Military Review

Fleshetta: death from heaven

38
World War I became a real testing ground for new designs. weapons. But not all of them are known to modern man. Of course, it is possible to rank the flash drive as a little-known weapon model of the period of the First World War. Flashetta (from the French flechette, in the German language Fliegerpfeil, in the Russian press of the beginning of the 20th century was sometimes called the "arrow") is a special metal dart arrow that is no larger than an ordinary pencil. It was a special type of aviation weapon created at the beginning of the 20th century and used by air forces of different countries during the air attacks of clusters of cavalry and infantry. Fleshetta was used during the battles of the First World War and during the Civil War in Russia.


It is worth noting that by the time World War I began aviation was in its infancy. Aircraft were used primarily for aerial reconnaissance and communications. Fighter and bomber aircraft were in their infancy. Under these conditions, the use of such an unusual weapon, such as a flash drive, should not be particularly surprising. For the first time, the French were invented and used by the French, but this weapon was especially popular in Germany. An example of the use of a flash drive was shown in the Russian television series Death of an Empire, one of the series of which shows a scene of an attack of an infantry column of the Russian army by a German airplane, which, from a low-level flight, throws metal arrows at a soldier. In fairness, it is worth noting that the heavy forged darts shown in the series were significantly larger in size than the actual flash drives used.

German (in the foreground) and French (in the background) flashsets


As noted above, at first the aircraft were used only as reconnaissance vehicles. For this reason, for some time a high flying airplane did not cause a sense of danger among the enemy soldiers. His flight over positions was accompanied, perhaps by strong words or an indecent gesture after. At the same time, the pilots themselves thought about being able to lead a battle with other pilots or attack ground targets. To do this, they made out as best they could - they took with them revolvers, rifles, light machine guns, and ordinary hand grenades were used to fight the enemy infantry. At the same time, due to the lack of sights, poor handling, wind and many other factors, it was almost impossible to provide acceptable accuracy from the first airplanes. It was necessary to have a weapon that could hit the squares in order to level out a little accuracy. The heavy bombs were not even discussed then, but ordinary physics came to the aid of the inventors. In the end, gravity has not been canceled. The flashottas thrown from the plane possessed excellent punching ability and destructive power near the ground.

Flashettas were invented in France, but contrary to the expectations of the creators, they did not spread there, becoming more popular in Germany and Russia. In Germany, the Fleshetta of the times of the First World War was a small metal rod the size of which is slightly larger than a regular pencil. It was sharpened on the one hand, and on the other hand it had four longitudinal grooves forming a kind of plumage. Some German flashsets even specially endowed with the inscription “Invention francaise, fabrication allemande” (fr. “Invented in France, made in Germany”) - a kind of symbolic humor of German military engineers who returned his invention to his opponent in the war.



Fleshetta bulk or packs fit into special boxes, cassettes, which were hung under the fuselage of the aircraft. They were used mainly against enemy infantry and cavalry in the open, often with a strafing flight. At the right moment, a cassette with a deadly weapon was opened, and hundreds of flashsets rushed to the ground. The stabilizer or the available plumage unfolded the flashset down, after which it rushed to the ground. Arrows dropped from the side of an airplane near the ground already had a serious penetrating ability. It is noted that they were able to pierce the wooden boards, the thickness of which was 15, see. In addition, the fall of the flashsets was accompanied by a sharp whistle that scared the horses and put pressure on the psyche of the enemy soldiers. They were especially effective against the masses of cavalry in the open country, since the flashlet struck, if not the rider himself, then his horse.

These shells were very easy to manufacture and weighed relatively little, so you could take a couple of boxes on board the aircraft without any problems. Like any type of weapon, flashsets were continuously developed, optimal sizes, weight and shape were chosen according to efficiency. At the same time, most experimenters settled on the size of a flashset not exceeding a pencil or a ballpoint pen. However, the aviators themselves did not like these weapons, considering them too bloody and dirty.

