Every year on November 7 in Russia is a memorable date - the Day of the October Revolution 1917 of the year. Until 1991, 7 November was the main holiday of the USSR and was called the Day of the Great October Socialist Revolution.
Throughout the existence of the Soviet Union (celebrated since 1918), November 7 was a “red calendar day”, that is, a public holiday. On this day, demonstrations of workers and military parades were held on Red Square in Moscow, as well as in the regional and regional centers of the USSR. The last military parade on Red Square in Moscow to commemorate the anniversary of the October Revolution was held in 1990 year. The celebration of November 7 as one of the most important public holidays was preserved in Russia until 2004, while from 1992, only one day was considered as a holiday - November 7 (in the USSR November was considered a holiday).
In 1995, the Day of Military Glory was established - the Day of the military parade on Red Square in Moscow to mark the twenty-fourth anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution (1941 year). In 1996, by decree of the President of the Russian Federation “in order to mitigate opposition and reconciliation of various segments of Russian society” was renamed the Day of Accord and Reconciliation. Since 2005, due to the establishment of a new national holiday - National Unity Day - November 7 has ceased to be a day off.
November 7 ceased to be a holiday, but was included in the list of memorable dates. Indeed, this day cannot be crossed out. stories Russia, since the uprising in Petrograd 25 — October 26 (7 — 8 November in a new style) led not only to the overthrow of the bourgeois Provisional Government, but also predetermined all further development of both Russia and all of humanity.
It must be remembered that by the fall of 1917, the liberal-bourgeois Provisional Government - the “Februaryists” who destroyed the Russian empire (although for some reason they like to call the Bolsheviks the culprits of this event) brought the Russian civilization and statehood to the brink of disaster. Not only national margins, but also regions within Russia themselves, such as Cossack autonomies, refused from the Russian state. The meager number of nationalists claimed power in Kiev and Little Russia. An autonomous government appeared in Siberia. The armed forces collapsed long before the Bolshevik coup and could not continue fighting. The army and navy from the pillars of order themselves have become sources of distemper and anarchy. The soldiers deserted thousands, carried off weapon (including machine guns and guns!). The front was falling apart, and the German army was no one to stop. Russia could not fulfill its duty to the Allies on the Entente. Finance and economics were disorganized, a single economic space was falling apart. Problems began with the supply of cities, harbingers of famine. The government, during the Russian Empire, began to conduct surplus transactions (again, the Bolsheviks were then accused of them).
The peasants saw that there was no power! For the peasants, the power was the anointed of God - the king and his support - the army. They began to self-seize the land and "revenge", manor estates burned hundreds. External open enemies and former "partners" began the division and seizure of Russian territories. At the same time, England, France and the United States claimed the most tasty morsels. In particular, the Americans with the help of Czechoslovak bayonets planned to stake out virtually all of Siberia and the Far East. The interim government, instead of proposing a goal, a program, and rescue a power by active and decisive action, postponed the decision of fundamental issues until the Constituent Assembly was convened.
It was a disaster! Russia in front of her eyes ceased to exist, turning into an ethnographic territory that they were going to “master” and completely solve the “Russian question”.
The country was covered by a wave of chaos, both controlled and spontaneous. Autocracy, which was the core of the empire, was crushed by the inner “fifth column”. "Fevralistami" - the great princes, degenerated aristocracy, generals, masons, Duma leaders, liberals, bankers and industrialists. In exchange, the inhabitants of the empire received "freedom." People felt free from all taxes, duties and laws. The Provisional Government, whose policies were determined by leaders of the liberal and left-wing sense, could not establish a viable order, moreover, their actions deepened chaos. It turned out that the figures oriented to the west (most of them were masons who obeyed the “elder brothers” from the West) continued to destroy Russia. In words, everything was beautiful and smooth, in fact - they were destroyers or “impotent” people who could only speak beautifully. Suffice it to recall the "democratization" of the army during the war (Order No. 1).
Liberal Democratic Petrograd de facto lost control of the country. The further power of the liberals led to the collapse of Russia into specific princedoms, with a mass of “independent” presidents, hetmans, atamans, khans and princes with their own talking parliaments, micro-armies and the administrative apparatus. All of these “states” inevitably fell under the authority of external forces — Britain, France, the USA, Japan, Turkey, etc. At the same time, many neighbors dug in on Russian lands. In particular, the Finnish radicals dreamed of "Great Finland" with the inclusion of Russian Karelia, the Kola Peninsula, and, with luck, lands up to the Northern Urals. Russian civilization and the people were threatened with complete destruction and disappearance from history.
However, there was a force that could take power and offer the people a viable project. These were the Bolsheviks. Until the summer of 1917, they were not considered a serious political force, yielding in popularity and strength to the cadets and the Social Revolutionaries. But by the fall of 1917, their popularity had grown. Their program was clear and understandable to the masses. The power in this period could take virtually any force that showed political will. This force became the Bolsheviks.
