Military Review

The beginning of the second world. Who is guilty?

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The beginning of the second world. Who is guilty?


It has now become fashionable to accuse the USSR of fomenting the Second World War, saying that the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact has untied the hands of fascist Germany. Practically everyone knows about this pact, but we are constantly reminded of this, so that we would penetrate and realize that we are all bastards.

With all this, try not to mention the Munich Agreement 1938, called "Munich Agreement", signed by A. Hitler, B. Mussolini, N. Chamberlain and E. Daladier. Many believe that it is precisely these agreements that led to the war, let's see.

Munich Agreement 1938. The agreement on the dismemberment of Czechoslovakia, reached 29-30 in September in Munich by the heads of government of Great Britain (N. Chamberlain), France (E. Daladier), Nazi Germany (A. Hitler) and fascist Italy (B. Mussolini). The ease with which Hitler carried out the Austrian Anschluss 1938 in March encouraged him to take further aggressive actions, now against Czechoslovakia. After the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Czechoslovakia quickly became one of the most prosperous countries in Central Europe. Many of the most important industrial enterprises were located on its territory, including Skoda’s steel mills and military factories. With a population on the eve of the Munich Agreement in 14 million people, in addition to Czechs and Slovaks, about 3,3 million ethnic Germans lived in the country. German-speaking population, so called. Sudeten Germans constantly loudly declared discriminatory measures against them on the part of the Czechoslovak government. Almost half of the 1 million unemployed in the country were Sudeten Germans. The central authorities took all possible measures to reduce the intensity of discontent in the Sudetenland: representation in the National Assembly, equal rights with regard to education, local government, etc., but the tension did not subside. Hitler decided to take advantage of the unstable situation in the Sudetenland region and in February 1938 called on the Reichstag to “pay attention to the appalling living conditions of the German counterparts in Czechoslovakia.” He said that the Sudeten Germans could count on the Third Reich, which would protect them from Czechoslovak oppressors. In the German press, a wave of accusations against the Czechoslovak authorities, allegedly committing atrocities against the Sudeten Germans, rose. Taking advantage of a small border incident that killed several Germans, Hitler pushed German troops to the border with Czechoslovakia, hoping to exert political and military pressure on the country, whose army was only 400 thousand. But the Soviet Union and France warned Germany that they would fulfill their obligations towards Czechoslovakia, and Hitler was forced to withdraw his troops from the border. However, cautious Chamberlain said that he could not guarantee British support in the event of German aggression against Czechoslovakia. Inspired by the indecisiveness of the British government, Hitler decided to rely in his plans on the "fifth column", which was represented by the Sudeten Germans and the pro-Nazi Sudeten German party. At his direction, the leader of this party, Genlein, put forward a number of demands that essentially assumed that Czechoslovakia would renounce sovereignty over the Sudetenland (April 24). 30 May Hitler convened a secret meeting of the generals in Uterbog, at which he declared: "My unshakable desire is to destroy Czechoslovakia as a result of military actions in the very near future." He then announced the order to carry out Operation Grun no later than October 1 1938.

Further events that immediately preceded the signing of the Munich Agreement are as follows: maneuvers of Anglo-French diplomacy to justify before public opinion the prepared deal with Hitler and attempts to persuade Czechoslovakia to surrender; the revolt of the Sudeten Nazi September 13, suppressed by the Czechoslovak armed forces; The Berchtesgaden dating 1938, during which Chamberlain, in principle, agreed with Hitler’s demand for the transfer of border Czechoslovak territories to Germany, merely expressed a request not to begin hostilities (September 15); the English-French ultimatum (18 of September) on the transfer of part of Czechoslovak territory to Germany ("areas need to be ceded to Germany predominantly by Sudeten Germans to avoid an all-European war") adopted by President of Czechoslovakia E. Beneš on September 21; Chamberlain's meeting with Hitler in Bad Godesberg to discuss the new, even more difficult for Czechoslovakia, requirements of the German government (September 22).

At the time of the highest tension, Mussolini advised Hitler to convene a quadripartite meeting to resolve all the problems that had arisen. By agreeing to this proposal, Hitler made a speech on September 26 at a mass rally at the Sports Palace in Berlin. He assured Chamberlain and the whole world that if the problem of the Sudeten Germans was resolved, he would not make further territorial claims in Europe: “We are now approaching the last problem that needs to be resolved. This is the last territorial requirement that I put forward to Europe. 1919, three and a half million Germans, were cut off from their compatriots by a group of crazy politicians. The Czechoslovak state grew out of monstrous lies, and the name of this liar is Benesh. " Chamberlain for the third time went to Germany, to Munich, literally begging Hitler for peace. He wrote: "I wanted to try to do it again, because the only alternative was war."

The Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia were not allowed to negotiate. Chamberlain and Daladier accepted the terms of Hitler and jointly put pressure on the Czechoslovak government. The text of the agreement, drawn up by 29 September, was signed the next day. The agreement provided for the transfer of Germany in time from 1 to 10 in October 1938 of the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia (with all the structures and fortifications, factories, factories, raw materials, routes of communication, etc.), satisfaction at the expense of Czechoslovakia during the 3 months of the territorial claims of Hungary and Poland, the "guarantee" of the participants in the agreement of the new borders of Czechoslovakia against unprovoked aggression (the invasion of Czechoslovakia by the German forces in March 1939 revealed the fake nature of these "guarantees"). September 30 Czechoslovak government adopted the Munich dictate without the consent of the National Assembly. Chamberlain, returning to London, happily declared at the airport, waving the text of the agreement: "I brought peace to our time." Shocked by such a policy of connivance to the aggressor, Winston Churchill said: "I will remind those who would not notice or forget, but that nevertheless has to be stated, namely, we have experienced a universal and obvious defeat, and France has demolished even more than we .. And there is no reason to hope that this will be the end. This is only the beginning of reckoning. This is only the first sip from the bitter cup, which will be offered to us from day to day, unless there is an incredible restoration of moral health and military power, if we are not ever again I’m not going to bet on freedom like in the old days. "

The agreement signed in Munich was one of the most striking manifestations of the policy of "appeasement", which was held on the eve of the World War 2 by the governments of Great Britain and France to achieve collusion with Nazi Germany at the expense of Central and South-Eastern Europe, to prevent Hitler’s aggression from Great Britain and France and send it to the East, against the Soviet Union. The Munich Agreement was an important milestone in the preparation of World War 2.


Materials used:
http://www.hrono.ru/dokum/193_dok/1938myunh.php
Author:
14 comments
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  1. dimarm74
    dimarm74 21 November 2011 09: 36
    +6
    Whoever feels like a winner in the "cold war" is the one who writes history as he needs ... What's so surprising ........ Why would they admit their guilt .. ??? They did everything right ... damn it
  2. Artemka
    Artemka 21 November 2011 13: 40
    +4
    Given that France and England allowed Germany to take some area, relying on the fact that it will calm down, we can say that they just untied Hitler’s hands.
  3. nnz226
    nnz226 21 November 2011 16: 22
    +8
    By the way, the "white and fluffy victim of the Molotov-Ribentrop Pact" - Poland, which seized the Teshin region, also actively participated in the division of Czechoslovakia. So the lamentations of the pshek about the Pact, Katyn, etc. are worth little. Themselves jackals together with Germany, but the Non-Aggression Pact with the Germans was also signed already in 1936 (if I am not mistaken). In which they planned to attack the USSR together with the Germans.
    1. dimarm74
      dimarm74 21 November 2011 16: 24
      +3
      That's for sure, the Poles are still those "victims" ... of abortion
      1. Kostyan
        Kostyan 21 November 2011 23: 55
        -2
        true boys ..... Poles this scum ... believe in the word .....
  4. Lyokha79
    Lyokha79 21 November 2011 18: 02
    +2
    It remains to be amazed at the cynicism with which these "developed democracies" love to look for a speck in someone else's eye, despite the fact that they themselves have a whole felling.
  5. J_silver
    J_silver 21 November 2011 18: 52
    -1
    With pleasure I would beat the faces of anyone who accuses the USSR of fomenting the Second World War ..
    1. desava
      desava 21 November 2011 20: 29
      0
      You will find someone to report immediately - I really want to participate!
      At that moment, the West did its utmost to direct Germany to socialist Russia. Therefore, Chamberlain and the other democrats were sure that with German blood they would be able to displace a country that had already become stronger, like the USSR, from the world stage. They paid no attention to violations of the surrender agreement in 1919 in a French forest (forgot), or to the Washington Treaty. They thought the former corporal was afraid ... But no! It did not work out to keep the bulldog under control! Everyone knows the result.
      1. Voodoopeople
        Voodoopeople 22 November 2011 00: 07
        -1

