Military Review

Perekop

52
Perekop



95 years ago, the Red Army crushed the last stronghold of the White Guards in southern Russia, broke into the Crimea. At the beginning of 1920, during the rout of Denikin’s armies, General Slashchev’s corps managed to hold the peninsula, repeating red attacks three times. This turned out to be a salvation for the white groups that were retreating in the Kuban. In March, 30 managed to evacuate thousands of officers and soldiers from Novorossiysk to the Crimea. Denikin then resigned, convened military council to select his successor. The meeting sounded the name of Lieutenant-General Peter Nikolayevich Wrangel. At Denikin he headed the Caucasian army, but entered into a conflict with the commander in chief, was exiled to Constantinople (Istanbul).

4 April, he arrived in Sevastopol, at the military council he was asked to express his views on further actions. He replied "with honor to lead the army out of a difficult situation", while not thinking about active operations. This satisfied everyone, and Denikin approved the choice. Indeed, the victories did not have to think. The small army was exhausted, crushed by defeats; during evacuation, they threw almost all the artillery and horses. And in addition, the Western powers by this time determined that it was time to end the civil war in Russia. They reached their goal, the country lay in total chaos. It was the turn to master the giant trophy, press down with trade and concessions. The White Guards were now a hindrance.

Already upon returning from Istanbul, Wrangel was given the ultimatum of the British government - to stop fighting, to reconcile with the Bolsheviks on the terms of amnesty. Otherwise, England threatened to refuse "from any support." Whites did not accept such conditions, especially since the Soviet side was not at all disposed to amnesty. But defensively looked problematic. In Crimea, there was neither human nor material resources, the peninsula is vulnerable from different sides — through the Perekop Isthmus, the Chongarsky Peninsula, the Arabat Spit, and the Kerch Strait.
Wrangel cherished hopes to persuade the Allies to transfer the army to one of the surviving fronts - in the Far East, in Poland, in the Baltic States. But the course of events was determined by other circumstances. AT

the same days the Reds began a new assault on the Crimea. On April 13, they shot down the guard of Slashchyov, captured Perekop wall, broke into the Chongar peninsula. The commander-in-chief abandoned the most combat-ready units to save the situation - Kutepov's Volunteer Corps. He repulsed the former positions with counterattacks, knocking out opponents. This success encouraged the troops, returned them self-confidence.

But the external environment also changed. The Red Terror and the surplus-ups provoked uprisings in Ukraine, in Siberia, in the Kuban. And Poland at one time did not support Denikin, who fought for "the one and the indivisible." Now I started my own game. She signed an agreement with the defeated Petlyura, the autocrats became dependent on foreigners, ceded to them the Right-Bank Ukraine, Belarus. On April 25, the Poles went on the offensive, went down to the Dnieper, occupied Kiev. But the patroness of Poland was France. It was believed that the White Guards could be useful, drawn by the Reds. Suddenly appeared by their "friend", promised to cover the Crimea with forces fleet, supply everything you need.

True, the position of Poland remained more than doubtful. She avoided the conclusion of a full-fledged union and coordination of actions. But such circumstances were considered secondary. The commander-in-chief vigorously set about reforming his units. Stiff measures tightened discipline. The very name of the army, Volunteer, was abolished as the element of elementalism and partisanism. Introduced another - the Russian army. Got some reinforcements. Out of Sochi, 12 thousands of Cossacks were taken out, trying to escape to Georgia and squeezed onto the coast. The White Guards of General Bredow, who had fled abroad, were taken out of Poland.

Under the commander-in-chief, a government was created, headed by A.V. Krivoshein, with the king, he was Minister of Agriculture. Wrangel himself was a staunch monarchist. However, in order to maintain unity, it was important to preserve the principle of non-denial of government. He said: "We are fighting for the Fatherland, the people will decide for themselves what Russia will be." He reorganized the weak Denikin counterintelligence, put at the head of a special department headquarters of General Klimovich - the former director of the police department. Recruited professionals from the gendarmerie and the police. In just a month and a half, they drastically cleaned up the rear areas, eliminating the Bolshevik underground in Simferopol, Sevastopol, Yalta, and Theodosia.
Meanwhile, the Reds concentrated large forces against the Poles, on May 27 launched an offensive. It was the most suitable situation to speak. On the one hand, to help the "allies", on the other - to take advantage of the fact that the enemy was involved in battles. Wrangel issued the order number 3326: “The Russian army is going to liberate native land from the red scum. I call on the Russian people to help me ... I call for the protection of the Motherland and the peaceful work of the Russian people and I promise forgiveness to the lost, who will return to us. People - the land and the will in the dispensation of the state! Earth - by the will of the people set by the owner! "

6 June, the White Guards went for a breakthrough. On Perekop, he attacked Kutepov’s corps, on Chongar - the Kuban Corps of Pisarev, on the Azov coast near Kirillovka the corps of Sashchev was landed by a landing force. Exits from the Crimea blocked 13-I Soviet army. She created a strong field defense - trenches, surrounded by barbed wire, heavy artillery. The fighting began stubborn. White suffered huge losses, but could not advance. Only 12 June overcame the defense on the left flank, came to the Dnieper. Oleshchal success and landing Sashchev. Cut the Bolsheviks rear railways, captured Melitopol. 13-th army just planned to take in ticks, surround and destroy. But the Reds realized the threat in time, moved away in the central sector. As a result, Wrangel's army came out of the Crimea, occupied the territory of 300 km along the front and 150 km in depth. But the Poles have already thrown Kiev, rolled back to 200 km from the Dnieper, the hope for interaction with them has evaporated. And the Bolsheviks preserved the integrity of the front, imposed on the enemy a disastrous war for him in a limited space. After all, it was much more difficult to make up for the losses of the Russian army.

The Soviet command was not going to put up with the appearance of a white bridge in Tavria. Three fresh divisions and the 1 th Separate Cavalry Corps of the Redneck - 12 thousand sabers immediately transferred here. 28 June two blows hit the Wrangel. It was supposed to break through the front on the flanks, cut off the army from the Crimea and finish off in the steppes. In the western sector, the Reds forced the Dnieper at Kakhovka, but they were not allowed to advance, they were knocked back. From the east, under the Tokmak, 12 regiments, goons piled on two Cossack regiments and crushed them. The corps began to delve into the enemy rear.
White saved the situation aviation. 20 old General Tkachev’s airplanes began to peck the red cavalry. They watered it with machine guns, bombed it, or simply rushed about on a low-level flight, frightening and dispersing horses. The redneck tried to disperse, move on short summer nights, the pace of its march dropped sharply. But Wrangel pulled out troops from passive sections of the front, threw them to the breakthrough, the Reds were lined up on several sides. The goon was already 15 km from Melitopol and Wrangel’s headquarters, but he was cut off from his own people and surrounded. Under the blows, the corps crumbled, choosing separate units, and lost three quarters of the personnel.