Fleshetta: death from heaven


It is worth noting that, like all forgotten weapons, flashsets were pushed out by more effective means of attacking ground targets - bombs. Over time, their combat effectiveness began to fall seriously. There is nothing strange about it. Very quickly, the effect of surprise from the bombardment by flashsets just evaporated, and the conflict itself went into the stage of positional warfare. Under these conditions, when the soldiers of the fighting armies burrowed into the ground, digging out thousands of kilometers of trenches and building tens of thousands of dugouts, flashsets were ineffective. To hit the soldiers entrenched in the trenches, even with the help of a bomb, is not an easy task, what can we say about the arrows falling from the sky. The overlaps of simple dugouts made of earth and logs also became an insurmountable obstacle for flashsets. The use of flashsets during the First World War was never a mass phenomenon and rather was episodic. However, in Russia, the release of this fairly simple weapon continued until the end of the war. And the last time the flashsets used appeared to be the red pilots who used them in the autumn of 1919 of the year against the white cavalry.

But until the end of the flash of the world of weapons still did not disappear. The good ballistic qualities possessed by the arrow-shaped ammunition, as well as their high penetrating power, still attract gunsmiths. As a result, flashsets found application in attempts to create ammunition for firearms. For example, a similar ammunition for its experimental machine gun AO-27 was chosen by the Soviet designer DI Shiryaev in the 1961 year.



His machine gun was designed to use sub-caliber ammunition with a feathered arrow-shaped bullet and a leading two-sector pallet, which was separated from the bullet immediately after its departure from the AO-27 barrel. Tests of this experimental machine demonstrated to the military that, thanks to the high initial flight speed of an unusual bullet (1060 m / s) and lateral load, the AO-27 machine gun had a significant advantage over the Kalashnikov machine gun when breaking through such types of obstacles as trenching. In addition, experts isolated much less than Kalashnikov assault rifle bullets discharged when firing in short bursts from a standing position. However, due to the weak stopping effect of arrow-shaped munitions and the high price of such cartridges, the experimental machine gun AO-27 was never adopted by the Soviet army.

At the same time, flashsets tried to use in artillery. In particular, they are used as a form of ready submunitions (GGE), which consist in the US Army arsenal (XM580E1) and Russian armed forces (122-mm projectile 3SH1 with swept GGE composed 3VSH1 shots 3VSH3 and 3VSH4). They also found use in army ammunition for smooth-bore weapons. In particular, 12 caliber cartridges were created with ready slaughter elements in the form of arrows. The caliber 12 cartridge can be equipped with 20-th fighter arrows, the initial flight speed of which is 900 m / s. According to some information, the American soldiers used similar ammunition during the Vietnam War.

Based on materials from open sources
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  1. Vladimirets
    Vladimirets 11 November 2015 07: 35 New
    +9
    But until the end of the flash drive from the world of weapons still did not disappear. The good ballistic qualities possessed by arrow-shaped ammunition, as well as their high penetrating ability, still attract weapons designers.

    The article is excellent, but from that moment on, too much begins, IMHO. Apart from the arrow-shaped type, there is nothing in common between rifle and artillery ammunition and, in fact, edged weapons of the First World War.

    Cartridge 12 gauge can be equipped with 20 feathered arrows, the initial flight speed of which is 900 m / s.

    I very much doubt that a 12-gauge cartridge for smooth-bore weapons can give an initial projectile speed of 900m / s. what
    1. serega.fedotov
      serega.fedotov 11 November 2015 09: 33 New
      +4
      Quote: Vladimirets
      I very much doubt that a 12-gauge cartridge for smooth-bore weapons can give an initial projectile speed of 900m / s.

