Military Review

Russia after Lenin's death

70
Russia after Lenin's death



Life in the USSR and the struggle for power after the death of Vladimir Lenin

Creator and first head of the Soviet state and government, Vladimir Lenin, died in 18 hours 50 minutes 21 January 1924. For the Soviet Union, which then counted only 13 months, this death was the first political shock, and the body of the deceased became the first Soviet shrine.

What was our country at that time? And how did the death of the leader of the Bolshevik party influence its further fate?

Russia after Lenin's death


By the time of the death of Vladimir Ulyanov, a new state was located on the site of the former Russian Empire - the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. In the battles of the Civil War, the Bolshevik party inherited almost the entire territory of Tsarist Russia, with the exception of Poland and Finland, as well as small pieces on the outskirts - in Bessarabia and Sakhalin, which were still occupied by the Romanians and the Japanese.

As of January 1924, the population of our country after all the losses of the world and civil wars was about 145 million, of whom only 25 million lived in cities, and the rest were villagers. That is, Soviet Russia was still a peasant country, and the industry destroyed in 1917 – 1921 only recovered and barely caught up with the prewar level of 1913 of the year.

The internal enemies of the Soviet government — various white movements, marginal nationalists and separatists, peasant rebels — had already been defeated in open armed struggle, but still had a lot of sympathizers both inside the country and in the form of numerous foreign emigration, who had not yet come to terms with their defeat and actively preparing for a possible revenge. This danger was complemented by the lack of unity within the ruling party itself, where the heirs of Lenin had already begun to share leadership posts and influence.

Although Vladimir Lenin was rightly considered the undisputed leader of the Communist Party and the whole country, formally he was only the head of the Soviet government - the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR. The nominal head of the Soviet state under the then constitution was another person - Mikhail Kalinin, head of the USSR Central Executive Committee, the highest state body combining the functions of legislative and executive power (the Bolshevik Party did not fundamentally recognize the "bourgeois" theory of "separation of powers").

Even in the Bolshevik Party, which remained the only legal and ruling party by 1924, there was no formal sole leader. The party was headed by a collective body - the Political Bureau (Politburo) of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b). At the time of Lenin's death, in addition to Vladimir Ulyanov himself, the supreme body of the party included six others: Joseph Stalin, Lev Trotsky, Grigory Zinoviev, Lev Kamenev, Mikhail Tomsky and Alexey Rykov. At least three of them - Trotsky, Stalin and Zinoviev - had the desire and the ability to claim leadership in the party after Lenin and were headed by influential groups of their supporters among the party-state officials.

At the time of Lenin’s death, Stalin had been elected General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Bolshevik Party for a year and a half, but this post was still not perceived as the main one and was considered “technical”. From January 1924, it will take almost four more years of inner-party struggle before Joseph Dzhugashvili becomes the sole leader of the ruling party in the USSR. It is Lenin’s death that will push this power struggle, which, starting with quite comradely discussions and disputes, will take on bloody terror in 13 years.

The difficult internal situation of the country at the time of Lenin's death was complicated by considerable foreign policy difficulties. Our country was still in international isolation. At the same time, the last year of the life of the first Soviet leader was for the leaders of the USSR, in anticipation of not international diplomatic recognition, but a speedy socialist revolution in Germany.

The government of the Bolsheviks, realizing the economic and technical backwardness of Russia, then sincerely hoped for the victory of the German Communists, which would open access to the technologies and industrial capacities of Germany. Indeed, the entire 1923 year, Germany was shaken by economic and political crises. In Hamburg, Saxony and Thuringia, the German communists were more than ever close to the seizure of power, the Soviet secret services even sent their military experts to them. But the general communist uprising and the socialist revolution in Germany did not happen, the USSR was left alone with the capitalist environment in Europe and Asia.

The capitalist elites of that world still perceived the government of the Bolsheviks and the entire USSR as dangerous and unpredictable extremists. Therefore, by January 1924, only seven states recognized the new Soviet country. In Europe there were only three of them - Germany, Finland and Poland; in Asia, four - Afghanistan, Iran, Turkey and Mongolia (however, the latter also was not recognized by anyone in the world except the USSR, and Germany then defeated in World War I was considered the same outcast country as Soviet Russia).