Developing the successes, the whites took Berdyansk, Orekhov, Canopies, Aleksandrovsk (Zaporozhye). But they were exhausted, the shelves were thinning. At the front, Wrangel had 35 thousands of bayonets and sabers, in the 13 Army there were one and a half times more. There was an idea to raise Don. To do this, Mariupol's troops landed a detachment of Colonel Nazarov, 800 Cossacks, went through the villages. But Don was exsanguinated by the civil war, epidemics, famine, joined by a few. The Bolsheviks rushed into pursuit, overtook the detachment and destroyed. And to the front, they were pushing new forces, including the Siberian 51 Division of Blucher, it was worth a good body (instead of nine regiments - 16). The remains of the Corps Zhloby replenished and created 2 th cavalry army Gorodovikova.

7 August began the second operation against Wrangel. The plan remained the same - to cut it from two sides. The army of the army Gorodovikova attacked near Tokmak, but this time they didn’t allow her to get into the rear. And from the west, Soviet units again rushed across the Dnieper at Kakhovka. But they acted much more clearly than last time. Having occupied the bridgehead, they immediately built a pontoon bridge, the whole of Blucher's division went across the river. In Kherson, the citizens were mobilized; on barges they sent Kakhovka under construction to build fortifications. The situation was aggravated by the miscalculations of Slaschova. He missed the landing, when they forced the river, celebrated someone's birthday. I thought about counterattacking, but it was too late, White was met by a solid defense, a barrage of fire — the artillery was shot “in squares”. Reserves came up, again and again trying to beat off the bridgehead, but it turned out only blood flow. Wrangel removed Slaschev from his post, and under Kakhovka there was a constant threat to the left flank.

After the failure on the Don, the commander-in-chief planned to raise the Kuban against the Bolsheviks. There were about 30 large rebel groups, the most significant - "Army of the revival of Russia" Fostikova, 5,5 thousands of fighters. On August 14, parts of the Ulagai landed from ships near Primorsko-Akhtarskaya. Scattered red detachments, rapidly rushed to occupy the village. A second landing force, General Cherepov, was landed near Anapa. But the Reds quickly overcame their confusion, and large forces from all over the Caucasus tightened. They did not allow Cherepov to turn around at all; And the Ulagaya's troops were carried away, dispersed by a wide fan. The Soviet command undermined him under the base - captured the rear base, Primorsko-Akhtarskaya. White began to smash, cut into several parts. With heavy fighting, they got out to the sea, they were taken out of Achuev. Then the red fell on the rebels and Fostikova. They went through the mountains to the Black Sea, and thousands of Cossacks were taken from the Xagr 2 to the Crimea.

In the meantime, the forces against Wrangel were increasing; on August 5, the Central Committee of the RCP (B.) Decided “to recognize the Wrangel front as the main one”. 20 August began the third operation against the Russian army. The scheme has not changed - blows from Kakhovka and Tokmak. From the west, red managed to break into 40 – 50 km. But the breakthrough was localized, drove them back to the Kakhovsky bridgehead. From the east, the 2-I Cavalry Army managed to overcome positions, went beyond the front line. But repeated история Corps of Goons: it was surrounded, smashed, the remnants escaped to the west, to Kakhovka.

In September, due to mobilizations, evacuated Cossacks and prisoners put into operation, the number of the Russian army was brought to 44 thousand people with 193 guns, 26 armored cars, 10 tanks... And the Poles at that time defeated the Reds, and again attacked in Ukraine. A plan has matured to break through to meet them. But already three armies, united in the Southern Front, acted against the White Guards, they numbered 60 thousand fighters, 451 guns, three tanks. Frunze took command of the front. Nevertheless, Wrangel struck several blows. His troops entered the Donbass, harvesting Yekaterinoslav (Dnepropetrovsk). However, Frunze correctly assessed: these are distracting operations. White will break through to the west. In other directions, he limited himself to defense, and concentrated his main forces behind the Dnieper and near Kakhovka.

He was right. October 7 The 1 Corps of Kutepov forced the Dnieper at Khortitsa. To the south began the crossing of the 3 Corps and the cavalry of General Barbovich. They shot down the opposing part, took Nikopol. At the same time, the 2 th white corps with tanks and armored vehicles attacked Kakhovka. But on this line, the whites were waiting, the 6-I Red Army and 2-I Horse stood here - Mironov headed it. Fierce oncoming battles ensued. And it was here that the best shots of Wrangel were already raised, the troops were replenished with motley replenishment. They "broke down." Panic swept over them, hurrying to get back beyond the Dnieper. And the battle of Kakhovka turned into only thousands of dead and wounded, killing nine tanks from 10.

Wrangel did not yet know: on these very days, October 12, when they were making their way to the Poles, the government of Pilsudski signed peace with the Bolsheviks. It lived very well, having snatched Western Ukraine and Western Belorussia, but did not even remember its Russian allies. From that moment on, the White Guards were doomed. They were no longer needed. And from the Polish front, numerous contingents, including the 1-I Conarmian Budyonny, moved against them.

Frunze was already preparing the fourth attempt to destroy Wrangel, where much greater forces and much better organized. He gathered 144 thousands of bayonets and sabers, from the arriving formations formed another, 4-th army and 3-th cavalry corps. In addition to two converging strikes, from Kakhovka and Tokmak, it was envisaged two more, the Russian army was surrounded, cut into pieces and finished off. The White Guards in the previous offensive stretched the front, their battle formations thinned out. October 28 grouping Blucher swept the opposing part in front of the Kakhovsky bridgehead. The next day I went to Perekop, tried to seize the Turkish shaft on the move, but the small garrison repulsed all attacks. Together with Blucher entered the breakthrough 1-I Conarm. I rushed to Chongar and Genichesku, cutting the last escape routes with white. The environment is complete.

But for the 4 and 13 armies, the matter stalled. Wrangel restrained them, brutally counterattacked. And the troops, shot down from the standpoint of the Soviet breakthrough, were by no means defeated. Kutepov assembled selected units: the Kornilovites, Markovtsy, Drozdovtsy, the cavalry of Barbovich, and other connections around him into a fist. Budyonnovtsy scattered divisions in several villages, considered themselves already winners, relaxed. But October 31 Whiteguards rushed at them. The divisions were wounded separately and dispersed, clearing their way. They found unexploded two bridges on Chongar and a bridge on the Arabatskaya spit, they began to leave for the Crimea. Letts came to the aid of Budyonny, the conarmia of Mironov. But Kutepov skillfully maneuvered, besieged them with counterattacks. On November 3, the rear guard missed their last columns and destroyed the bridges behind them.

