Military Review

Gatling Day

33
Gatling Day



4 November 1862, at the height of the American Civil War, Richard Jordan Gatling received a patent for the six-barrel rapid-fire small-caliber gun he invented, which later became a true symbol of the steampunk era in the arms business.
Mitraleza Gatling was the most successful of many types of machine guns with external drive, invented in the XIX century. Therefore, it has received the greatest distribution, and the method of automatic recharging proposed by Gatling by rotating the block of barrels is still used.

However, surely, not everyone knows that the first Gatling, patented in 1862, was quite different from the later models of this weapons. He was distinguished, first of all, by the fact that he was not made for unitary ammunition. Similarly, the Eiger "devil's mill" Gatling's case was originally used when firing thick-walled steel cartridges, in fact - replaceable chamber, which inserted paper cartridges from blasting rifles, and behind the sleeves were put on primers.
The system was simple and quite workable, but inconvenient, since each cartridge in a half-inch caliber weighed almost half a kilo, and it was necessary to equip them manually, having previously cleaned off carbon, which took a lot of time.
The following year, Gatling perfected the mechanism, remaking it under unitary cartridges with brass sleeves. And this particular model was adopted in 1865 in the United States, and then in many other countries.
On the screen saver - Richard Gatling with a portable modification of his machine gun, dubbed the "Gatling Bulldog."



Patent drawing of Mitraleza Gatling, which shows the date - November 4 1862.



For clarity, Gatling attached to the patent application a wooden model of his invention with an active recharge mechanism. Now this model is on display at the Smithsonian Institution Museum.



The scheme of the first Gatling mitraleza, on which the chamber-cartridge is clearly visible, and it is also easy to understand the principle of operation of this weapon.



The full-scale pattern of the canister differs from the massive wooden model by much greater refinement and elegance.
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  1. Basarev
    Basarev 14 November 2015 06: 42
    +4
    And in the finals of the First World War, German Gast surpassed Gatling, creating a lighter and more compact double-barreled reloading scheme.
    1. ICT
      ICT 14 November 2015 06: 49
      +6
      type of anthem wink .....
    2. Bayonet
      Bayonet 14 November 2015 07: 51
      +3
      Quote: Basarev
      And in the finals of the First World War, German Gast surpassed Gatling, creating a lighter and more compact double-barreled reloading scheme.

      But this was already later, and Gryazev and Shipunov can be cited as an example, but this was also later. smile hi
      1. Basarev
        Basarev 14 November 2015 21: 00
        +1
        I just cited the example of Gast as the pioneer of an alternative multi-barrel scheme.
  2. Major_Vortex
    Major_Vortex 14 November 2015 07: 03
    +7
    But Gryazev and Shipunov had to bring this infernal cuttlefish to mind. Brilliant gunsmiths, read a book about them and was imbued with the talent and fertility of Russian engineers. So much work has been done for the good of the Motherland that they can be safely put on a par with Kalashnikov, Degtyarev, Browning, the Mauser brothers.
    1. bunta
      bunta 14 November 2015 07: 17
      +6
      They do not need to be put there, they have been there for a long time :)

      With regards to "bringing to mind", IMHO Gatling would be honored to consider that Gryazev and Shipunov "brought to mind" what he did not think of. The art museum is full of multi-barreled prototypes.
      1. Major_Vortex
        Major_Vortex 14 November 2015 07: 39
        +7
        Six-barreled automatic guns with a rotating block of trunks by designers Gryazev and Shipunov are called automatic guns according to the Gatling scheme.
        1. alex-cn
          alex-cn 14 November 2015 08: 19
          14
          Still, Gryazev and Shipunov created their own gun ... All Gatling systems, up to and including Vulcan, operate from an external drive, and GSh guns from a gas outlet. In fact, they only have a rotating block of trunks.
          1. Major_Vortex
            Major_Vortex 14 November 2015 08: 59
            +6
            Quote: alex-cn
            Still, Gryazev and Shipunov created their own gun ... All Gatling systems, up to and including Vulcan, operate from an external drive, and GSh guns from a gas outlet. In fact, they only have a rotating block of trunks.