But with all the differences in political regimes and ideologies, it was difficult to completely ignore such a large country as Russia in politics and economics. The breakthrough happened shortly after Lenin's death - during 1924, the USSR recognized the most powerful countries of that time, that is, Great Britain, France and Japan, as well as a dozen other less influential, but noticeable countries on the world map, including China. By 1925, of the major states, only the USA still did not have diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union. The rest of the largest countries gritting their teeth were forced to recognize the government of Lenin's heirs.

Mausoleum and mummification of Lenin

Lenin died in Gorki, not far from Moscow, in a manor that before the revolution belonged to the Moscow mayor. Here the first leader of the Communist Party due to illness spent the last year of his life. In addition to the local doctors, the best medical specialists from Germany were invited to it. But the efforts of the doctors did not help - Lenin died in the 53 year of life. A severe injury to 1918 of the year, when the bullets broke the blood circulation of the brain, had an effect.

According to Trotsky, a few months before Lenin’s death, Stalin had the idea of ​​preserving the body of the first leader of a Soviet country. Trotsky recounts Stalin's words in this way: “Lenin is a Russian man, and he should be buried in Russian. In Russian, according to the canons of the Russian Orthodox Church, saints were made relics ... ".


Mausoleum VI Lenin. Photo: Vladimir Savostyanov / TASS photo chronicle

Initially, most party leaders did not support the idea of ​​preserving the body of a dying leader. But immediately after the death of Lenin, no one persistently objected to this idea. As Stalin explained in January 1924: “After a while, you will see pilgrimages of millions of working people at the tomb of Comrade Lenin ... Modern science has the ability, through embalming, to preserve the body of the deceased for a long time, at least long enough to allow our consciousness to get used to the thought that Lenin is still not among us. ”

Felix Dzerzhinsky, head of the Soviet state security, became the chairman of the commission for the burial of Lenin. 23 January 1924, the coffin of Lenin was brought by train to Moscow. After four days, the coffin with the body was placed in a wooden mausoleum hastily built on Red Square. The architect of the Lenin Mausoleum was the architect Alexei Shchusev, who before the revolution served in the Holy Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church and specialized in the construction of Orthodox churches.

The coffin with the body of the leader in the mausoleum on their shoulders made four: Stalin, Molotov, Kalinin and Dzerzhinsky. Winter 1924 of the year stood out cold, there was a strong frost, which for several weeks ensured the safety of the body of the deceased.

The experience of embalming and long-term storage of human bodies then was not yet. Therefore, the first project of a permanent, rather than a temporary mausoleum, proposed by the old Bolshevik and People's Commissar (Minister) of foreign trade, Leonid Krasin, was associated precisely with the freezing of the body. In fact, it was proposed to install a glass refrigerator in the mausoleum, which would provide deep freezing and preservation of the corpse. In the spring of 1924, for this purpose, they even began to search for the most advanced refrigeration equipment at that time in Germany.

However, an experienced chemist Boris Zbarsky was able to prove to Felix Dzerzhinsky that deep freezing at low temperatures is suitable for storing products, but not suitable for preserving the body of the deceased, since it breaks the cells and over time significantly changes the appearance of the frozen body. A darkened ice corpse will scare rather than contribute to the commemoration of the memory of the first Soviet leader. It was necessary to look for other ways and means of preserving the body of Lenin exhibited at the mausoleum.

It was Zbarsky who indicated to the Bolshevik leaders the most experienced Russian anatomist, Vladimir Vorobyov. 48-year-old Vladimir Petrovich Vorobiev taught at the Department of Anatomy of Kharkov University, in particular, he has been engaged in the preservation and storage of anatomical preparations (separate human organs) and animal mummies for more than a decade.

True, Vorobiev himself initially refused the proposal to preserve the body of the Soviet leader. The fact is that he had some "sins" before the Bolshevik party - in 1919, during the capture of Kharkov by white troops, he worked in the commission for the exhumation of the corpses of the Kharkov Cheka, and only recently returned to the USSR from emigration. Therefore, the anatomist Vorobiev reacted to Zbarsky's first sentence to do the preservation of Lenin's body: “In no case will I go to such an obviously risky and hopeless business, and it is unacceptable for me to be ridiculous among scientists. On the other hand, you forget my past, which the Bolsheviks will remember, if there is a failure ... ".