Then Frunze ordered the assault to be prepared - without respite, until the enemy recovered and consolidated. Concrete casemates on Perekop, land mines, large-caliber guns were the fruit of the imagination of the Crimean journalists, calmed the inhabitants. Red intelligence took it at face value. In fact, there was only an earthen rampart with trenches, dugouts, field three-inches and 17 rows of barbed wire. Drozdovskaya division defended him, 3260 bayonets. The coast of Sivash was guarded by the Fostikoff brigade - 2 thousands of poorly armed rebels. The Kornilov and Markovites were in reserve. Chongar and the Arabat Spit were covered with 3 by thousands of Don and Kuban. In total, Wrangel had 22 – 23 thousands of fighters.
Reds collected thousands of 184, more 500 guns. In front of Perekop, Blücher's group attacked, three columns bypassed through the Sivash, an auxiliary strike was planned against Chongar. On the night of November 8, the team “Forward!” Sounded. The west wind drove the water out of the Sivash, struck a frost minus 12, bounding the mud. Already at night the whole division fell on the Cossacks Fostikova. But the Kornilov and Drozdov people came to them, rejected the Reds with the bayonet, they only caught on the edge of the shore. And in the afternoon, attacks of the Turkish Wall began - wave after wave. The White Guards fought back desperately, the first waves destroyed or pressed to the ground. The defense on the bank of the Sivash was also held, although the fresh red parts were pulled up. Only the appearance of two Soviet cavalry divisions changed the course of the battle. The defenders retreated to Yushuni. And at night Blucher began another assault. The Turkish shaft garrison continued to fight, but found out that the enemy was already in the rear, and made his way with bayonets from the encirclement.

Under Yushun was the second line of defense, two lines of trenches in the intervals between the lakes. The Reds brought 150 guns, brought down heavy fire. For two days they had been attacking and counterattacking. Wrangell sent here the last reserve, the cavalry of Barbovich. He took off the Don corps from Chongarsky direction. However, the Soviet command advanced the 2 Cavalry Army towards Barbovich. Mironov applied cunning. Hid behind the ranks of his cavalry 250 machine guns on the cart. Before the collision, the horsemen leaned to the sides, and the whites mowed down with lead. 11 November Yushunskaya defense fell.

And the departure of the Dontsi took advantage of the 4-I Red Army, began to ship to Chongar. The hull was turned back, but he could no longer straighten the position. The Bolsheviks erected a bridge, the cavalry, artillery moved along it. The Frunze armies poured into the peninsula from two sides. 12 November Wrangell ordered an evacuation. To ensure fast and smooth loading, it had to be made at different ports. The first and second corps were ordered to retreat to Sevastopol and Yevpatoria, the Barbovich corps to Yalta, the Kuban residents to Feodosia, and the Donians to Kerch.

Frunze did not want extra blood. He sent Wrangel a radiogram with a proposal for surrender on honorable terms. Those who surrendered were guaranteed life and immunity, and “those who do not wish to stay in Russia will be free to travel abroad, on condition that they refuse to continue their fight on parole”. But they told Lenin, and he sternly pulled up the front commander: “I just found out about your offer to Wrangel to surrender. Surprised by the pliability of conditions. If the enemy accepts them, all efforts should be made to capture the real fleet, that is, not a single vessel will withdraw from the Crimea. If he doesn’t accept, then in no case shall he repeat and deal mercilessly. ”

However, to prevent the evacuation failed. The Reds were also tormented by the battle, 10 lost thousands of people. They were able to establish persecution only in a day. White has broken away from them. The headquarters of the commander-in-chief mobilized all the boats. Faulty steamers and barges clung to the tow. A request for asylum turned to France. After hesitating, she agreed - although petty in demanding "as a pledge" of the costs, to transfer the ships of the Russian fleet to her. But there was nowhere to go ... On November 15, the loading was over, the 145 693 man (except for the crews) was put on board the ships. "White Russia" has become a huge city on the water. He withdrew from the anchors and moved to the Turkish shores. Into the unknown, in the wanderings of emigration ...
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  1. Aleksandr72
    Aleksandr72 14 November 2015 07: 11
    +6
    The very name of the army, Volunteer, was abolished, as it carried an element of spontaneity and partisanism. Another was introduced - the Russian army.
    - One name, which did not correspond to the real state of the troops, was changed to another even more pretentious, but even more inappropriate. In the "Volunteer" army, volunteers were mainly officers, volunteers from among the cadets and students, and the Cossacks, to whom the Soviet regime was like a knife at the throat. The bulk of the infantry of the "volunteer" army was recruited by mobilization, often forced, and even formed at the expense of Red Army prisoners of war, the same mobilized yesterday's peasants. The combat value as well as the resistance in battle of such "volunteers" was rather conditional. There is no desire to even comment on the name "Russian Army". It’s a bunch of people dissatisfied with the new political system and dreaming of returning their usual world of "Schubert's waltzes and the crunch of a French roll" have arrogated to themselves the right to call their army after the entire Russian people. This is already something from the field of psychiatry.
    The article is interesting, but one gets the feeling that it was created on the basis of the memoirs of the White Guard generals and emigrant officers. So these memoirs should be read carefully - the white officers from the Wrangel army themselves admitted that under Kakhovka and on Ishun they encountered a completely different Red Army than before. The army, which has already learned how to fight in science, to use technology on the battlefield, to defend steadily, and not how to flee earlier by throwing rifles, with only the sight of tanks. The army commanders who managed to replay on the battlefield at the Kakhovsky bridgehead Slashchev - one of the best generals of the White Guard.
    "White Russia" has become a huge city on the water. He lifted the anchors and moved to the Turkish coast. Into the unknown, into the wanderings of emigration ...
    In which the former brilliant officers "turned" into taxi drivers and waiters, and their wives ... well, that's no comment. And General Wrangel in Bizerte simply sold the remnants of the former Black Sea Fleet of the Russian Empire on the cheap. Moreover, if civilian steamers and auxiliary vessels were bought up very quickly, then warships rusted for a long time in the harbor of Bizerte, tk. no one needed it - after the end of the imperialist war this good and their own was enough. Here is such a speculator in uniform - the last general of the last white army.
    I have the honor.
    PS - I did not intend to insult anyone in my best feelings, I simply express my opinion on this episode of the useless fratricidal civil war in which the Russians killed the Russians.
    1. Cap.Morgan
      Cap.Morgan 14 November 2015 09: 03
      11
      Well why.
      On ava I have a soldier of the Samursky regiment. From prisoners of war. Former worker, volunteer. Like everyone in this regiment. They fought bravely.
      Forced permanent mobilization was practiced by the Reds. This made it possible to create a multiple advantage in strength. The territories occupied by them were engulfed in hunger. As a result of wild "reforms". Famine in the USSR, especially in the 20s, was a constant phenomenon.
      As for those who left for France and America, I completely disagree.
      The profession of a taxi driver not only made good money, but was also quite prestigious, akin to an airplane pilot. Many settled well. Princess Irina Yusupova opened a prosperous fashion salon. Remember Zvorykin, Sikorsky, Kartvelli, Seversky, Rachmaninov ... Compare their fate with the fate of Tukhachevsky, Egorov, Kotovsky, Blucher .... thousands of others.
      No need to trade the homeland. Without the royal officers who went to serve as the Reds, no victory would have been possible.
      Sorry if I offended someone in the best of feelings.
      1. MrK
        MrK 14 November 2015 12: 04
        +3
        Quote: Cap.Morgan
        Remember Zvorykin, Sikorsky, Cartwell, Seversky, Rachmaninoff ...


