So the title of the German of the year labeled deserved amendment
  9. parusnik
    parusnik 13 November 2015 08: 06 New
    +6
    Great .. just great, thanks! We look forward to continuing ...
    1. Karabanov
      Karabanov 13 November 2015 10: 33 New
      +3
      I support! The theme is cool and well written and, in my opinion, has not yet been covered in VO ... The sequel is very curious.
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. creak
        creak 13 November 2015 14: 32 New
        0
        Quote: Karabanov
        The theme is cool and cool written and in my opinion still not covered in the VO ...


        No less interesting topic - the receipt of the USSR ships of the Italian Navy and all sorts of behind-the-scenes stories related to this.
        The most famous Italian battleship "Giulio Cesare"
        included in the Soviet Navy under the name "Novorossiysk" - the same one that exploded in 1955 in the Sevastopol Bay ...
  10. ivanovbg
    ivanovbg 13 November 2015 10: 06 New
    +2
    A very interesting topic, I read about it for the first time.
  11. Kars
    Kars 13 November 2015 10: 27 New
    +2
    We had to agree to get our third with merchant ships. It would be more profitable.
    1. saturn.mmm
      saturn.mmm 13 November 2015 15: 57 New
      +1
      Quote: Kars
      . It would be more profitable.

      Good health. For a long time was not on the site, was it really taken to the army?
      1. Kars
        Kars 13 November 2015 16: 19 New
        +2
        hi
        no, it just happened.
        1. saturn.mmm
          saturn.mmm 14 November 2015 00: 17 New
          0
          Quote: Kars
          no, it just happened.

          Everything is less or less normal and thank God.
      2. Serg65
        Serg65 13 November 2015 21: 00 New
        +1
        They sketched in the comments, puffed out their cheeks and ... in fact, they did not give out anything. laughing Return Michael! hi
        1. saturn.mmm
          saturn.mmm 14 November 2015 00: 08 New
          +1
          Quote: Serg65
          They sketched in the comments, puffed out their cheeks and ... in fact, they did not give out anything. Return Michael!

          I could not help but greet Kars on the site, he tactfully tolerated my ignorance in tanks, an interesting extraordinary person.

          The article is good, it could be increased three times, a year and a half ago, I cited data about which of the allies how many snatched from German technology, the Americans appeared whole new industries, and in the USSR too.
          1. Serg65
            Serg65 14 November 2015 05: 13 New
            +2
            Quote: saturn.mmm
            I could not help but greet Kars on the site

            smile And I do not mind !!!
  12. marinier
    marinier 13 November 2015 11: 53 New
    +4
    Hello dear!
    S4itau statiu useful, we have the facts for 7 children
  13. cth; fyn
    cth; fyn 13 November 2015 12: 31 New
    +3
    Quite an abominable story, they fought like lions, they shared like jackals. If you hurt someone’s feelings, but I see so.
  14. antiexpert
    antiexpert 13 November 2015 12: 42 New
    +1
    And who can give a general general numerical ratio of the fleets of the participating countries in the Second World War?
    Of particular interest is the ratio of the British fleet and the Third Reich.
  15. AlexA
    AlexA 13 November 2015 12: 47 New
    +4
    Once again, Respect to Tehnaru. Where does he get such accurate and interesting information from?
  16. _KM_
    _KM_ 13 November 2015 12: 58 New
    +1
    They not only shared the fleet like jackals.
    1. Serg65
      Serg65 13 November 2015 13: 39 New
      +3
      Quote: _KM_
      They not only shared the fleet like jackals.

      Yeah, the Germans also did not ask for forgiveness for the fact that they were defeated. The jackals were those who attacked and robbed everything, from chicken eggs to icon cases!
  17. 89067359490
    89067359490 13 November 2015 14: 41 New
    +2
    When the Italian fleet was divided, there was even more debate.
  18. NIKNN
    NIKNN 13 November 2015 23: 28 New
    +3
    The article is interesting, the discussion is no less interesting. Thanks to the author and no less thanks to the discussion participants drinks I learned a lot about the surviving fleet.
  19. Lone wolf
    Lone wolf 14 November 2015 07: 11 New
    0
    Hello everyone, and thanks for the photos of the ships, guys. The enemy was formidable, cruel, ruthless and pragmatic and ideological.
    Of 1188 submarines, 778 were destroyed during the war, 224 were flooded by the crews themselves during the surrender.
    but the most dangerous ... clever .. skilled with golden hands, and proactive ... confirmation of the ships he created ...
  20. xomaNN
    xomaNN 16 November 2015 11: 59 New
    0
    Interesting details of the difficult "bargaining" with the allies. And the result was, it was not in vain that ours resisted and fought for each trophy "unit" drinks
  21. Rassudov
    Rassudov 20 February 2020 01: 33 New
    0
    Thank you, an interesting article.