Vladimir Petrovich Vorobev. Photo: wikipedia.org

However, soon the scientific interest won out - the task that had arisen was too complicated and unusual, and Vladimir Vorobyev, as a true fanatic of science, could not shun the attempt to solve it. 26 March 1924, the Vorobiev began work on the preservation of Lenin's body.

The embalming process took four months. First of all, the body was saturated with formalin — a chemical solution that not only killed all microorganisms, fungi, and possible mold, but actually turned the proteins of a once-living body into polymers that can be stored for an arbitrarily long time.

Then, with the help of hydrogen peroxide, Vorobiev and his assistants discolored frostbite spots that appeared on Lenin’s body and face after two months of storage in the icy winter crypt of the first mausoleum. At the final stage, the body of the deceased leader was soaked with aqueous solutions of glycerol and potassium acetate, so that the tissues did not lose moisture and were protected from drying out and changes in the lifetime form.

Exactly four months later, on July 26, 1924, the embalming process was successfully completed. By that time, the architect Shchusev on the site of the first wooden mausoleum built a second, already more capital and substantial mausoleum. Built also of wood, it will stand on Red Square for more than five years, before the construction of the mausoleum of granite and marble.

At noon 26 on July 1924, the mausoleum with Lenin's embalmed body was visited by a selection committee headed by Dzerzhinsky, Molotov and Voroshilov. They were supposed to evaluate the results of the work of Vladimir Vorobiev. The results were impressive - the touched Dzerzhinsky even embraced the former employee of the White Guards and the recent emigrant Vorobyov.

The conclusion of the government commission on the preservation of Lenin’s body said: “The activities undertaken for embalming rest on solid scientific foundations, giving the right to count on Vladimir Ilyich’s body for a long time in a condition that allows him to be seen in a closed glass coffin subject to the necessary conditions humidity and temperature ... The overall appearance has improved significantly compared to what was observed before embalming, and is approaching to a large extent recently the dead. "

So the body of Lenin, thanks to the scientific work of his namesake Vladimir Vorobiev, was in the glass coffin of the Mausoleum, in which it rests for over 90 years. The Communist Party and the government of the USSR generously thanked the anatomist Vorobyov - he became not only an academician and the only in our country holder of the title “Honored Professor”, but also a very rich man even by the standards of capitalist countries. By a special order of the authorities, Vorobyov was awarded a prize in 40 of thousands of gold chervonets (about 10 million dollars in prices of the beginning of the XXI century).

Power struggle after Lenin

While the scientist anatomist Vorobiev worked to preserve Lenin’s body, a struggle for power developed in the country and the Bolshevik Party. At the beginning of 1924, the ruling party actually had three main leaders - Trotsky, Zinoviev and Stalin. At the same time, the first two were considered the most influential and authoritative, and not the still ambitious “General Secretary of the Central Committee” Stalin.

45-year-old Leon Trotsky was the recognized creator of the Red Army, who won the heavy civil war. At the time of Lenin's death, he held the posts of Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs and the Chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council (RVS), that is, he was the head of all the armed forces of the USSR. At that time, a significant part of the army and the Bolshevik party were guided by this charismatic leader.

41-year-old Grigory Zinoviev for many years was a personal secretary and Lenin's closest aide. At the time of the death of the first leader of the USSR, Zinoviev headed the city of Petrograd (then the largest metropolis of our country) and the largest among the Bolsheviks Petrograd branch of the party. In addition, Zinoviev served as chairman of the Executive Committee of the Communist International - an international association of all the communist parties on the planet. At that time, the Comintern in the USSR was formally considered a higher authority even for the Bolshevik Party. On this basis, it was Gregory Zinoviev who was perceived by many in the country and abroad as the very first among all the leaders of the USSR after Lenin.