        They have already explained to you five times that Zvorykin, Sikorsky, Markov and Rakhmaninov left Russia before the Civil War. And you again.
        1. Udofil
          Udofil 14 November 2015 15: 13
          +1
          Sikorsky left in February 1918. And the situation in the country even then was not at all blissful. Zvorykin - yes, he left shortly before February 1917. I managed it!))
      2. The comment was deleted.
      3. L42
        L42 14 November 2015 13: 06
        +5
        "Forced permanent mobilization was practiced by the Reds."

        My great-grandfather told me that their village was surrounded by whites and all men from 18 to 45 were driven to the location of the white units where they underwent military training. I repeatedly saw shootings of the sympathizers in red, which did not add optimism to them. Before the oath, all the villagers fled and hid before the arrival of the red units. Until the end of the Civil War, he fought on the side of the Reds.
        1. Udofil
          Udofil 14 November 2015 15: 16
          +3
          And if he fought for the whites, he would tell everything exactly the opposite. Civil war is a double-edged thing. Everyone really loses in it. And who wins is relatively easy to guess. It is enough to see under whose tune the winner dances.
    2. rkkasa xnumx
      rkkasa xnumx 14 November 2015 09: 11
      +4
      Quote: Aleksandr72
      Here is such a speculator in uniform - the last general of the last white army.

      Okay, he would only speculate in the fleet, and he caved in before the French in the Crimea:
      "Recognize all the obligations of Russia and its cities in relation to France with priority and interest on interest.
      Payment of interest and annual repayment is guaranteed:
      a) the transfer to France of the right to operate all the railways of European Russia for a known period; b) the transfer of France the right to levy customs and port duties in all ports of the Black and Azov Seas; c) by providing France with surplus bread in Ukraine and the Kuban region for a certain number of years, with pre-war export being taken as the starting point; d) by providing France with three-quarters of oil and gasoline production for a known period, with pre-war production being put in the foundation; e) transfer of a quarter of the coal mined in the Donetsk Region over a known number of years. The indicated period will be established by a special agreement that has not yet been worked out.
      Paragraphs b, c and e take effect immediately upon the occupation by the troops of the gene. Wrangel relevant territories. The proceeds from the export of raw materials are used to pay interest on old debts.
      In the future, under the Russian ministries of finance, trade and industry, official French financial and commercial offices are established, the rights of which must be established by a special agreement. "

      http://remi-meisner.livejournal.com/161058.html
      1. MrK
        MrK 14 November 2015 12: 07
        14
        I have one question for the author. Where did the 30 000 white officers come from in the Crimea, if all 40 000 officers fought on all fronts of the Civil (FOR ALL) in the White Army.
        And the second one. According to the democratic hacks, after the liberation of Crimea from Wrangel troops, it was chopped with drafts and drowned in barges from 60 000 to 80 000 White Guard officers. Remember N. Mikhalkov’s film “Sunstroke”.
        A certain Zinaida Borisova, the head of the Samara House-Museum, MV Frunze, claimed that the Bolsheviks had drowned white officers in the Crimea - 200 000. “These officers were executed in a terrible way,” says the woman. “They were built on the seashore, each hung a stone on his neck and shot in the back of the head.” Imagine a picture - 200 of thousands of people (the same population of the city) were built on the seashore and everyone needs to tie a stone to his neck and shoot him in the back of the head. This is how many people need to be involved in this, how many ropes, ropes, etc. need to be prepared for hanging stones. And what kind of psyche you need to have in order to shoot so many people.
        And so as not to be unfounded, let us turn to the book of Baron P.N. Wrangel's Notes (November 1916 - November 1920) in two books. And in chapter IX "Everything on Wrangel" of his second book P.N. Wrangel notes: "Our strength by the 1 of September did not exceed the 25 000 bayonets and 8000 checkers. And in Crimea, for the prepared fortifications, even a smaller number of the combat personnel of our troops managed to retreat". Well, let's say 30 000 backtracked. If each officer in the subordination had at least four to five soldiers, it turns out that in Crimea there were about 6 000 white officers. Total!!!
        Of course they were shot. How many? I suppose a hundred, another, whose hands were up to the elbow in blood. Otherwise, where did the thousands of white officers come from in Turkey, Bulgaria, Korea, China, France, the USA, and around the world. That's about it, and anti-Soviet "black" myths are composed! And seemingly respectable people with advanced degrees.
        Quote from Alexander Kurlandchik’s book “Damned Soviet Power” ... on Prose.
        1. rkkasa xnumx
          rkkasa xnumx 14 November 2015 12: 18
          0
          Quote: mrark
          “These officers were executed in a terrible way,” says the woman. “They were built on the seashore, each hung a stone on his neck and shot in the back of the head.”

