Military Review

Winchester, which did not become "Kalashnikov" (part of 2)

One of the most regrettable features of our unique civilization is that we are still discovering the truths that have become beaten in other countries and even among nations that are much more backward than us.
P.I. Chaadayev

So, it is obvious that it was Winchester's carbine (we will call it that way without any clarification), well, let's say, the same 1866 model of the year was first-rate and fast-fire. weapons. The latter figure for that time was particularly impressive. With 12 cartridges in the store and 13 in the barrel, he gave 25 rounds per minute. The 1873,1886 and 1894 models were just as quick-firing. And although they were not intended for use as military weapons, since they were designed for low-power cartridges of the 11,8 caliber and 11,43-mm, they were often used precisely in this capacity. For example, the Turkish cavalry armed themselves with the winchesters during the Russian-Turkish war, where they showed themselves from the best side.

It should be noted here that the specificity of the horse service in the USA (the presence of prairies and Indians) led to the great popularity of the carbine. So, even before the beginning of the Civil War of the North and South, the US cavalry used Smith rifles of the .52 caliber (13,2-mm), Starr of the .54 caliber (13,7-mm), and Joslin of the .52 caliber, Maynard, Hankins and Sharpe (Sharpe, not Sharps!) In .50 caliber (12,7-mm). And there were still “Gallagher”, “Ballard”, “Wesson”, “Spencer” and “Barnside”. And the same "Spencer" was purchased 94000, and Barnside carbines (.54 caliber) - 55000!

Winchester, which did not become "Kalashnikov" (part of 2)

Smith's carabiner.

The carabiner of Gallager.

Well, let alone the rate of their creators increased in various ways. For example, in Sharpe’s infantry rifle and Carabiner mod. 1848, the shutter was operated using a clevis arm, while moving it forward, it went down, opening the breech breech. A paper cartridge was inserted there, then the shutter was raised and ... with its sharp edge, cut off the bottom of it. It was necessary to put a cap on the seed rod, cock the trigger, and it was possible to shoot! Convenient, do not say anything! And do not put the butt on the ground for loading and ram ram the bullet with a charge. And he weighed only 3,5 kg, which was convenient for the rider.

Smith's carbine before loading.

But General Ambrose Barnside came up with more interesting. In his carbine mod. 1856 of the year with the help of the bracket arm from the trunk was disconnected and lowered by the channel upwards the entire charging chamber. A bullet forward in relation to the barrel (!) Was inserted into it a cartridge of its own conical shape, tapering to the rear! When the bolt returned to its original place, the bullet entered the barrel with its head, and part of the sleeve blocked the place of their connection. The sleeve itself was made of brass. Bullet - lead, salted. The highlight of the design was a tapered recess in the bottom of the sleeve.

Barnside carabiner.

Barnside carabiner. The shutter is open.

Barnside carabiner. The cartridge in the chamber.

Carabiner Bansayda. Diagram of the chamber with a cartridge inside.

Judging by the scheme, there was a hole, and it had to be filled with wax. Photos of the hole is not visible. But then it turns out that the metal there was very thin. When the trigger smashed the cap, the gases from the cap either knocked out a wax plug, or made a hole in this recess through which the charge ignited in the sleeve. But then, under the pressure of gases, the edges of this hole converged, and ... the gases could not break back! After the shot, the sleeve was removed manually. The effective range of the Barnside carbine reached 200 yards, and the speed of the bullet - 950 feet per second. The total length of all models of carbines was 56 inches, weight - 9 pounds.

Cartridge Gallagger .50 (1860 - 1862's.).

Cartridge to Barnside carbine.

The cartridge to the carbine Maynard .50-50 (1865 g.). As you can see - only the "hole", there is no cap.

It is clear that these were transitional systems with cartridges not yet aligned with the primer, but they clearly show the course of design ideas and the use of the lever combined with the trigger trigger to control the shutter. And the goal is the same - to increase the rate of fire of weapons!

Sometimes it led to quite original, and even frankly curious constructions, such as Needham's English drum rifle, which had a tubular subbarrelled store and, in addition, a drum that was turned with the help of the same bracket arm. That is, the cartridges from the store came first to the drum, and on the trigger he had a special “beater” of the spent cartridges, which removed them alternately from the cameras simultaneously with the shot. The sleeve had a conical shape and was already in the breech. Therefore, she easily entered the drum and was also thrown out of it. Charged into this 12 rifle of cartridges, that is, it was the most multiply-charged drum rifle in the world (not counting Lefoshe's carbines, of course, but they were charged with hairpin cartridges).

Karabin U. Evans.