All year after the death of Ulyanov-Lenin, the situation in the Bolshevik party will be determined by the rivalry between Trotsky and Zinoviev. It is curious that these two Soviet leaders were compatriots and countrymen — both were born in Jewish families in the Elisavetgrad district of the Kherson province of the Russian Empire. However, during Lenin’s lifetime, they were almost open rivals and opponents, and only the generally recognized Leninist authority forced them to work together.

Against the background of Trotsky and Zinoviev, 45-year-old Stalin initially seemed much more modest, taking the post of secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) and being considered only the head of the party’s technical apparatus. But it was this modest "apparatchik" who turned out to be the winner in the inner-party struggle.


From left to right: Joseph Stalin, Alexey Rykov, Grigory Zinoviev and Nikolai Bukharin, 1928 year / TASS photo chronicle

Initially, all other leaders and authorities of the Bolshevik party immediately after Lenin’s death united against Trotsky. This is not surprising - after all, all other members of the Politburo and the Central Committee were activists of the Bolshevik faction with pre-revolutionary experience. Whereas, before the revolution, Trotsky was an ideological opponent and rival of the Bolshevik trend in the social democratic movement, joining Lenin only in the summer of 1917.

Exactly one year after the death of Lenin, at the end of January 1925, the united supporters of Zinoviev and Stalin at a meeting of the Central Committee of the Bolshevik Party actually "overthrow" Trotsky from the heights of power, depriving him of the posts of people's commissar (minister) for military affairs and the head of the Revolutionary Military Council. From now on, Trotsky remains without access to the mechanisms of real power, and his supporters in the party-state apparatus are gradually losing their posts and influence.

But Zinoviev’s open struggle with the Trotskyists pushes away many party activists from him - in their eyes Gregory Zinoviev, too rushing for leaders, looks too much like a narcissist intruder, too busy with questions of personal power. Against his background, the shadowy Stalin seems much more moderate and balanced. For example, in January 1925, when discussing the question of Trotsky’s resignation, Zinoviev calls for him to be excluded from the party altogether, while Stalin publicly acts as a conciliator, proposing a compromise: leaving Trotsky in the party and even as a member of the Central Committee, to limit himself to eliminating him from military posts.

It is this moderate position that attracts the sympathy of many Bolshevik middle managers to Stalin. And in December of the 1925 of the year at the next, XIV Congress of the Communist Party, most of the delegates will support Stalin, when his open rivalry with Zinoviev begins.

His post as head of the Comintern will also have a negative effect on Zinoviev’s authority, since it is the Communist International and its leader who, in the eyes of the party masses, will have to bear responsibility for the failure of the socialist revolution in Germany, which the Bolsheviks waited with the hopes of the first half of the 20s with such hopes. Stalin, on the contrary, concentrating on “routine” internal affairs, increasingly appeared before the party members not only as a balanced leader, not prone to splits, but also as a real workaholic, busy with real work, and not loud slogans.

As a result, two years after Lenin’s death, two of his three closest associates — Trotsky and Zinoviev — would lose their former influence, and Stalin would come very close to being the sole leader in the country and the party.
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  1. Baloo
    Baloo 8 November 2015 06: 47 New
    11
    Cognitively, will there be a sequel? I would like to know about the 1927 "Chekist conspiracy". What is the point, or is it a fake?
    1. venaya
      venaya 8 November 2015 13: 57 New
      +1
      Quote: Balu
      ... I would like to know about the "conspiracy of the Chekists" in 1927. What is the point, or is it a fake?