          The girl just wanted to pay attention to the fact that scoops as always acted inefficiently - first a stone on her neck (probably heavy), and only then they shot her! fool

          It would not be easy to chop with checkers, as the white knights did.
          1. Udofil
            Udofil 14 November 2015 15: 19
            +2
            You know, but ask yourself: who, in fact, is more cruel - an illiterate hooligan-tramp or an educated educated young man? I hope you can draw analogies yourself
            1. IS-80
              IS-80 14 November 2015 18: 13
              +2
              Quote: Judophil
              You know, but ask yourself: who, in fact, is more cruel - an illiterate hooligan-tramp or an educated educated young man? I hope you can draw analogies yourself

              Remember Nazi Germany and shove these analogies of yours to hell.
    3. The comment was deleted.
    4. creak
      creak 14 November 2015 10: 49
      +7
      Quote: Aleksandr72
      And General Wrangel in Bizert simply sold cheaply the remnants of the former Russian Black Sea Fleet. Here is such a speculator in uniform - the last general of the last white army. I have the honor.


      Or maybe it’s not worth chopping off a shoulder about a speculator? The squadron existed as an independent military formation only until 1924 i.e. until France recognized Soviet Russia. Immediately after this, the sailors had to lower the Andreevsky flag on the ships of the squadron and the Soviet delegation arrived in Bizert to negotiate the transfer of the ships of Soviet Russia ...
      For a number of reasons, the negotiations dragged on for several years, including and because of the protests of European countries, the transfer did not take place and the agony of the squadron lasted until the end of the 20s.
      So, with all the desire, Wrangel could not dispose of the ships after 1924, and there was no question of any speculation ...
      So it is not worth replicating all sorts of conjectures - the tragedy of the squadron is best described in the memoirs of A. Shirinskaya "Bizerta. The last stop." This amazing woman, the daughter of a Russian naval officer, lived all her life in Bizerte, carefully kept many documents related to the squadron.
      She did not accept foreign citizenship and, already in her advanced career, received Russian citizenship and was awarded, if I am not mistaken, the Order of Friendship ...
      Unlike many "specialists", all the events took place in front of her eyes and her memories are based on personal impressions, and not on dubious sources ...
      All these denunciations of our compatriots who have found themselves in a foreign land do no honor even to those who end their denunciations with the words "I have the honor" ...
      1. rkkasa xnumx
        rkkasa xnumx 14 November 2015 11: 38
        +4
        Quote: ranger
        exposing our compatriots, caught up in a foreign land don't do honor

        They are not by chance, not by magic were in a foreign land. It was their conscious choice. And before- to beThey fought against their own people. At the expense of the English-French, and for their interests. Also quite consciously. They made their choice.
        1. creak
          creak 14 November 2015 13: 18
          10
          Quote: rkkasa 81
          . And before they turned out, they fought against their own people.


          Here is how ?! But the leader of the white movement Kornilov, the son of a simple Cossack, is not the people, like another leader - General Alekseev, whose father, a soldier, was promoted to officer for military distinctions ...
          And the most sturdy parts of the Kolchak army, along with the Kappel men, the Izhevsk and Votkinsk divisions, formed from workers of the same plants - they are also not people, but hereditary nobles?
          Similar examples can be given further - most of the officer corps of the imperial army (which turned out to be with the whites) by 1917 were not noblemen but came from very different sections of the population. Most personnel officers were killed on the battlefields of the First World War ...
          But the hereditary nobleman Tukhachevsky, the officer of the Life Guards of the Semenovsky Regiment, is the most popular defender, like Count Ignatiev, and to search for such fighters for the happiness of the simple Russian people as Trotsky and Sverdlov ...
          A broken stamp does not work in a civil war - oppressed against oppressors, rich against poor ...
          Calm down - stop dividing into bad whites and good reds, each had their own truth ..
          1. rkkasa xnumx
            rkkasa xnumx 14 November 2015 13: 58
            0
            Quote: ranger
            The leader of the white movement Kornilov, the son of a simple Cossack

            Quote: ranger
            Izhevsk and Votkinsk divisions formed from workers

            What are you talking about?
            Did I write something about immigrants from the people?
            I wrote - fought against their own people.
            As an example, one can recall the Vlasovites - after all, they were also from the people, and, like the whitesmen, they fought against their people.
            Quote: ranger
            everyone had their own truth ..

            I completely agree with you on this.
            Another thing is WHAT is this true. If the white truth is to return the land to the landlords and get into bondage to foreign bourgeois, then the reds have exactly the opposite.
            1. Morrrow
              Morrrow 14 November 2015 14: 56
              +2
              "If the white truth is to return the land to the landowners and get into bondage to the foreign bourgeoisie"
              A quote on White's goal.
              "then the red is exactly the opposite."
              The Reds signed the Brett Peace and created Ukraine. This can be done.
              1. rkkasa xnumx
                rkkasa xnumx 14 November 2015 15: 53
                0
                Quote: Morrrow
                Quote on white goals

                Why do you need quotes? Remember who was an ally of the whites, with the help of whose bayonets and handouts they fought.
                But if you really want to, then above I have quoted Comrade Stalin.
                Quote: Morrrow
                The Reds signed the Brett Peace and created Ukraine

                But nothing that the process began in Ukraine immediately after the February revolution?
            2. Udofil
              Udofil 14 November 2015 15: 27
              0
              Well, then the Reds had the truth - to give power to the ... commissars of the Jews, and the best territories of the country - to the Germans, wealth - to foreigners under concessions.
            3. andrew42
              andrew42 14 November 2015 15: 46
              +5
              Not "they fought against their own people," but "part of the people fought against another part of it." No need to pull the blanket, otherwise it will crack again. For this and a minus.
              1. rkkasa xnumx
                rkkasa xnumx 14 November 2015 16: 00
                -3
                Quote: andrew42
                Not "they fought against their own people," but "part of the people fought against another part of it"

                Aah, I see...
                Then the Vlasovites — they did not fight against their own, it’s just one part of the people who fought against another.
                Less to you for comprehending history.
        2. Morrrow
          Morrrow 14 November 2015 14: 54
          +3
          The Bolsheviks made a unique Brett Peace and created Ukraine at the expense of Russia. Was it in the interests of the Russian people?
          1. rkkasa xnumx
            rkkasa xnumx 14 November 2015 16: 06
            +2
            Quote: Morrrow
            The Bolsheviks made a unique Brett Peace

            Not unique, but obscene.
            The Bolsheviks themselves spoke openly about this. The Reds did not then have the opportunity to confront the Germans and the Whites.
            As soon as they began to gain strength, they began to return the lost.
            1. Morrrow
              Morrrow 14 November 2015 17: 14
              +1
              Why did they create the Ukrainian SSR and the BSSR? Why did they carry out indigenization, Ukrainization? Why did Alexander 1 not go to peace after the Borodino defeat?
              1. rkkasa xnumx
                rkkasa xnumx 14 November 2015 18: 13
                +3
                Quote: Morrrow
                Why Alexander 1 did not go to the world after Borodino defeat?