      70mm unsure, 89mm for sure! The hitch there is the main thing so that the barrel can withstand, though the recoil will be ...
      Just what for a goat button accordion? Stayperka is in every way better, especially since arrow-shaped cartridges were also developed for them, and by the way did not go into the series, which means there is no gain!
    2. kashtak
      kashtak 11 November 2015 10: 11 New
      +1
      Quote: Vladimirets
      I very much doubt that a 12-gauge cartridge for smooth-bore weapons can give an initial projectile speed of 900m / s.
      here a lot depends on the number of bullets and the weight of the charge. maybe 20 bullets or 900 m / s. cartridges with feathered buckshot are developed and produced. a pump-action shotgun with such cartridges will not yield to a submachine gun. the fact that there is no gain because it is not for sale sounds excusable. IMHO, one bullet with a detachable pallet may well have 900 m / s and an acceptable return without yielding to a rifle. therefore probably slow down for hunters. and for the military, an automatic is preferable. it is still possible precisely from aircraft arrows that the sub-caliber feathered shells and swept warheads for anti-aircraft missiles also went.
      1. serega.fedotov
        serega.fedotov 11 November 2015 12: 15 New
        +3
        So I mean army armament-smoothbore with arrows there not to the village not to the city, they use more familiar and effective weapons, and although they tried to use the arrows, they did not go anywhere else in the series except for underwater weapons.
        And in terms of hunting weapons, the Ministry of Internal Affairs is strongly against it (although you can get both serial and artisanal cartridges) And common sense is also a carbine, and more accurate and more convenient! a single arrow of a small diameter will not immediately stop the beast - a killing weapon. An arrow with a large plumage and a thin core is very inaccurate - it blows away by the wind.
        Of course, buckshot in the form of arrows has its own advantages, only they are small correctly selected weapons with "classic" ammunition to cope no worse!
      2. Vladimirets
        Vladimirets 11 November 2015 15: 17 New
        +1
        Quote: kashtak
        one bullet with a detachable pallet may well have 900 m / s

        What do you mean by the term "detachable" pallet? Wad shock absorber? Shank? what And how can it affect the initial speed?
        1. kashtak
          kashtak 11 November 2015 17: 55 New
          0
          Can you imagine a tank projectile? around it is such a coil that separates after exiting the trunk. this is called the pallet. why dont know.
          1. Vladimirets
            Vladimirets 11 November 2015 18: 18 New
            0
            Quote: kashtak
            Can you imagine an anchor projectile? around it is such a coil that separates after exiting the trunk. this is called the pallet. why dont know.

            You kind of wrote about the bullet.
            Quote: kashtak
            bullet

            request So I asked.
            1. kashtak
              kashtak 11 November 2015 18: 49 New
              +2
              Well, yes, a bullet. the same design as that shell, only the diameter of the boom is 5-7 mm. Look for data on the Steyr 15mm sniper rifle. she shoots with such ammo. in the sense of 6,5 mm. initial speed of 1500 m / s. I just don’t understand why they call her a rifle if she is a smoothbore.
              1. Vladimirets
                Vladimirets 11 November 2015 21: 38 New
                +1
                Quote: kashtak
                sense of calibers 6,5 mm.

                Well, there is essentially an obturator.
                1. 4thParasinok
                  4thParasinok 12 July 2016 16: 43 New
                  0
                  Quote: Vladimirets
                  Well, there is essentially an obturator.

                  it is in Russian and is called "detachable pallet". I understand "Vlad Borisych" (there is such a weapons channel on YouTube) who lived in the United States for 30 years and only there first encountered a weapon, but you seem to live in Russia and should use Russian weapon terms

                  This is not a run over, it is a bewilderment.
        2. voyaka uh
          voyaka uh 12 November 2015 11: 00 New
          +1
          This is how modern armor-piercing flashhats look like
          30 mm:
      3. NIKNN
        NIKNN 30 January 2016 23: 01 New
        +2
        Aviation NURS S5S S8S Equipped with arrow-shaped striking elements. winked
    3. gross kaput
      gross kaput 11 November 2015 21: 45 New
      +1
      Quote: Vladimirets
      I very much doubt that a 12-gauge cartridge for smooth-bore weapons can give an initial projectile speed of 900m / s.

      In vain, my friend, read about the US-German CAWS program, the Heckler automatic rifle and kokha were equipped with just such cartridges - only cartridges of at least 12 caliber with a 76 mm long sleeve, but their own with a lot of pressure, and the sleeve had a special thickening in front of the edge whose only purpose was to prevent erroneous loading of this cartridge into an ordinary shotgun, and on the contrary, he ate standard cartridges for a sweet soul, and cunning automation allowed him to eat cartridges with any weight and pressure.
      1. Vladimirets
        Vladimirets 11 November 2015 23: 26 New
        0
        Quote: gross kaput
        read about the US-German program CAWS automatic gun Heckler