            Initially, both guns were developed by Gryazev, and Shipunov was the head of the design bureau who was instructed to create similar art. systems in response to lit up in North Vietnam American. After attracting Gryazev to this work in the design bureau, the result of their joint work with Shipunov just became these guns. The American Volcano excelled our guns in its characteristics. There are marine and aviation modifications of the 6-barrel automatic guns of Gryazev and Shipunov, 23-mm and 30-mm caliber. For the operation of these guns, there is not enough energy of the powder gases alone removed from the barrel. The barrel block in the cannons of Gryazev and Shipunov is accelerated by a special device operating using standard pyro cartridge. But the scheme of such automation is called the Gatling scheme. Not the design was copied from the ancient American Gatling gun, but the scheme with a rotating barrel block for automatic guns is called the Gatling scheme. In American guns, the operation of automation is provided by a powerful electric motor. But our more advanced ones and their rate of fire is higher.
            1. i80186
              i80186 14 November 2015 10: 19
              0
              Quote: Mayor_Vikhr
              But our more advanced ones and their rate of fire is higher.

              They say that the most "advanced" Gatling cannon is still it.
              1. papik09
                papik09 14 November 2015 17: 03
                +2
                Quote: i80186
                Quote: Mayor_Vikhr
                But our more advanced ones and their rate of fire is higher.

                They say that the most "advanced" Gatling cannon is still it.

                Yeah, this is the gun around which the plane was built. fellow ... It is called GAU 8A, and the A-10A "Tanderbolt" tongue
                1. i80186
                  i80186 14 November 2015 18: 00
                  +3
                  Quote: papik09
                  It is called GAU 8A, and the A-10A "Tanderbolt"

                  Yeah, he is. An interesting fact, it was not delivered to anyone for export by the United States at all. He was not even given to Israel, and they really needed it. smile
            2. alex-cn
              alex-cn 14 November 2015 11: 46
              +2
              This is usually called. After all, the use of a barrel unit rotating from an external drive was used, for example. in pepperboxes, I came across a description of a German 4-barrel flintlock gun with 1 lock, the barrels were turned for a shot by hand. Gatling's merit is that he brought the system to a new level.
            3. gross kaput
              gross kaput 14 November 2015 23: 56
              0
              Quote: Mayor_Vikhr
              The barrel block in the cannons of Gryazev and Shipunov is accelerated by a special device using standard pyro cartridge

              In the 23mm machine gun AO-19 (GSh 6-23), a squib, but in the most famous GSh-6-30 (AO-18), a pneumatic starter requiring 70 atm for operation.
              Quote: Mayor_Vikhr
              and their rate of fire is higher.

              М61А1 VuLcan rate adjustable up to 6000 V / m, GaU-8 4200, GSh 6-23 - 9000, GSh-6-30 4600-5100. So not everything is unambiguous, somewhere we have a higher pace, but somewhere in the Yankees, so the question here is rather complicated, for example AO-18 and AO-19 are structurally very close - in fact, this is a version of the same gun only for different ammunition at the same time, AO-19 developed a pace of up to 9000, but when the sailors began to lack the rate of fire of the AK-630, instead of forcing the AO-18, a second gun was installed in the AK-630M1-2 installation - "it seems to me that this is not casual" . Winnie the Pooh
              1. i80186
                i80186 15 November 2015 06: 16
                0
                Quote: gross kaput
                So not everything is clear

                Yes, look for information about aircraft accidents due to the GSH-6-30, at the same time see how it should be serviced, look at the survivability of the barrel. And the rate of fire, well, of course - this is the main parameter, but what if the turn is to shoot 200+ shells, then either the plane (MiG-27) falls apart or the gun explodes, but in any case, the trunks of the khan simply burn out - these are trifles. What to clean after each shooting is also unimportant. On ship water cooling, there is simpler.
                1. Alex_Rarog
                  Alex_Rarog 15 November 2015 20: 18
                  0
                  Well, let's say that any weapon needs to be cleaned either IL-27 or AK-630 and one shot or a thousand ...
        2. NIKNN
          NIKNN 14 November 2015 13: 21
          +4
          Major_Vortex (4) SU Today, 07:39 ↑

          Six-barreled automatic guns with a rotating block of trunks by designers Gryazev and Shipunov are called automatic guns according to the Gatling scheme

          alex-sp RU Today, 08:19 ↑

          Still, Gryazev and Shipunov created their own gun ... All Gatling systems, up to and including Vulcan, operate from an external drive, and GSh guns from a gas outlet. In fact, they only have a rotating block of trunks.