      What happened on November 7, 1927 was of colossal importance for our country. The fact that it is too early to fully disclose this topic, I am also sure. Consider, even the events of October 25, 1917 have not yet been fully disclosed, apparently there are certain reasons for this. By the way, the term "conspiracy of the Chekists" is not familiar to me, forces with other names also participated that day, please specify.
      1. Baloo
        Baloo 8 November 2015 17: 49 New
        +3
        Thank. The first time I shared my opinion about the role of Sverdlov, referring to the contents of the safe (opened after his death a few years later), I made a parallel with his brother, whose bank in America opened in 1916. and closed after Sverdlov’s death, one of his colleagues replied to VO like: So what? Menzhinsky’s brother was also a banker. Then something about the KGB conspiracy of 1927. I am not a historian or politician. My grandson is growing and I should always be ready to answer any of his questions in 8-10 years. hi
      2. MrK
        MrK 8 November 2015 18: 49 New
        0
        Dear, everything has long been open.
        Read the book by the young author Alexander Kurlyandchik - “THE CURSED SOVIET AUTHORITY” AND THE RESULTS OF REFORMS IN RUSSIA on Proza.ru. Recommend. There everything is reasonably shown.
    2. Andrey Petrov47
      Andrey Petrov47 8 November 2015 21: 09 New
      +1
      For that fought for it and ran.
  2. yuriy55
    yuriy55 8 November 2015 06: 49 New
    12
    I was always surprised at such facts from the history of the USSR.
    The first is Lenin’s enormous capacity for work, it only took a long time to read his works, and they were also written ...
    The second - from 1917 to 1924, the name of Lenin was widely known was less than seven years old and how long after this socialist ideas are alive in society ...

    As a result, two years after the death of Lenin, two of his three closest associates - Trotsky and Zinoviev - will lose their former influence, and Stalin will come close to the sole leadership in the country and the party.

    I will not offer my views on the reasons that prompted Stalin to become the sole leader. The results of this leadership are sufficient for me.
    And history is always written so that to determine the true role in it. personality allows time and a sound mind.
    yes
    1. Zoldat_A
      Zoldat_A 8 November 2015 09: 04 New
      +4
      Quote: yuriy55
      from 1917 to 1924 the name of Lenin was widely known was less than seven years old and how long after this socialist ideas are alive in society ...

      Yes, in general, the idea of ​​socialism and universal equality is not too painful for Lenin. Rather, close to any person - social equality and justice, the prohibition of the exploitation of man by man, "who does not work, he does not eat", "from each according to his ability - to each according to his work" ... There were a lot of utopian socialists there even before Lenin. And before them - veche self-government and ancient Russian city-states. And before them - in general, almost Christian virtues. I remember that at MLF in the first or second year we were loaded - "Three sources and three components of Marxism." And Lenin developed and deepened the teaching of Marx, "adapting" it to the world's first state of workers and peasants, the country of victorious free labor.
      1. Sharapov
        Sharapov 8 November 2015 11: 03 New
        -35
        Socialism (Leninist or something else) is a chimera. At the heart of EVERYTHING is a person (personality). The personality is based on the personal - that is, egoism (to a greater or lesser extent, each of us has). It is already ridiculous to read about slave labor for the benefit of an ephemeral society, covered with tales of freedom, equality and brotherhood. The position of the rulers under socialism: "The people will work, the party will distribute." In the USSR, as far as I know, until 1970 (!!!!), collective farms did not pay wages - they gave out wages with agricultural products (if there was a good harvest). The analogue of socialism is Mavrodi (MMM), he also has a lot of fairy tales, the result is zilch.
        1. washi
          washi 8 November 2015 11: 26 New
          +7
          Quote: Sharapov
          Socialism (Leninist or something else) is a chimera. At the heart of EVERYTHING is a person (personality). The personality is based on the personal - that is, egoism (to a greater or lesser extent, each of us has). It is already ridiculous to read about slave labor for the benefit of an ephemeral society, covered with tales of freedom, equality and brotherhood. The position of the rulers under socialism: "The people will work, the party will distribute." In the USSR, as far as I know, until 1970 (!!!!), collective farms did not pay wages - they gave out wages with agricultural products (if there was a good harvest). The analogue of socialism is Mavrodi (MMM), he also has a lot of fairy tales, the result is zilch.