        Thanks, read. hi
    4. Tjeck
      Tjeck 15 November 2015 02: 00 New
      0
      Quote: Vladimirets
      [b] I highly doubt that a 12-gauge cartridge for smooth-bore weapons can give an initial projectile speed of 900m / s. what


      I myself am not sure about 20 pieces, I suspect it might break the barrel when exiting if the barrel is hunting. but if we take the guns, then, due to the speed of the projectile and the appearance of feathered ammunition, they just switched to a flat barrel.
    5. Leninsk
      Leninsk 28 November 2015 03: 23 New
      0
      There is such a thing! Do not hesitate, the magnum class cartridges .. Sub-caliber feathered bullets in 12 gauges are also 8 mm in diameter and allow you to shoot accurately and accurately up to 350 meters. The barrel of the tank is smooth and the speed is brought up to almost 2000 \ m.s ..)))
  2. Hubun
    Hubun 11 November 2015 08: 17 New
    +2
    creepy weapon, still seeing the impression in the film appeared
  3. Bonati
    Bonati 11 November 2015 08: 55 New
    +4
    When I served in the SA (rocket artillery - "Grad") there were shells stuffed with such arrows the size of a match.
    1. avt
      avt 11 November 2015 09: 09 New
      +1
      Quote: Bonati
      When I served in the SA (rocket artillery - "Grad") there were shells stuffed with such arrows the size of a match.

      Well, not only in the RA, in the usual shells, too, were, and actually there is, "needle" ammunition, like us.
      1. Good me
        Good me 11 November 2015 09: 28 New
        +1
        Quote: avt
        Well, not only in the RA, in the usual shells, too, were, and actually there is, "needle" ammunition, like us.


        And the Ukrainian "army" used such ammunition already in Slavyansk ...
  4. almost demobil
    almost demobil 11 November 2015 08: 58 New
    0
    Оhowever, due to the weak stopping effect of the arrow-shaped ammunition and the high price of such cartridges, the AO-27 experimental machine was never adopted by the Soviet army.
    How can it be?! The arrow-shaped striking element, on the contrary, has a very strong stopping effect, customers die immediately from pain shock due to the wings. Therefore, the United Nations called for a ban on such ammunition. I don’t remember exactly, but it seems that everyone agreed, and ours and the mattresses put on this proposal and did not sign it. The NAR-122 has such a filling.
  5. Moskvich
    Moskvich 11 November 2015 09: 20 New
    +5
    There was already such an article on October 18, and more informative
    http://topwar.ru/84475-srednevekovoe-oruzhie-nachala-xx-veka.html
    Why write about the same thing?
  6. ivanovbg
    ivanovbg 11 November 2015 09: 42 New
    +1
    The Yankees were busy with some spears (rods made of titanium), which were taken out at suborbital heights on X-47B drones, but I do not know how the experiment ended.
    1. Azitral
      Azitral 11 November 2015 14: 46 New
      +2
      From tungsten. Titanium is light, not so refractory, and, most importantly, burns noticeably. They say that a couple of tons from orbit replaces the atomic bomb. It can be counted, but not all the factors: this is a difficult task.
    2. avdkrd
      avdkrd 3 December 2015 12: 41 New
      0
      Quote: ivanovbg
      The Yankees were busy with some spears (rods made of titanium), which were taken out at suborbital heights on X-47B drones, but I do not know how the experiment ended.

      Not how he did not end there. To get uncontrolled crowbar from orbit, with a bunch of variables and speeds with the hyper prefix, it is only possible for a very large target, and although the effect of encountering an obstacle in tungsten (non-titanium) scrap exceeds the mass of a conventional ammunition that is not worth making.
  7. polkovnik manuch
    polkovnik manuch 11 November 2015 10: 03 New
    +1
    As they say, everything new is well forgotten old! I would not be surprised if the "shooters" have a future, now everything that effectively kills is in value. Although it is scary, since in any war, up to seventy percent are casualties among the civilian population.
  8. Taoist
    Taoist 11 November 2015 10: 40 New
    +2
    Blocks UB16 and UB32 were equipped, in particular, with C-5C missiles with arrow-shaped striking elements - exactly like German flashhets, only the size of a wallpaper carnation. A remote detonator detonated a rocket 10-15 meters above the ground, throwing out a supersonic sheaf of such "nails" - a terrible thing for the infantry. Even one hit is enough for a person to die from a painful shock.
  9. Denimax
    Denimax 11 November 2015 10: 54 New
    -4
    Quote: Taoist
    A remote detonator detonated a rocket 10-15 meters above the ground, throwing out a supersonic sheaf of such "nails" - a terrible thing for the infantry. Even one hit is enough for a person to die from a painful shock.