          Yes, in fact, all cars are created according to the scheme wheels, only their drives are different. lol
          1. V.ic
            V.ic 15 November 2015 14: 34
            0
            Quote: NIKNN
            Yes, in fact, all cars are designed according to the wheel scheme

            Then the tractor too ...
  3. bionik
    bionik 14 November 2015 07: 05
    12
    The author of the deadly invention was a doctor. (From childhood he was fond of invention, helping his father repair agricultural equipment. Richard received his first seeder patent at the age of 19. But, despite his passion, he decided to become a doctor and graduated from medical college in 1850 in Cincinnati.) As befits a doctor, he had the best feelings for humanity. Gatling himself wrote about it this way: “If I could create a mechanical shooting system that, thanks to its rate of fire, would allow one person to replace a hundred shooters on the battlefield, the need for large armies would disappear, which would lead to a significant reduction in human losses.” (After Gatling’s death, Scientific American published an obituary with the following words: “This man had no equal in kindness and cordiality. It seemed to him that if the war became even more terrible, then the peoples would finally lose the desire to resort to arms.”)
    1. bionik
      bionik 14 November 2015 08: 43
      +1
      In America, there was a Civil War, and Gatling offered his weapons to the northerners. However, the Department of Artillery was inundated with proposals for the use of new weapons from various inventors, therefore, despite the successful demonstration, Gatling was unable to get an order. True, some instances of the Gatling machine gun still fought a little at the end of the war, having proved itself very well. After the war, in 1866, the American government nevertheless made an order for 100 copies of the Gatling gun, which were produced by Colt under the designation Model 1866. These guns were put on ships, they were also adopted by the armies of other countries. British troops used the gatlings in 1883 to crush the rebellion in Egypt's Port Said, where these weapons earned a terrifying reputation. Russia was also interested in it: the Gatling gun here was adapted by Gorlov and Baranovsky under the “Berdanovsky” cartridge and adopted. Later, the Gatling system was repeatedly improved and modified - the Swede Nordenfeld, the American Gardner, the British Fitzgerald. Moreover, it was a question not only of machine guns, but also of small-caliber guns - a typical example is the 37-mm five-barrel gun of Hotchkiss, adopted by the Russian fleet in 1881 (a 47-mm variant was also produced).

      But the monopoly on rate of fire did not last long - soon the name "machine gun" was assigned to automatic weapons that worked on the principles of using powder gases and recoil for reloading. The first such weapon was the machine gun Hiram Maxim, who used smokeless gunpowder. This invention pushed the Gatlings to the background, and then completely displaced the army.
    2. Alex
      Alex 14 November 2015 10: 07
      +4
      Quote: bionik
      (After Gatling’s death, Scientific American published an obituary with the following words: “This man had no equal in kindness and warmth. He thought that if the war became even more terrible, then the peoples would finally lose the desire to resort to arms”

      Yeah, another such "humanist" invented dynamite. And also solely out of love for humanity.
      1. Archon
        Archon 14 November 2015 18: 37
        0
        The atomic bomb was also made so that there were no wars ...
  4. Zaurbek
    Zaurbek 14 November 2015 10: 11
    +2
    I don’t understand why they don’t put Gatling systems in the door premise of Mi8 / 24? The rate of fire is high, the YakB 12,7 and GShG systems have already been invented. There are conflicts with the partisans, light helicopters are gradually being adopted by the Ansat and Kamov type.?
    1. Mountain shooter
      Mountain shooter 14 November 2015 10: 35
      +4
      He has a recoil, like a mustang. What is there to mount it on a light helicopter? Yes, even across the movement.
      1. Massik
        Massik 14 November 2015 10: 59
        +3
        It’s not a problem to set up a frame with a recoil truck, it’s another matter where to place another 10 thousand rounds of ammunition and how much weight this will result in for a light helicopter.
        1. Bayonet
          Bayonet 14 November 2015 17: 00
          +7
          Quote: Marssik
          , another thing is where to place another 10 thousand rounds of ammunition and at what weight all this will result in a light helicopter.