In August 1917, the Bolsheviks headed for an armed uprising and a socialist revolution. This happened at the VI Congress of the RSDLP (b). However, then the Bolshevik party was actually in the underground. The most revolutionary regiments of the Petrograd garrison were disbanded, and workers sympathizing with the Bolsheviks were disarmed. The opportunity to recreate armed structures appeared only during the Kornilov revolt. The plan for the uprising in the capital had to be postponed. Only 10 (23) October 1917. The Central Committee adopted a resolution on the preparation of an uprising. The 16 (29) of October, an enlarged meeting of the Central Committee, in which representatives of the districts took part, confirmed the earlier decision.
12 (25) in October 1917 of the year, the Petrograd Military Revolutionary Committee was established to defend the revolution from the “openly preparing attack of the military and civilian Kornilov” on the initiative of Petrograd Chairman of the Council of the Soviet Union Lev Trotsky. Not only the Bolsheviks, but also some left-wing Social Revolutionaries and anarchists entered the WRC. In fact, this body and coordinated the preparation of an armed uprising. He was formally headed by Pavel Lazimir, a left SR, but almost all decisions were made by the Bolsheviks Leo Trotsky, Nikolai Podvoisky and Vladimir Antonov-Ovseenko.
With the help of the WRC, the Bolsheviks established close ties with the soldiers' committees of the Petrograd garrison formations. In fact, the left forces restored the dual power in the city and began to establish their control over the military forces. When the Provisional Government decided to send the revolutionary regiments to the front, the Petrograd Soviet appointed an order check and decided that the order was dictated not by strategic, but by political motives. The regiments were ordered to remain in Petrograd. The commander of the military district prohibited issuing weapons to workers from the arsenals of the city and suburbs, but the Council issued warrants and issued weapons. The Petrograd Soviet also stopped the Provisional Government’s attempt to arm its supporters with the help of the Peter and Paul Fortress arsenal. Parts of the Petrograd garrison declared disobedience to the Provisional Government. October 21 held a meeting of representatives of the regiments of the garrison, who recognized the Petrograd Soviet as the sole legitimate authority in the city. From that moment on, the Military Revolutionary Committee began to appoint its commissars to military units, replacing commissars of the Provisional Government.
On the night of October 22, the Military Command requested the headquarters of the Petrograd Military District to recognize the authority of their commissars, and 22 declared its subordination to the garrison. October 23 The WRC obtained the right to create an advisory body at the headquarters of the Petrograd district. On the same day, Trotsky personally conducted an agitation in the Peter and Paul Fortress, where they still doubted which side to take. By October 24, the WRC appointed his commissars to the troops, as well as to arsenals, armories, railway stations and factories. In fact, by the beginning of the uprising, left forces had established military control over the capital. The Provisional Government was incapacitated and could not respond decisively.
Therefore, there was no serious clash and much blood, the Bolsheviks simply took power. The guards of the Provisional Government and the units loyal to them almost everywhere surrendered and went home. Shed their blood for the "temporary" no one wanted. From October 24, the units of the Petrograd Military Revolutionary Committee occupied all the key points of the city. The armed men simply occupied the key objects of the capital, and all this was done without a single shot, calmly and methodically. When the head of the Provisional Government, Kerensky ordered the arrest of members of the WRC, there was no one to execute the order of arrest. The interim government almost without a fight passed the country, although even before the revolution it had every opportunity to deal with active members of the Bolshevik Party. The fact that they haven’t even done anything to protect their last stronghold, the Winter Palace, speaks about the complete lack of talent and incompetence of the temporary worker: there were no combat-ready units, no ammunition or food was prepared.
By the morning of October 25 (November 7) the Interim Government in Petrograd had only the Winter Palace. By the end of the day, he was "defended" by the 200 women from the women's shock battalion, the 2-3 companies of bezusyh junkers and several dozen disabled people - St. George's knights. Protection began to disperse even before the assault. The Cossacks were the first to leave, then left on the orders of their chief junker of the Mikhailovsky Artillery School. So the defense of the Winter Palace lost its artillery. A part of the cadets of the Oranienbaum school is also gone. Therefore, the footage of the famous storming of the Winter Palace is a beautiful myth. The guards of the palace went home for the most part. The whole assault consisted in a flaccid exchange of fire. Its scale can be understood by casualties: six soldiers and one drummer were killed. At 2 in the morning of October 26 (November 8), members of the Provisional Government were arrested. Kerensky himself escaped in advance, drove away accompanied by the car of the American ambassador under the American flag (he was saved by overseas patrons).
It must be said that the Bolsheviks won almost the “shadow”. Later, a myth was created about the brilliant operation and the “heroic struggle” against the bourgeois. The main reason for the victory was the complete lack of talent and passivity of the Provisional Government. Almost all liberal figures could only speak beautifully. Decisive Kornilov, who was trying to establish at least some order, had already been eliminated. If a decisive dictator of the Suvorov or Napoleon type, with several attack units from the front, were in place of Kerensky, he would have easily dispersed the decomposed parts of the Petrograd garrison and the red partisan units.