        This is not only there, and Europe has equated the USSR with the crimes of totalitarian Nazism.
  6. patrianostra
    patrianostra 21 November 2011 20: 20
    +1
    that the first thing that the islanders started the second with their city of London ripped apart the Ottoman and German empires and Russia didn’t succeed in muddying up another brawl in the hope that at least this time it might burn out but it didn’t work out unpredictable Russians once again gave an unpredictable and not proportional answer bully
  7. ballian
    ballian 21 November 2011 22: 09
    +2
    The notorious West was interested in preserving the peace and territorial division established after the 1 World War,
    Germany and the USSR, on the contrary, considered themselves deprived and engaged in the division of Europe.
    Accordingly, they led politics.
    I do not see any difference between the claims of Germany to the Sudetenland, and the USSR to western Ukraine and Belarus, not to mention the Baltic states and Finland
    , etc.
    The USSR-Germany treaty of 39 is an order of magnitude "steeper", it was in-1 about the division BETWEEN the countries of Eastern Europe + allowed Hitler to deal with France and other European countries.
    Munich is just a concession of a part of the Czech Republic in exchange for Peace in Europe. All that was allowed to Hitler in Munich was to deal with the Czech Republic - and nothing more, apparently the local "geopolitics" think that France and England just had to raise their eyebrows and the Fuhrer crawled under the bed in horror and did not demand anything else.
    .
    If the Germans suddenly flooded over the USSR - well, that's good for them - let the two totalitarian monsters (hostile to Western countries) squabble among themselves. - what is the "crime"? (in 39-40 years the USSR behaved this way, they say let the capitalists wet each other, as a result, he was too clever and stayed with Hitler in Europe alone and whined about the "second front")
    And the fact that no serious plans at all costs to send Hitler to the USSR was proved by the fact that the German war was declared after the attack on Poland, and all the talk about Germany and Poland planning a joint attack on the USSR have no serious grounds whatsoever. (Nnz226 is lying)
    1. Colonel
      Colonel 21 November 2011 22: 31
      -1
      "All that Hitler was allowed in Munich was to deal with the Czech Republic - and nothing more" !!!!!! No need to say, some interjections. Especially touches - "allowed". I do not accept the "Fuehrer" as a Fuehrer, but sometimes I want to warn him about incomplete official compliance.
      1. J_silver
        J_silver 21 November 2011 22: 36
        0
        Is it too cool? So they barely stopped at Moscow ... In my opinion, he did a lot, I would like him to succeed much less ...
        1. Colonel
          Colonel 21 November 2011 23: 03
          0
          For that, I would have punished that I climbed in the wrong place. I think he would have succeeded much less if the "high contracting parties" from Munich were less duplicitous.
    2. stas52
      22 November 2011 05: 32
      0
      On May 11 1939 Poland rejected the USSR’s offer of military assistance in the event of aggression, and on May 19 concluded a treaty of military alliance with France.
      Non-aggression pact between Germany and the Soviet Union (German: Deutsch-sowjetischer Nichtangriffspakt; also known as the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact) is an intergovernmental agreement signed on August 23 on 1939 by the heads of foreign affairs agencies of Germany and the Soviet Union. On the part of the USSR, the agreement was signed by the People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs V.M. Molotov, on the part of Germany - by the Minister for Foreign Affairs I. von Ribbentrop.
      In 1937 - 1939 years. the cult of the army and Marshal Rydz-Smigly reigns in the country. The Polish authorities are talking about restoring its territories from "sea to sea", that is, from the Baltic to the Black Sea, at the expense of the western territories of the USSR.
      1. ballian
        ballian 22 November 2011 20: 23
        0
        .How everything is simple for you - but you didn’t try to figure out what, but why
        - like the Poles are "fools" - they offer to "help", but they "" refuse.
        The fact that "Poland rejected ..." is nothing surprising - there are no countries that would agree to have troops of obviously hostile countries (USSR and Poland) on their territory (namely, this was the main stumbling block in the negotiations of 39-40 years - the USSR insisted on the introduction of troops into Poland, and the Poles were categorically opposed (it is clear that by introducing troops into Poland, the USSR got the opportunity to advise it from the inside and annex it to itself, and the eastern lands - Western Ukraine and Belarus - the same thing) (which in the end he did in 1939 and 1944) - the USSR annexed the Baltic states precisely by introducing troops - and then a matter of technology (this did not work out with Finland)
        .
        The USSR of those years was a force that did not hide the desire to destroy the rest of the non-Soviet "capitalist" world and opposed itself to both Western democracies and fascist states, and in general to all countries with a capitalist system - in such conditions, some kind of alliance between the USSR and the Anglo-Franks and Poland could take place only as a last resort.
        .
        The rest is yours - "Rydz-Smigly ... from sea to sea ..." - it's generally not clear what to discuss.
        1. Punch 2011
          Punch 2011 24 November 2011 20: 55
          +1
          But what did Poland count on then, seeing how the clouds were gathering? What would France and England stand up for? Will the British and French send their troops by air or sea?
          No one disputed the rights of Russia to the Baltic states under the tsar, and now it turns out that Stalin cannot do this.
          By the way, Finland was asked to move the border away from St. Petersburg and in return offered an area even larger in Karelia
          Now imagine June 22, 1941. Pro-fascist Finland, 30 km from St. Petersburg (border), the Baltic states occupied by the Germans (and I have no doubt about that) Western Ukraine and Western Belarus -Where then was Russia?