          You do not equal the socialism of Trotskyite, Stalin and Khrushchev, which is also Trotskyist.
          Under IVS there was both private production and public. Those who worked for society, i.e. the state had minimal taxes or not at all. Those collective farmers plowed in common fields, while their children were engaged in private. From the general fields received either food or money. From their possessions, surpluses were sold either themselves or through cooperative trade. (Caucasians lived like that after Khrushchev’s legislation, and the rest of the republics. In my opinion, the liquidation of personal farms only affected the RSFSR).
          If I’m wrong, then why after the 60s only Caucasians, Central Asians and Ukrainians remained on the collective farm markets formed during the IVS? I do not take Baltic states. They were engaged in clothes.
          1. Sharapov
            Sharapov 8 November 2015 16: 26 New
            -14
            Socialism - it is also socialism in Trinidad ... I am not going to compare the cost of a glass of seeds under socialism in Odessa on Privoz and in Tbilisi ... I am talking about the result. In 1990, I had to go to the exit guard in Saransk - received from the cap. repair PRP-3. I have not seen such a nightmare anywhere. In addition to sour-smelly bread, seaweed and pasta, there was NOTHING in the shops for free ... Well dry. they gave me a share in units — they fed themselves ... I came in the morning — looking for a storekeeper — not at the workplace. They say to me - instead of Petrov today, Sidorov. To my bewilderment - they answer - last night Petrov left for Moscow for the whole brigade with a fast train. We cover it, but tomorrow morning it makes us all sausage and cheese .. And you tell me about Trotskyite, Lenin, Stalin, Khrushchev, Brezhnev socialism .... People need to think, not dictators.
            1. washi
              washi 30 November 2015 13: 31 New
              0
              And who said that after the death of the IVS there was socialism.
              Khrushchev tried to introduce military communism, while destroying private farms, cooperative, i.e. social production, the armed forces as the selection of the elite (he began to call criminals and dismiss the past World War II, but non-partisan, destroyed (together with Zhukov attack aircraft, practically destroyed long-range aviation, the Navy and artillery)).
              The works of Marx and Lenin are not rules, but a guide to action. Stalin was the last to try to adapt the work of the classics of Marxism-Leninism to modern times. After him, no one even tried to do this. As a result, we lagged behind in ideology and economics.
          2. Uncle Joe
            Uncle Joe 9 November 2015 00: 37 New
            +1
            Quote: Vasya
            With IVS there was also private production
            There was no private (not to be confused with personal) - they began to push this opportunist nonsense over the past 5 years.
        2. MrK
          MrK 8 November 2015 18: 45 New
          13
          Quote: Sharapov
          In the USSR, as far as I know, up to the 1970 year (!!!!) they did not pay salaries on collective farms


          Sharapov, be able to answer for your words. Did you live at that time?
          And 1952 and I lived on the outskirts of a small district town. And uncles, aunts in the village. Uncle Vanya: two hectares of land, four pigs, two cows. Grandmother lived with them.

          For stupid and underdeveloped anti-advisers I will explain. During collectivization, only communal land was united. And nobody took away the personal garden. Only with the advent of Khrushchev began to be cut off. My parents from 20 acres left only nine.

          With the advent of Khrushchev to 1960, even bread was gone. So Uncle Vanya, who earned his workdays on a collective farm, gave us to feed us a cow and a couple of pigs.

          Pension grandmother Xnumx ruble. Buy a little bread, sugar and kerosene. Pay for electricity. Russian stove in every home. All products are their own.
          And they helped us in the city at that time.

          By the way, all this was built after the war. The Germans burned everything. Belorussian village.

          This filthy liberal Russian intelligentsia does not want to understand three simple things.
          First: it transfers its egoism of the anti-Soviet to the country's leaders.
          Second: Russia is the only country in the vastness of which three wars swept over 50 years.
          Third: In the 1944 year, after liberation, the European territory of the USSR, where 70 million people used to live, was unsuitable for life.


          It is disgusting to even see and read these anti-advisers.
          1. vassa
            vassa 8 November 2015 20: 47 New
            -7
            One of us is stupid and underdeveloped - a huge question. We never thought about the people in the scoop, there were great goals, and the means are all good. "And nobody took the backyard." whole villages in the Ryazan region were taken away and disappeared ... even the temple was blown up, and the ground on which it stood was leveled. And the memory was erased, since even children were forbidden to talk about it ... Your grandfather survived - and thank God. But my grandfather - the worker's heart stopped, just during collectivization, and it was before the war. A bunch of children, feed them what and how you want, go to beg. And my grandfather was only 51 years old. Here is such an "enemy of the people."
            And by the way, if a person is an intellectual, this does not mean that he is a liberast. Intelligent is a derivative of the word "intellect". This is for the especially stupid.
            1. Uncle Joe
              Uncle Joe 9 November 2015 00: 40 New
              +6
              Quote: vassa
              Intellectual is a derivative of the word "intellect". This is for the especially stupid.
              laughing