Another development on the way to rapid-fire and multi-shot weapons was the dentist's rifle Warren Evans with a magazine in the stock like an Archimedean screw. The shutter in it was also controlled by a lever-clamp, but, depending on the modification, it contained from 24 to 36 rounds of a revolver type. In 1868, he received a patent for the design of the rifle, and in 1871 for the bolt, which simultaneously recharged it and rotated the store. Already in 1873, Warren and his brother George arranged the release of their "miracle weapon" (and by that time it was, because its rate of fire reached 30-36 rounds per minute!) At the agricultural equipment factory, and, despite the modest conditions , soon released more than 12 thousand of these rifles. The Evans rifles were bought by the US Navy, and with a ship bought in America, they also came to Russia. Rifles began to be sold around the world, and in Russia the sample entered service with the imperial fleet in the form of a carbine with a bayonet mount on the barrel and under the .44R cartridge, but this success created completely unnecessary competition to Oliver Winchester. He bought their company from his brothers and ... buried it, and put all their patents on his desk! Interestingly, the magazine was equipped through a hole in the butt, closed with a sliding lid. That is, it didn’t require any “serious operations”, but the time - to get each cartridge out of the bandoleer and put it into the store, surely it was necessary not so little!

Karabin U. Evans. The hole for the ejection of the sleeves is still open. Later, it was closed with a special lid, similar to a trigger, and opened after each shot. Due to this, the dirt inside almost did not fall!

However, it soon became clear that the rate of fire in hand-loaded rifles, most likely, has already been reached. There was one more circumstance that mattered: it was a long time to charge all these exotic shops!

Native American with Evans carbine. And they understood a weapon!

And here the next step towards modern weapons was made again by an American, but of Scottish origin, James Lee. In the 1879 year, just as Winchester did away with the Evans Brothers firm, he proposed a surprisingly simple store in the shape of a rectangular box with a spring, placed on the weapon under the bolt. Here it is hardly worth describing his work, since it is known to everyone. More importantly, he immediately made a lot of time under his shop (and he was detachable, that is, he was saving himself on his reloading!) 6-mm rifle for the US Navy. True, for financial reasons he had to go to the Remington company, but he laid the foundation so solid that his name fell into the name of such two well-known British rifles like Lee-Metford and Lee Enfield: “shop Lee, slicing Metford, Lee's store, slicing Enfield!

The rifle of James Lee “Navy” (naval) is today a very rare specimen.

James Lee's Navy rifle bolt.

The invention of the store Lee was the beginning of the end of the grenade shops, because in the speed of reloading they could not bear with rifles from his middle shop!
Meanwhile, in less than six years, the Winchester company developed its first carbine with a fixed barrel and automatic reloading of the 7-mm caliber. However, while he was still shooting with black powder cartridges, no one paid any special attention to him: well, another hunting carbine of a well-known company, so what? The situation began to change from 1886, when smokeless powder appeared in France and began its triumphant march across countries and continents. Now it was possible to shoot for a long time and a lot, without fear of smoke around the space around him, and most importantly - powder fire now no longer scored moving parts of the weapon, as before.
21 comment
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  1. D-Master
    D-Master 10 November 2015 06: 41 New
    The articles are just great. For gun lovers this is just a storehouse of information. Thanks a lot to the author for the whole cycle. I read it with great pleasure. Please continue...
  2. Aaron Zawi
    Aaron Zawi 10 November 2015 06: 47 New
    Yeah, just a class! Photos are exceptionally successful. Many thanks.
  3. SLY2008
    SLY2008 10 November 2015 07: 48 New
    Thank you for the informative and well-illustrated article!
  4. Vladimirets
    Vladimirets 10 November 2015 08: 07 New
    Native American with Evans carbine. And they understood a weapon!

    Here you can argue, the Indians most often just used what was.
    1. kalibr
      10 November 2015 08: 42 New
      But agree - great photo! It is clear that he did not come to the store and did not order it by mail, and did not remove the soldier from the murdered one. The soldiers did not have them! But somewhere I got it and learned how to use it and, in addition, decorated it like that ?! And dressed, by the way, in an American undershirt!
      1. Vladimirets
        Vladimirets 10 November 2015 12: 53 New
        Quote: kalibr
        But you must admit - a cool photo

        Of course, cool.
        Quote: kalibr
        But somewhere I got it

        As a rule, weapons were sold to them by merchants for fabulous money (equivalent) for furs, gold. And they took each other as military booty, and from the settlers.
    2. Weyland
      Weyland 11 November 2015 21: 58 New
      Quote: Vladimirets
      Indians most often simply used what was.