          Buddy! No problem! Installation of the M134 "Minigun" machine gun on the light observation helicopter Hughes Model 369. (click) hi
          1. Massik
            Massik 14 November 2015 19: 44
            +1
            How many assault forces does this Hughes get? It seems like we are going to support the landing. From the doorway ... It’s easier to hang a machine-gun container on our light helicopter.
      2. Zaurbek
        Zaurbek 14 November 2015 17: 05
        0
        Mi-8s and 24s are also not girls, and a large second salvo during a landing will not hurt. Ansat to the class is greater than the below given Hughes. On it, as an option, you can put 4 Browning 12,7 mm. and this is about a volley at YakB, and the weight of the mat part is 2 times larger.
    2. The comment was deleted.
  5. Mountain shooter
    Mountain shooter 14 November 2015 10: 39
    +3
    Good Gatling created an apparatus for the accelerated killing of people from philanthropy. Did not work out. But with nuclear weapons - it worked. But it was not Gatling.
  6. Mikado
    Mikado 14 November 2015 11: 46
    +2
    Not mine, but funny:
    Once upon a time there was an old farmer by the name of Gatling. Lived, did not bother, grazed cows, enjoyed nature. He also loved cutlets. Cooked them every day. It used to sit in front of the house, screw the favorite meat grinder to the table and let the meat grind ... Then it sits on the porch, eats steaming cutlets and looks at the stars. Grace...
    But then war broke out and trouble came to Gatling. Either they will break the fence, then they will shoot the cow, then crazy bullets will beat the dishes. But the old man Gatling suffered. He just cursed quietly, hearing the shots and the squeal of bullets. And he did not cutlets. He ate only breadcrumbs. What cutlets are there! Not up to cutlets - war!
    And yet, one day, as in the good old days, the old man Gatling decided to try cutlets and look at the stars. He hammered the last cow, cut a tub of meat, went to look for a meat grinder. Not immediately found - she was lost in the Gatling mess. As in the old days, I screwed my favorite meat grinder to an old rickety table near the house. I went to get some meat - lo and behold - but there are no buckets! Enemies stole meat (those who are not ours) are bad. Only from the nearest woods smoke comes and cheerful laughter with matyugas, and rare shots can be heard. "What are you doing, cursed wolves, to your fuka!" Gatling cried in despair. "Give the meat, weirdos with the letter 'm'!". In response, a long obscene phrase sounded from the forest and a shot rang out. One glass less in the Gatling house.
  7. Mikado
    Mikado 14 November 2015 11: 47
    +6
    Old Gatling was furious here. Not seriously angry. Hit with his strong fist on the table. The table broke in two. The meat grinder fell off and fell at Gatling's feet. Gatling carefully raised his old meat grinder. I looked at her ... And suddenly an idea was born from him ...
    ... First, he chose the log in the closet equally. Scraped up a bit. Hole made longitudinal. Then he dragged an armful of broken guns, of which, thanks to the war, there were plenty. He attached them to a log, pulled them with clamps. Made a frame from some recyclable material. Tinkered with the chamber. And finally, he took his favorite meat grinder ...
    ... The knock of a hammer and the screeching of a saw coming from Gatling's farm did not allow the detachment of enemies to fall asleep, who, after eating a kebab from the Gatling meat, craved rest. The villains tossed and turned, swearing, and spat on lead toward the farm. The noise stopped suddenly, and the deafening silence enveloped the farm and the forest. But the enemies were not up to sleep. Some kind of anxious feeling haunted them. Anxiety carried from the farm. Obeying some invisible appeal, they crept up to the fence of the farm and looked inside.
    Right in front of them, literally a few tens of meters, stood an incomprehensible device. Wooden skeleton. Log with tubes. The rays of the rising sun were reflected from metal parts. Near the device a man was swarming ...
    Old Man Gatling put his hand on the grinder handle and spun around. With a metallic clink, a log with gun barrels turned. He grunted in satisfaction. Noticing the swarming around the fence, the old farmer lifted a long tin box on the ground and drove it into the top of his implement. The skeleton creaked. The end of the log turned towards the curious scoundrels. And Gatling, bursting out with a poem like "Would you like some meat? Get some lead!", Sharply twisted the handle of the meat grinder ...
    ... The last thing that the would-be meat-eaters had time to see and hear was a sudden outbreak of flame, puffs of smoke, the roar of shots and the whistle of bullets. Several people fell. The others started to run, but the bullets overtook them and they fell bleeding. The wounded screamed in pain. There was no salvation for them in the fishing line. Bullets cut off branches, pierced through and through stunted trees and the bodies of people hiding behind them. Only a few managed to escape. In general, old man Gatling drove all the enemies out of the forest, just like the forester in that joke. And then our people came, saw the old farmer's wunderwaffe, were very surprised, and exchanged him for three cows and a new meat grinder. And they ran to beat the enemies. And smashed them clean. The farm cannon was named after him - the Gatling grape-shot. First they shot from it by twisting the handle, and then, many, many years later, they attached an electric motor to it and called it "Volcano". But that is another story.
    And old Gatling, when the war ended, again began to raise cows, fry cutlets, admire the stars and remember his military exploits. That’s the end of the tale, and whoever listened is well done :)
  8. SlavaSSL
    SlavaSSL 14 November 2015 21: 55
    +1
    Here’s a descendant of Gatling’s mitrallise. Do not pay attention to the title of the video. Https: //www.youtube.com/watch? V = LQOd6J4tB28
  9. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 15 November 2015 11: 57
    +1
    I heard about a Gatling canister with an electric motor and a rate of fire of 3000 shots, but I saw the description for the first time, for which thanks to the author of the article. the Gatling machine gun into a virtually automatic weapon. It would be nice to learn more about these "additions".