In the evening of October 25, the II All-Russian Congress of Soviets opened in Smolny, which proclaimed the transfer of all power to the Soviets. October 26 The Council adopted a Decree on Peace. All belligerent countries were asked to begin negotiations on the conclusion of a universal democratic peace. The decree on the land passed landowner land to the peasants. All bowels, forests and waters nationalized. At the same time, a government was formed - the Council of People's Commissars headed by Vladimir Lenin.
Simultaneously with the uprising in Petrograd, the Moscow Council Revolutionary Committee took key points of the city under its control. It didn't go so smoothly here. The Public Security Committee under the chairman of the city duma Vadim Rudnev, with the support of the junkers and Cossacks, began military actions against the Council. The fighting continued until November 3, when the Public Security Committee capitulated.
In general, the Soviet government was established in the country easily and without much blood. The revolution was immediately supported in the Central Industrial District, where local Soviets of Workers' Deputies were actually in control of the situation. In the Baltics and Byelorussia, Soviet power was established in October - November 1917 of the year, and in the Central Chernozem region, the Volga region and Siberia - until the end of January 1918 of the year. These events are called "the triumphal march of the Soviet government." The process of the predominantly peaceful establishment of Soviet power throughout Russia was yet another proof of the complete degradation of the Provisional Government and the need to rescue the country with active and program-like force.
Subsequent events confirmed the correctness of the Bolsheviks. Russia was on the verge of death. The old project was destroyed, and only a new project could save Russia. He was given and the Bolsheviks. They did not destroy the "old Russia". The “fevralists” killed the Russian empire: the grand dukes, part of the generals, top dignitaries, aristocrats, bankers, industrialists, representatives of the liberal-democratic parties, many of whom were members of Masonic lodges, most of the intelligentsia who hated the “prison of nations.” In general, most of the "elite" of Russia with their own hands and destroyed the empire. It was these people who killed the “old Russia”.
The Bolsheviks did not save the "old Russia", it was doomed and fought in agony. They suggested that the people create a new reality, a civilization - a Soviet, more equitable one, where there will be no classes parasitizing the people. The Bolsheviks had all three necessary elements for the formation of a new reality, a project: an image of the future, a bright world; political will and energy, faith in one's victory (overpassionality); and organization.
The image of the future came to the liking of the greater part of the common people, since communism was inherent in Russian civilization, the people. Not for nothing, long before the revolution, many Russian, Christian-minded thinkers were at the same time supporters of socialism. Only socialism could be an alternative to parasitic capitalism (and at present, to a non-slave, neo-feudal system). Communism was on the priority of creation, labor and was against the exploitation of the people, parasitism. All this corresponded to the Russian "matrix". The Bolsheviks had the political will, energy and faith. They had an organization.
Modern liberals are trying to convince the people that October has become the "curse of Russia." They say that Russia has again moved away from Europe, and the history of the USSR is a complete disaster. In reality, the Bolsheviks were the only force that, after the death of the “old Russia” - the project of the Romanovs, tried to save the state and the people, create a new reality. The project, which will preserve the best that was in the past (Pushkin, Dostoevsky, Tolstoy, Alexander Nevsky, Dmitry Donskoy, Suvorov, Nakhimov, Kutuzov), and at the same time will be a breakthrough into the future, into a different fair, sunny civilization, without slavery and oppression, parasitism and obscurantism. If not for the Bolsheviks, the Russian civilization, most likely, would simply have died.
It is clear that not everything was smooth with the Bolsheviks. They had to act tough, even cruel. A significant part of the revolutionaries were internationalists (supporters of Trotsky and Sverdlov). Many of them were agents of Western influence. They were supposed to launch a “second wave” to destroy the Russian super-ethnos (Russian civilization). The “first wave” was the Februarylists-Masons. They viewed Russia as a sacrifice, a feeding trough, a base for the world revolution, which would lead to the establishment of the New World Order, the owners of which would be the “world backstage” (the “world international”). "World backstage" started a world war and organized a revolution in Russia. The owners of the United States and Britain planned to establish a global world order based on Marxism - a kind of global totalitarian concentration camp. Their weapons were revolutionary internationalists, Trotskyists.
First, they “cleared the field” - destroyed the old monarchical empire. The Russian, German, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires fell as planned. Then they planned to conduct a series of "socialist" revolutions. Russia was planning to make the base of the world revolution, to use all its resources, the energy of the people, to sacrifice. The goal is a new world order based on phony communism (Marxism).
Therefore, part of the Bolshevik Party acted as an enemy of the Russian people. However, in Russia he gained a deeply popular, Russian component - the Bolshevik-Stalinists. It was they who showed such basic values for the Russian "matrix" as justice, primacy of truth over the law, of the spiritual principle over the material, in general over the particular. Their victory led to the construction of a separate "Russian socialism", the physical elimination of most of the "fifth column" (the Trotskyists-internationalists) and the unprecedented success of Soviet civilization.
Stalin and his associates dealt a terrible blow to the plans for building the New World Order (slavery on the basis of Marxism). The masters of the West had to rely on national socialism and fascism, create the project “Third Reich - Hitler”, setting it on the Red Empire, which built a new, sunny civilization, a society of creation and ministry. However, this is another story ...