                1 About the fact that Borodino is a defeat for the Russians, I have met such an opinion. But as far as I know, most historians disagree with this.

                2 Even if Borodino was considered a defeat, then Russia then had the strength to war with France. The situation of 1941 was of the same plan - despite heavy defeats, the USSR had the strength to continue the war with Germany. And continued successful.
                In 1918 there was no such possibility.

                Quote: Morrrow
                And why did they create the Ukrainian SSR and the BSSR

                1 Once again - in Ukraine, the process began immediately after the February Revolution.

                2 So you mentioned the BSSR, tell me - because the Belarusians had a republic — did they become worse or better? In my opinion, no. As they were perhaps the closest and most fraternal people for us, so they remained.
                That is, the creation of a republic does not automatically mean that the people living on its territory will become worse off towards us, will become hostile to us, etc. There are other nuances.
                The same is with Ukraine. Throughout the Soviet period, most Ukrainians were quite loyal to us.
                I’ll give you just such a tablet:
          2. V.ic
            V.ic 28 October 2016 10: 00
            +1
            Quote: Morrrow
            The Bolsheviks made a unique Brett Peace and created Ukraine at the expense of Russia.

            My
            Less with you for not knowing the story ...
        3. Udofil
          Udofil 14 November 2015 15: 25
          +3
          They simply fooled their own people ... and the situation was right ... like the beginning of the 90s, just another plus war for complete happiness. And then it was too late to rock the boat. All built in a row. And those who disagree - into the spray or reforging ... It seems to me that those people with pain and regret recalled the old days, just as they remember the late USSR.
      2. Udofil
        Udofil 14 November 2015 15: 20
        0
        Yeah! And you just had to drown him, like the Bolsheviks under the conditions of the Brest Peace))) Such idealists are all-forgiving!))
    5. Aleksander
      Aleksander 14 November 2015 11: 36
      +1
      Quote: Aleksandr72
      "Russian army" does not even want to comment. It’s a bunch of people dissatisfied with the new political system and dreaming of returning their usual world of "Schubert's waltzes and the crunch of a French roll" have arrogated to themselves the right to call their army after the entire Russian people. This is already something from the field of psychiatry.


      From area psychiatryis to call it "Russian" October coup of 17 and call them "Russians" - Bolshevik black beastswho carried it-brackets, apfelbaums, Lenin, Zalkind, Rosenfelds and other diamonds. Wrangel’s army was exactly Russian and voluntary, unlike red, based on:
      -forcible violent mobilization,
      - applying the institution of hostage,
      - executions for evasion,
      - confiscation of property evaders
      wild lies and populism
      - and the villagers' circular responsibility for fellow villagers.
      Quote: Aleksandr72
      In which the former brilliant officers "turned" into taxi drivers and waiters, and their wives ... well, that's no comment

      Wrote such a thing about women in general, and especially about women of a terrible and tragic fate does not possess honor, IMHO. The overwhelming majority of them fit into life in exile — teachers, employees, workers, there were poetesses and artists — and this is a whole layer of Russian culture.
      And what did the "winners" become? disenfranchised herds of wordless SLAVESwho were driven by force en masse into collective farms, into camps at construction sites, into barracks, they took the land and forced to know and love only one thing — a combination of people — without leaving them with the slightest right to a separate opinion and action.
      The result of the activities of the Communists - in just 70 years of their power - the fastest growing and developing people in the world - Russian - by the end of their reign already dying out. And this is the main evidence of who was right then ...
      For soldiers and officers of the RUSSIAN Volunteer Army - eternal memory and eternal glory - remember and respect.
      1. rkkasa xnumx
        rkkasa xnumx 14 November 2015 11: 48
        +4
        Quote: Aleksander
        what did the "winners" become - the powerless herds of wordless SLAVES

        I add - and even these slaves dared to cleanse the faces of the Aryan superhuman, and fly into space. Truly Soviet cattle ...
        Amen.
        1. Udofil
          Udofil 14 November 2015 15: 30
          +2
          The muzzles of the Aryan supermen were beaten by another generation ... but they were often commanded by "winners", hence the immeasurable losses ... from a non-commissioned officer, you know, a strategist rarely works. And already the grandchildren flew into space, who, in terms of the perception of the world, were closer to those who were overthrown by their grandfathers.
        2. andrew42
          andrew42 14 November 2015 15: 49
          +3
          About "we will bring to the state of white blacks", this is Trotsky's real writings. Isn't that enough? You are about 1917-1921, and you are about 1941-1945 and about 1956-1961 in response. You twist again.
          1. rkkasa xnumx
            rkkasa xnumx 14 November 2015 17: 13
            +1
            Quote: andrew42
            You about 1917-1921, and you in response about 1941-1945 and about 1956-1961. Distort again

            You are not careful.
            Let me quote you in full:
            Quote: Aleksander
            And what did the "winners" become - into powerless herds of dumb SLAVES, who were driven by force en masse to collective farms, to camps at construction sites, to barracks, took away the land and made them know and love only one thing - the community - without leaving them not the slightest right to a special opinion and action.
            The result of the activities of the Communists — in just 70 years of their power — the fastest growing and developing people in the world — Russian — was already dying by the end of their reign. And this is the main evidence of who was right then ...

            That is, it was about 70 years of Soviet power, and not about Trotsky, and not about 1917-1921 as you think.
            1. dmb
              dmb 14 November 2015 21: 32
              -1
              You know a colleague, I would be very pleased to get acquainted with the biographies of your opponents and the biographies of their relatives before great-grandfathers. I am more than sure that in the overwhelming majority of the latter were among those whom the current loving great-grandchildren scornfully call beggars.
        3. Aleksander
          Aleksander 14 November 2015 20: 51
          +1
          Quote: rkkasa 81
          I add - and even these slaves dared to cleanse the faces of the Aryan superhuman, and fly into space. Truly Soviet cattle ...