      Have you seen the movie "Night at the Museum"? There one of the characters is General Caster, who blew the battle of Little Bighorn (1876) to the Indians with a bang. One of the reasons for the defeat is that the Amer army did not take on hard disks because it was expensive (the official ignorance is "low range"). And the Indians did not spare the hard-earned grandmothers and stocked up the Winchesters very thoroughly. laughing
      We had a similar garbage under EBNe, in the 1st Chechen, when the militants had newer weapons than the army am
    3. The comment was deleted.
  5. Xarza17
    Xarza17 10 November 2015 08: 14 New
    Great weapon.
  6. Chukcha
    Chukcha 10 November 2015 10: 12 New
    Very interesting.
    In one of the films "about the Indians", I saw a rifle whose principle of reloading was a brace from below, but the cartridges were in a revolver clip. What kind of model I don't know.
    1. kalibr
      10 November 2015 12: 57 New
      Colt rifle with turret magazine.
  7. cth; fyn
    cth; fyn 10 November 2015 10: 52 New
    Cool, in mass culture, except for Henry and the Winchester, nothing flickers, but it turns out the bracket was terribly popular among the designers of that time.
    1. kalibr
      10 November 2015 12: 58 New
      This I have not yet described everything, there were other designs.
      1. cth; fyn
        cth; fyn 10 November 2015 13: 32 New
        Yes, you always dig a lot of things out of the "edge". Why only bronze armor, whose area and quality of closure are not worse than that of Gothic or Milanese, I did not think that apart from anatomical shells and rag shells there was something, in general, thanks for your efforts, we are waiting, we read.
        1. kalibr
          10 November 2015 13: 46 New
          Thank! The feeling of being needed always helps, especially when you are on 60 ...
  8. Volga Cossack
    Volga Cossack 10 November 2015 11: 04 New
    thank!!! articles are very good!
  9. Mordvin
    Mordvin 10 November 2015 18: 48 New
    Thank you, very informative
  10. Bayonet
    Bayonet 10 November 2015 18: 55 New
    Taking off my hat hi Thank you very much for the most interesting articles! Good luck
    1. kalibr
      10 November 2015 19: 48 New
      You know, but in Soviet times I had a lot of problems with the printing of my works. I wrote my first book in 1982, and managed to publish it only in 87th in Belarus, and then by a miracle. What questions the reviewers and editors pestered me - horror. The main "moment" of the questions: who are you to write like that!?! How does it feel?
      But then three books in a row! The "conspiracy of silence" broke through! The author gives money !!! And after 1991 there were no special problems. In the difficult year of 1998 Soros gave me a grant for a book and lecturing on it in Novosibirsk. And no conditions and hints of "Russobifia" were given to me. And who benefited from this book of mine, and I, and ... we are all Russians! So "the USSR had to collapse" so that I could freely search for information and publish my works. Once in the library I found the magazines "Archeology of the USSR" with my bookmarks as early as 89-90 years. Then I wanted to write ... An fig! I only posted it recently! The paradoxes of being, however!
      1. lwxx
        lwxx 11 November 2015 02: 56 New
        Thanks again. Very interesting articles, there is a genuine interest in the topic. Keep writing. hi good
  11. gross kaput
    gross kaput 11 November 2015 17: 43 New
    The US Navy’s Evans rifles
    Do they themselves know that US NAVY? That’s because the Evans rifle’s whip failed the US Army’s competition - for the first time because of problems with supply at the slightest damage to the application store, and the rifle turned into a piece of metal since it was not possible to charge it bypassing the store, though Evans corrected this flaw in the new model 1877 - it could already be charged one cartridge per chamber, but the store's survivability and principal reliability could not be increased. Well, about the US Navy, even the most daring American researchers do not even stutter - not even when they were in service there and were not even considered as such.
    moreover, with a ship bought in America, they ended up in Russia. Rifles began to be sold around the world, and in Russia the sample entered service with the imperial fleet in the form of a carbine with a mount for the bayonet on the barrel and under the cartridge .44R,
    Moreover, there is no documentary evidence of this, at present there is only one indisputable fact - these are two new-type Evans rifles stored in the St. Petersburg Military History Museum of Artillery, Engineering and Signal Corps all the information on them is a plate on one of them that this is a Russian carbine Evans of the 1871 model, which was in service with the Navy and everything, there is no information about this (or has not yet been found) in the archival documents in the lists of weapons samples accepted by the Navy, and people still break their spears - according to the first version, a couple of hundred of them it came to the fleet along with a steamboat purchased in the states according to the second version; these are Russian-Turkish war trophies adopted by the boarding teams on one or two ships, both versions have weaknesses and are unlikely in my opinion.
    but this success created completely unnecessary competition to Oliver Winchester. He bought their company from the brothers and ... buried it, and put all their patents on his desk! This bike about the Winchester villain, where did it come from? Firstly, the Evans company went bankrupt in 1879, and secondly, for all the time of its existence, it produced, according to various estimates, from 15 to 36 thousand rifles and carbines, which for Winchester with its circulations did not pose any threat.
    PS I did not understand why Winchester appears in the title? throughout the text, only in one sentence mention of it.
  12. moskowit
    moskowit 11 November 2015 19: 59 New
    "The more I know, the more I understand that I don't know anything!" ...
    And this aphorism has the deepest meaning. Thank you for the article. Didn't know about Lee's invention of the detachable store. I thought that the authors of the English magazine rifle, but now I took the Beetle's book "Rifles ..." off the shelf, I look, and in the section "Great Britain" everything turns out to be written. And about Lee-Metford and about Lee-Anfield.
    I read a long and mostly historical essay ...
  13. vonWolfenstein
    vonWolfenstein 21 November 2015 20: 57 New
    A very informative article, describes a very interesting period of the evolution of the rifle, the emergence of new systems, many original technical solutions that are useful now. Well, personally. With greed you read about weapons of the mid-end of the XNUMXth century, the era of discoverers, migrants, cowboys, Indians. Many thanks to the author, I wish you success in writing new, no less interesting and useful articles.