Military Review

After a quarter of a century, saturated dives return to the Navy

As part of the factory running tests of the rescue vessel “Igor Belousov”, for the first time in the last 25 years of the Navy, diving descents were carried out in sea conditions to a depth of 100 meters in the long stay mode (DP) under increased pressure.

During the tests, six divers underwent compression in the living compartments of the pressure chambers of the deep-water diving complex GVK-450 located in the central part of the vessel, and were under increased pressure of the gaseous medium corresponding to pressure at a depth of 100 m.

To perform underwater technical work, the group of divers was divided into two triples, which in turn were delivered in a dry diving bell to the ground to the working depth of 100 meters. In accordance with the program, a submersible hydraulic station, underwater tools and deep-sea diving equipment were tested during the work. To ensure the descents and assist divers, a remote-controlled underwater vehicle “Panther Plus” was used with a working depth of up to 1000 m.

The first three divers carried out work using hydraulic tools: various drills for wood and metal, a drill hammer, a grinding machine, etc. At the end of the work shift, the first three returned to the pressure chambers, and the next one took its place.

After a quarter of a century, saturated dives return to the Navy

The second three worked on the layout of the submarine rescue device enclosure (ACS PL): they installed the hose nozzles for supplying high pressure air and ventilation of the submarine compartments. In addition, underwater technical works were carried out using oxygen cutting.

In the process of descent, an emergency operation of the deep-sea diving equipment was worked out, in which the diver disconnects from the supply of breathing gas through the hose, switches to breathing from the emergency apparatus and returns to the bell.

All tasks were successfully completed. The total duration of the PD was 4 days, the execution time of each of the three underwater technical works in the aquatic environment is about 3 hours.

According to the results of the passed tests, the efficiency of the deep-sea diving complex GVK-450 of the rescue vessel “Igor Belousov” of the project 21300С was actually confirmed.

Of stories

In the second half of the 20 century, experts found that diving with the DP method, or the so-called “saturation dives” - saturated diving, significantly exceeds the short-term useful life: 10 times with 100 meters depth, 150 meters - with 30 times, with 300 m - hundreds of times and at great depths have virtually no alternative. Thus, the residence time of a diver at a depth is determined by the amount of work and is limited only by his physical strength.

However, in our country for many years it was believed that a military diver needed a few minutes to accomplish the tasks assigned to an emergency submarine, which was ensured by the use of short-term dive modes. The tragedy of the Kursk has shown that it may take a long time to perform complex rescue operations under water. When people’s lives are at stake — every minute counts — emergency and rescue operations should be carried out continuously. Such work can provide only DP mode.

In the Soviet years, 40 specialists of the State Research Institute of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation made a significant contribution to the development of diving techniques in the long-stay mode.

In 1968, the first experimental dive was carried out in the hydraulic chamber GRK-30 to a depth of 100 m, which lasted for 30 days. In 1970, the institute's staff carried out the first in the world experimental diving with the 30-diurnal stay at a depth of 100 m in the world: aquanauts lived in a diving complex located on an experimental rescue submarine, working daily on the 4 hour soil.

In subsequent years, work on improving the method of PD continued. In 1988 - 1994 Three series of simulated descents to various depths up to 50 meters with a long-term stay under pressure were carried out in the GBK-500 hydraulic bar complex. * As a result of the research, modes and methods for providing deep-sea diving descents were developed.

At the end of 90-x - the beginning of 2000-x, work on diving descents using the DP method was suspended, and this trend has not developed in the country for more than 20 years. And the last descents in the sea conditions were carried out in the distant 1991 year.

Finally, after 25 years, a turning point comes in the development of the Russian diving business. With the entry into the Navy of the ship “Igor Belousov”, the fleet will receive not only a unique rescuer, but also a platform for the development of deep-sea diving techniques and methods using the long-stay method.


GVK-450 for the rescue ship "Igor Belousov" is a unique project implemented jointly by Tethys Pro and the Scottish company Divex.