              Intelligent - from Latin. intelligens (understanding)
          2. Sharapov
            Sharapov 8 November 2015 21: 29 New
            -12
            Rave. I wanted to ask a sharp and frenzied lover of a scoop - what does the war have to do with it? One might think that the Federal Republic of Germany after the war was not in the same situation - they also paid reparations, and the captured Germans rebuilt something for us. Nevertheless, Germany already developed in the 70s much faster than the GDR. (I’m not even trying to compare with the USSR). And strange - for some reason, the Germans fled from the GDR to the FRG? Strange they are probably anti-advisers.
            1. venaya
              venaya 8 November 2015 22: 25 New
              +3
              Quote: Sharapov
              ... Germany after the war was not in the same situation - they also paid reparations, and the captured Germans rebuilt something for us. Nevertheless, Germany already developed in the 70s much faster than the GDR. (I’m not even trying to compare with the USSR). And strange - for some reason, the Germans fled from the GDR to the FRG? ...

              Weimer's Germany before A. Hitler was barely making ends meet. After the arrival of A. Hitler, thanks to funding from the United States (where up to 12 million people were lost because of this during the Great Depression), the rate of economic development reached 66% per year. After 45 years in Germany there was such a level of poverty that people ate each other, just like in the Leningrad blockade. It was possible to stop this only due to the implementation of the "Marshall Plan" in Germany, and again with funding from the United States. At the same time, the GDR was fed only by the economy of the bloodless post-war USSR, weakened by the arms race and therefore could not give the same rates of economic growth. Please take a closer look at the historical parallels, there are many underwater, at first glance, imperceptible stones. In the 70s, we ourselves began the Brezhnev economic stagnation, which was hardly caused only by internal problems.
        3. Saburov
          Saburov 9 November 2015 05: 36 New
          +2
          Quote: Sharapov
          It’s ridiculous to read about slave labor for the benefit of the ephemeral society, covered by tales of freedom, equality and fraternity.


          You read less fairy tales about slave labor in the USSR from our dumb-headed liberal public. In addition to everything else, even the poor victims of “repression” were allowed to transfer money to relatives! I hope that after these lines you did not fall off the chair, in surprise. Even the Gulag was translated into self-sufficiency, that is, it became an enterprise. In the USSR, slavery and exploitation were prohibited by the Constitution, so workers were provided with wages. Approximately 100-200 rub until 1941 year. As for the work, the working day was ten hours. However, they did not work every day, there were days off.
          1. Sharapov
            Sharapov 9 November 2015 07: 38 New
            -7
            But about the GULAGs you generally vainly remembered. My father-in-law served in the construction battalion - he built a military airfield in Magadan’s 1960-62 years. Rather, the construction battalion built mainly a town for pilots, service staff and their families. Actually the airfield with underground caponiers was built by convicts. And no one asked them if they would like to work hard every day on 40 degree frost or not. By the end of construction, almost half of the convicts were buried.
            1. Saburov
              Saburov 9 November 2015 08: 01 New
              +1
              Quote: Sharapov
              But about the GULAGs you generally vainly remembered. My father-in-law served in the construction battalion - he built a military airfield in Magadan’s 1960-62 years. Rather, the construction battalion built mainly a town for pilots, service staff and their families. Actually the airfield with underground caponiers was built by convicts. And no one asked them if they would like to work hard every day on 40 degree frost or not. By the end of construction, almost half of the convicts were buried.