    Something is poorly believed in the height of the blast, and ravings about painful shock. Where did you get the information?)
    1. Taoist
      Taoist 11 November 2015 12: 57 New
      +2
      Firstly, I taught in the section "Aircraft weapons" ... (do you know my specialization "aircraft technician"), secondly, in Afghanistan, I saw the results of its use ...
      Well, if in doubt, take an interest in the damaging factors of small-caliber supersonic bullets. (in particular, the action of the arrow-shaped striking element in the gelatin block in the picture)
      1. inpu
        inpu 11 November 2015 13: 48 New
        +3
        Here you can look at ordinary cartridges, the same thing happens with them.
      2. Denimax
        Denimax 11 November 2015 16: 39 New
        -1
        Can you imagine the height of the blasting? This sheaf of arrows will not even have time to disperse. Why fence the garden, enough and simple shrapnel.
        The image shows a wound channel. About pain shock, such as a bullet will hit the finger and consider dying, already heard such legends.
  10. njerd
    njerd 11 November 2015 12: 21 New
    0
    Confused breaking through 15 cm of the board. This is already a beam. And from what height they will strike so much.
    1. Taoist
      Taoist 11 November 2015 12: 59 New
      0
      But you count - the weight of the arrow is known, the acceleration of free fall, too ... Actually, I didn’t hear about the thickness of the board, but in my memoirs I saw that such an arrow pierced the rider along with the horse ...
      1. noor
        noor 11 November 2015 13: 48 New
        -1
        More important than airplane speed
        1. Taoist
          Taoist 11 November 2015 14: 15 New
          +1
          no ... the horizontal speed of such an arrow will be quickly extinguished. Yes, and the speed of airplanes of that time, this value is insignificant in the general equation.
      2. gross kaput
        gross kaput 11 November 2015 21: 54 New
        -1
        Quote: Taoist
        arrow weight is known, gravity acceleration is also

        There is one little trick here - although the free fall acceleration is constant 9,8 m / s but not limited, the fact is that it cannot overcome the speed of sound on its own, without an external energy source - the flywheel cone prevents, theoretically, you can develop a perfect aerodynamic the form in which the body will both stabilize and allow the Mach cone to break and collapse in practice is practically impossible.
  11. moskowit
    moskowit 11 November 2015 20: 13 New
    0
    Quote: Taoist
    But you count - the weight of the arrow is known, the acceleration of free fall, too ... Actually, I didn’t hear about the thickness of the board, but in my memoirs I saw that such an arrow pierced the rider along with the horse ...

    I also read it somewhere, a long time ago. Maybe Vissarion Sayanov's "Heaven and Earth"? A very fascinating book about the birth and formation of Russian aviation ...
  12. prosto_rgb
    prosto_rgb 12 November 2015 10: 30 New
    0
    Krasiso looks. Especially for the museum.
    Manufacturability level "0"
    It’s cheaper to pour ordinary nails, and the effect will not differ much.
  13. Pomeranian
    Pomeranian 2 December 2015 22: 20 New
    +1
    Interesting article. The pattern of iron arrows inspired. At the beginning of the war, domestic designers put on the Tu-2 bomber in the bombs the usual PPSh assault rifles (Probably from despair) and also tried to fight the enemy infantry. How successful - the story is silent.
  14. izGOI
    izGOI 5 February 2016 00: 28 New
    0
    During the Civil War, the famous pilot Mikhail Vodopyanov served as a groom in the Ilya Muromets squadron. In his memoirs, he also talks about this weapon of the Muromtsev. "Falling from a kilometer away, these arrows pierced the rider and the horse through and through."