The deep-sea diving complex is a diving rescue and is designed to ensure the operation of 12 divers in human 3 shifts at depths up to 450 m 6 hours per day for 3 weeks followed by a single decompression, as well as for the rehabilitation of submariners evacuated from an emergency submarine with the help of the Bester rescue apparatus on board, or who left the boat independently (in a pop-up cabin or free ascent).
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  1. avia1991
    avia1991 15 November 2015 01: 52
    The deep-sea diving complex is a diving and rescue complex and is designed to support the work of 12 divers in shifts of 3 people at depths up to 450 m for 6 hours a day for 3 weeks followed by a single decompression
    Even thinking somehow .. scary wink
    Hats off to the aquanauts! hi Courageous guys! And professionals .. GIVE YOU GOD ALREADY PARTICIPATED IN REAL RESCUE ..
    1. Alex_Rarog
      Alex_Rarog 15 November 2015 19: 35
      I agree, steel men ... In shell so much time at such depths ... I hope they do not have to apply their knowledge and skills in practice ... Respect People from Titan!
  2. yuriy55
    yuriy55 15 November 2015 04: 05
    If there is such a profession - to defend the Homeland, then there must be professionals who save the lives of our DEFENDERS.
    God grant that you come to the appointed place at the right time. And when participating in salvation, remember:
    You are always waiting and do not lose hope!
  3. kumaxa
    kumaxa 15 November 2015 07: 10
    the main thing is! There is equipment and specialists who know how to use it! criticize every one! here nat support!
  4. TVM - 75
    TVM - 75 15 November 2015 07: 18
    A very promising area of ​​work. One of the topics may be the creation of back pressure in the submarine compartments, in order to increase survivability and to work at extreme depths.
  5. sub307
    sub307 15 November 2015 09: 19
    It became clear to me personally that "saturated dives are returning to the Navy" after I received information about the implementation of the 21300C project itself (Igor Belousov) with a deep-sea diving complex (GVK-450) And since the ship was actually laid down on August 20 2010, state trials began in the summer of 2015. So that from the "quarter of a century" five years can be "bite off". But ... in the end, that's not the point. The main thing is that the project is embodied "in hardware", staffed by trained specialists and will soon start real work.
    I would like, in the future, "to have an underwater GVK carrier, especially since there are more than serious and implemented projects (940, for example) in the Soviet Navy and" successfully ruined "you know when and by whom. Why? (I anticipate the question). And, then, in order not to depend on the weather (specifically on the pitching), the Surface ship still has limitations on this factor, and in the case of real events, time is a decisive factor.
  6. HaKim
    HaKim 15 November 2015 10: 59
    Beauties! The country from the decline began to exit faster and faster)
  7. Resistance
    Resistance 15 November 2015 12: 40
    Yes, the 940th project, just fantastic. I really liked it.

    I once found myself in a conversation (on the SS-750 in Baltiysk) that near Libava, in a deep-water training ground, midshipman-divers were climbing a 170 meters high! (in Soviet times) I think something is not right here, midshipman according to the plan of combat training and 170 meters ??? It turned out all right, they were paid 7 rubles for a minute of immersion. :about)
  8. kote119
    kote119 15 November 2015 14: 25
    on the first photo not Belousov but the Asterisk
  9. Mahal Makhalych
    Mahal Makhalych 15 November 2015 17: 31
    I repeat the above - fantastic!
  10. akm8226
    akm8226 15 November 2015 18: 02
    I will say right away - diving to a depth of 100 meters and deeper this means death for an ordinary person. Moreover, even for the trained, this is walking along the razor's edge. The slightest defect in the diver's body - and no one and nothing will save. Thank God, or anyone else that we started, finally !! - restore everything that was destroyed during the wino.
    I am aware of what I'm talking about - for many years I studied and studied the problem of deep-sea descents. My personal depth record for holding my breath in a mask and fins is 20 meters. I know for sure what exactly 20 - I dived near the buoy with an indication of depth. And what’s most interesting - below I felt better than in the process of immersion. The breath holding was 1 minute 50 seconds. So God forbid that our guys be fine!
    1. Bashibuzuk
      Bashibuzuk 15 November 2015 19: 51
      AKM, hi.
      A couple of questions.
      When diving, did you use the load? And how did you purge it?
      Pop up with an exhale or to the surface at a delay?
      How much was ventilated to the dive?
      Who insured or so, at random?
      Merciless time.
      Now my limit is 8 meters. Irreversible changes in the cranial cavities, chronic sinusitis, sinusitis, in short.
      And at age 20, the breath holding was three minutes at rest. Two minutes below the surface.
      ehhhh ...
    2. Lt. Air Force stock
      Lt. Air Force stock 16 November 2015 17: 55
      Quote: akm8226
      I will say right away - diving to a depth of 100 meters and deeper this means death for an ordinary person.

      "Currently, the world-recognized record for diving without scuba gear belongs to a resident of the Principality of Monaco Pierre Frolla - on July 6, 2004, in the presence of authorized judges, he sank to a depth of 123 meters without any special equipment. For better diving, he tied a special 28 -kilogram weight. On the surface of the Mediterranean Sea off the coast of Monaco, he climbed with his own hands and flippers on his feet. This achievement for more than 7 years and remains unattainable for many divers from all over the world. "
  11. Lt. Air Force stock
    Lt. Air Force stock 15 November 2015 18: 53
    This is needed in every fleet.
  12. Monetniy
    Monetniy 17 November 2015 09: 54
    Still need to establish their own production equipment for divers and combat swimmers, but not imported or the Soviet antediluvian dying.