          I will add-Russian people "cleaned their muzzles" to so many superhuman during its thousand-year history- on Lake Peipsi, in the Time of Troubles, in WWII 1812, in dozens of Russian-Turkish, Russian-Swedish and other wars — and, oddly enough, without the "leading and guiding" role of the All-Union Communist Party (bl..) I also cleared it in 1941-45, as before, despite the VKP (bl ...). He created space and atom in the same way as he created to VKP (bl ...) brilliant periodic tableRadio Popova and other ingenious inventions created by such outstanding Russians as: Tsiolkovsky, Tamm, Kapitsa, Tupolev, Polikarpov, Antonov, Zhukovsky, Vavilov, Zelinsky, Chaplygin, Vernadsky, Landau, Mechnikov, Sechenov, Sikorsky, Zvorykin, Lobachevsky, Pavlov, Timiryazev, Pirogov, Chizhevsky, Yablochkinwhich Learned, took place and also created BEFORE the VKP (bl...).
        4. The comment was deleted.
      2. Evgeniy667b
        Evgeniy667b 14 November 2015 14: 35
        +4
        Different people were military formations of the Red and Wrangel troops. There are no saints in a civil war. Forced mobilization was practiced by both those and others, otherwise it would not survive. Both sides had a certain number of ideological fighters. So in the first wave of the 51st Blucher’s division was regiment "Red Eagles", which was based on the Red Guard units of the Urals. The durability of this regiment was noted back in the Kushva operation, near Perm and Glazov. Near Perekop, they killed almost everything. Only those who were injured in previous battles returned home. These are my countrymen. Eternal memory to them and eternal glory. And they are also worthy of respect!
        1. Starina_hank
          Starina_hank 14 November 2015 20: 27
          +1
          If they knew what their heads were for!
        2. Starina_hank
          Starina_hank 14 November 2015 20: 27
          0
          If they knew what their heads were for!
      3. The comment was deleted.
    6. The comment was deleted.
    7. Udofil
      Udofil 14 November 2015 15: 08
      +1
      And yet, sorry for them. How many wonderful necessary people died on both sides, how many left. And I don't want to remember the massacre of the "democratic" nationality commissars who remained under the leadership. No wonder they cleaned out all our elite. They were quite successful in replacing her with themselves. Then, after the 2nd World War, it seemed like they managed to put them in their place. But not for long. Now everything is back to normal. And also: for some reason, all the authors of memoirs of those years describe the characteristic appearance of the Bolshevik agitators before October. In order not to be unfounded, I will immediately refer to Alfred Knox
    8. Basil50
      Basil50 14 November 2015 18: 07
      -1
      Trading interests of RUSSIA brought much more profit, and not only to Wrangel, who had already sold abroad everything that he had taken on occasion, and why, * not to lose the good *. None of the * sovereigns of white hopes * experienced moral torment on the occasion of the sale of the interests of RUSSIA, and all regrets were reduced only to insufficient cruelty in punishing * the mob *. What they themselves wrote about when they * reported * on expenses to their owners, and about the impossibility to pay for * loans *, and their owners defamed for it. Here * the former * and performed various whims * of creditors *, including terrorist ones.
      1. Basil50
        Basil50 14 November 2015 19: 51
        +1
        Hey, critics of the Bolsheviks, ask about the future life of General SLASCHEV, and about who turned out to be the customer and executor of his murder. Everything is very indicative, but they will make smart conclusions.
      2. The comment was deleted.
    9. The comment was deleted.
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 14 November 2015 07: 23
    +2
    Future Marshal Govorov .. showed himself at the Kakhovsky bridgehead ..
  3. Koshak
    Koshak 14 November 2015 07: 27
    +1
    Nikolai Tikhonov: Perekop
    Perekop
    1922

    Stars are rolling, diamond is diamond
    In the cypress groves the wind died down
    Rifle, cartridge pouch, gas mask
    And bread - a pound for three.

    Thin lace blue
    Fog surrounded the vineyard.
    Fourth year we do not sleep nights
    Hunger hungered us, and fire, and smoke,
    But the soldier is faithful to the order.

    'To the red shelves -
    Trap behind the trap ... '
    ... the bayonet choked, the butt in half,
    A lasso is whistling around his neck.

    Over the sea, over the mountains, over the stars the argument,
    Every step is ours and not ours
    Winged wolfhounds rushed from the mountains,
    Living bridges bridge Sivash!

    But the dead before falling
    Take a step forward -
    Not a grenade, not a power bullet today,
    And it’s not for us to retreat.

    After us, after all, children without eyes, without legs,
    Children of great trouble;
    Behind us are the cities on the wreckage of roads
    Where there is no bread, no fire, no water.

    Beyond the mountains is the sun, and relaxation, and paradise,
    Let it be a mirage - anyway!
    When thousands shouted the word: 'Give it back!' -
    The hurricane is stronger than it.

    And when the moon is beyond the clouds
    Rolled like a fish eye
    On the broken bayonets red from blood
    The sun has set on us.

    Dolphins played away
    Seagulls rocked the expanse
    And long gray ships
    Turned to the Bosphorus.

    We lay under the trees, under the stones, in the grass,
    We were waiting for the dream to come
    The first time not in blood and not in reality,
    First time in the fourth year ...

    We dreamed of living a hundred years
    But they will see the eyes
    But you can’t add up songs about it,
    Not just to tell!
  4. Cap.Morgan
    Cap.Morgan 14 November 2015 08: 33
    +4
    Good article, thanks.
    From a military point of view, it is quite possible to keep Crimea.
    And even very convenient. The Reds did not have a fleet ... so the story with Russian Taiwan could have happened.
    1. ALEA IACTA EST
      ALEA IACTA EST 14 November 2015 19: 46
      +2
      Quote: Cap.Morgan
      From a military point of view, it is quite possible to keep Crimea.

      A quarter of a century later, Crimea was captured by Germany, and then recaptured from the Germans.
      No impregnable fortresses ...
    2. Aleksander
      Aleksander 14 November 2015 19: 46
      -3
      Quote: Cap.Morgan
      From a military point of view, it is quite possible to keep Crimea. And even very convenient. The Reds did not have a fleet ... so the story with Russian Taiwan could have happened.


      Yes, if it weren’t for the betrayal of the allies, to whom the Bolsheviks (ready to surrender, give away, give everything and everything to any enemies of Russia to maintain their full-time power) were ultimately much more profitable and more convenient than white patriots (who refused to divide and sell their homeland) .. .
    3. Aleksander
      Aleksander 14 November 2015 19: 46
      -2
      Quote: Cap.Morgan
      From a military point of view, it is quite possible to keep Crimea. And even very convenient. The Reds did not have a fleet ... so the story with Russian Taiwan could have happened.


      Yes, if it weren’t for the betrayal of the allies, to whom the Bolsheviks (ready to surrender, give away, give everything and everything to any enemies of Russia to maintain their full-time power) were ultimately much more profitable and more convenient than white patriots (who refused to divide and sell their homeland) .. .
  5. knobelsdorf
    knobelsdorf 14 November 2015 08: 49
    +1
    Kakhovsky bridgehead was built by D. Karbyshev
  6. Riperbahn
    Riperbahn 14 November 2015 10: 37
    +2
    Makhno's theme is not disclosed.
  7. kvs207
    kvs207 14 November 2015 10: 45
    +2
    Quote: Cap.Morgan

    From a military point of view, it is quite possible to keep Crimea.

    What was not kept? Even Sevastopol? Did you prefer to drop everything and "dump"? Maybe because there were no prospects?
  8. Glot
    Glot 14 November 2015 10: 54
    0
    However, towards the Barbovich, the Soviet command advanced the 2nd Cavalry Army. Mironov applied a trick. He hid behind the ranks of his cavalry 250 machine guns on carts. Before the clash, the horsemen leaned to the side, and the whites were mowed by showers of lead.


    Towards Barbovich, the corps of Karetnikov, one of the Makhnovsky commanders, advanced. The Reds began to retreat in front of the lava, and the Karetnikovtsy saved the situation by imitating a horse attack, they brought Barbovich’s cavalry under their carts. Of course, the cavalry could not stand such a density of fire.
    And in general, as correctly noted above, the topic of Makhno is absolutely not disclosed. And its parts played no small role in the Crimean events.
  9. vfd
    vfd 14 November 2015 12: 00
    0
    petty demanded “pledge” of expenses to transfer to her the ships of the Russian fleet

    So after all around the destruction of the Russian fleet "partners" and danced on all seas-oceans. What pettiness this is, this is a fat point in the destruction of the Black Sea Fleet.
  10. marinier
    marinier 14 November 2015 12: 26
    +4
    Good time of the day Dear!
    Pro4ol statu excitedly, I learned a lot of interesting things. And I would like to bow my head,
    before pamiatiu etih people !!!
    When both for the Reds and for the Whites!
    The Vedas are all RUSSIAN !!!
    RUSSIAN !!! This is an example to you as a warning, as you should not do !!!
    Remember and bow your head, before the heroism of RUSSIAN (not specifically
    affiliation, to some army). They were driven by one, moreover, on both sides.
    Lubov to RUSSIA! LUBOV to the PEOPLE !!!
    1. Chiropractor
      Chiropractor 14 November 2015 13: 51
      -2
      Anthony, are you a descendant of emigrants to the Netherlands? smile
      What smoke did you get in VO?
    2. ALEA IACTA EST
      ALEA IACTA EST 14 November 2015 18: 51
      -2
      Perhaps ordinary fighters were driven by patriotism, but the leadership of these forces thought of Russia last - they needed power. At any cost.
  11. Basil50
    Basil50 14 November 2015 12: 50
    +5
    So to lie how some * historians * and * eyewitnesses * lie are already something from psychiatry. The numbers of all Wrangelites are much smaller than those who were executed, drowned, and other executions carried out. Who then abroad pretended to be victims of the TIPS? How then to believe in the * horrors of Bolshevism *? To lie - it turns out to be a professional quality for all critics of the SOVIET POWER, then, now, now, and in the future. It turns out without lies it is impossible to justifiably justify the betrayal of an ally, and then the coup, intervention and robbery. Well, you can’t write about what they wanted to divide RUSSIA into colonies, and all sorts of * former * zealously helped in the sacking and destruction of their own country for the sake of handing over the invaders.
    1. Morrrow
      Morrrow 14 November 2015 14: 59
      +1
      TIPS created Ukraine - you can sign a verdict on this.
      1. onix757
        onix757 14 November 2015 15: 05
        +1
        And the Russian government created ethnic states in the state. A sentence?
        1. Morrrow
          Morrrow 14 November 2015 15: 20
          -1
          This is a consequence of the Bolshevik national construction
          1. onix757
            onix757 14 November 2015 15: 32
            +3
            The USSR is no longer 25 years old, and you are looking for all the consequences.
  12. 89067359490
    89067359490 14 November 2015 14: 05
    +5
    White Russia still remained. Until 1922, the Amur Zemsky Territory existed. So at that time the White Army still had a small chance.
  13. Lone wolf
    Lone wolf 14 November 2015 14: 49
    +4
    Wrangel did not yet know: on these very days, October 12, when they were making their way to the Poles, the government of Pilsudski signed peace with the Bolsheviks. It lived very well, having snatched Western Ukraine and Western Belorussia, but did not even remember its Russian allies. From that moment on, the White Guards were doomed. They were no longer needed. And from the Polish front, numerous contingents, including the 1-I Conarmian Budyonny, moved against them.

    Well, they found someone to believe and hope ....
  14. rusich
    rusich 14 November 2015 15: 23
    +1
    eh far far visible in the windows of Uski Russians chop Russian
  15. ALEA IACTA EST
    ALEA IACTA EST 14 November 2015 18: 48
    -4
    Gangster showdown. And the Russians had to die ...
  16. Egor123
    Egor123 14 November 2015 21: 25
    +2
    Hmm ... Of course everyone has their own truth ... But everything is like that - The eternal memory of the Russian army!
  17. Sanya Rus
    Sanya Rus 16 November 2015 13: 04
    +2
    Eternal memory of the Russian army!
  18. Truth-lovers
    Truth-lovers 19 November 2015 21: 57
    -2
    And why do we always have ANY question about the Civil War slipping between the "red" and "white"? Maybe later that our Bolsheviks still cannot forgive anything and anyone? and they did not follow the path of ACTUAL NATIONAL RECONCILIATION which, for example, did Franco and the King of Spain do some time after the victory in the Civil War?!? Or maybe they are not capable of forgiveness, because atheists, not Christians? Questions ...

    And so, having 30 thousand at the front against the smallest 250 thousand (180 thousand is a minuscule, some estimates say about 320 thousand "reds", which in principle is logical 1:10) - it is difficult to stay even in such a natural fortress as Crimea ... By the way, it's ridiculous that the losses are indicated in the article of 10 thousand Red Army soldiers. This is a kind of propaganda minimum, launched from above by Lenin, who said that losses should not be shown more than 8-10 thousand. To put it mildly, they will be several times larger (somewhere in the 30-50 thousand, judging by the burials and by the partial statements on the losses of individual units). The Perekop operation made it possible to once again confirm “that there are no such positions that the Bolsheviks could not take,” covering the foreground with a thick carpet of corpses. This will come back to haunt the Red Army not only in 41-42, but especially in 43-45 ...

    And how are there so many "whites" in the Crimea if there were 30 thousand at the front? Yes, everything is simple - and for this they were reproached at one time by the Christian traditionalists of Spain - loosely translated from Spanish - “you had a very weak rear, you could not mobilize all the resources, so there was more in the rear than you fought at the front, and against the Bolsheviks, in order to win, one had to abandon their principles and use their methods of forced recruitment and labor mobilization. "