              You begin to become like our liberals ... I have a friend ... uncle ... aunt and so on, if you have something to say on the merits or archival data then please parry ... and these conversations are nothing more than camp tales. ..and in general convicts were forced to work, of course, but the conversation was that even in the penitentiary system, work was paid other than 1941-1945 (at that time they only received extra ration) according to the Constitution of the USSR (and not one, but all three of the Constitution of the USSR 1924 The Constitution of the USSR 1936 of the year ("Stalin"). The Constitution of the USSR 1977 of the year ("Brezhnev") ... it's not difficult about to believe, it is enough to make a request through the archive, for example, here http://www.statearchive.ru/ to poke your face into the facts ... This is from the category of victims of repression ... if you are told about supposedly irrefutable documents, then demand a copy the original (with a seal, with a signature and an archive register) ... but in general there is only one single document, there are no more documents on this subject, you can safely spit in the face to someone who will tell you that there are a lot of documents about millions of Gulag prisoners. ..I will provide you a copy. Report to Khrushchev from the Ministry of Internal Affairs (declassified in 1993)
              1. Sharapov
                Sharapov 9 November 2015 18: 59 New
                -2
                The paper was laid out about nothing, besides, it seems to be "chipboard". The figures are all rounded, clearly "from the bulldozer." I tend to trust living witnesses, which is the father-in-law, and not scribbled reports. The text is typed, the numbers are handwritten.
                1. Saburov
                  Saburov 9 November 2015 20: 00 New
                  0
                  Quote: Sharapov
                  The paper was laid out about nothing, besides, it seems to be "chipboard". The figures are all rounded, clearly "from the bulldozer." I tend to trust living witnesses, which is the father-in-law, and not scribbled reports. The text is typed, the numbers are handwritten.


                  This is your right, but for example, I will not give you an example of one of my relatives who wound 25 years of total term for burglaries in 40-80 and said that under Stalin everyone was in charge, and Solzhenitsyn was not a sex snitch and a camp snitch not a single disciplinary sanction and having handed over all his associates, including his wife Reshetovskaya, and as for the document, I told you that you can make a request to the State Archive and see for yourself, there is also in the Main Archive of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, and through case records. To the truth, sometimes you have to dig deep, and sometimes it lies on the surface ... just someone is trying to thicken the colors so that we do not notice it.
        4. Darkness
          Darkness 9 November 2015 07: 14 New
          0
          Salary paid. Teachers materiel.
    2. lelyk72
      lelyk72 8 November 2015 12: 31 New
      +2
      "The first is Lenin's enormous capacity for work, just to read his works it took a lot of time, and they were also written ..." - and in order to write all this, you need to read a lot of literature, see a lot in life, rework all this (in head) and only then put it on paper.
      I absolutely agree with you, Agromadny labor. How one person could do this - I don’t understand.
      At the same time, the thought of possible "literary slaves" is brushed aside with indignation, only having arisen ...
      1. Sling cutter
        Sling cutter 8 November 2015 15: 35 New
        +4
        It is quite obvious that V.I. Lenin is the greatest politician, the heretic and philosophers of the world scale.
        The gentlemen who destroyed the USSR and turned the great state into a raw materials appendage have always said that in order to carry out a coup in the USSR, one must knock out the foundation in the person of Lenin and his teachings from under the country.
        And so it began .., at first they poured mud on the watered. activities, attributed everything and "German spyena" and concentration camps and terrible terror, etc. and so on, then they switched to a person and a syphilitic, and a polygamist ..., and for greater importance, Jewish roots ...
        And the "Yakovlevites" succeeded - the USSR was destroyed.
        Then, creating lawlessness, the "Yakovlevites" realized that the people's desire for socialism is extremely great, and especially for the Stalin period, they began to play their second act of a PR campaign about cannibalistic Bolsheviks, dividing Lenin and Stalin, driving into the minds of people the idea that that the theories of Lenin and Stalin are two opposites, that, allegedly, there are "early Stalin and Stalin" late and that Stalin and not a Bolshevik at all ...
        Over the past 30 years, so much slop has been poured on the founders of the USSR that, at times, one thinks that the people who invented them are completely sick or use "heavy" ones.
        But we must clearly understand that all these "inventors" are enemies, they are the followers of those who destroyed the empire, these are the followers of Dr. Goebbels and his colleague Dr. Yakovlev. And this theater continues and we are hammered into our heads with the idea that the restoration of the USSR is impossible ... but did any of the leaders tried to do this or was it a political will? no, no and NO! and in this sense it is absolutely clear that the names of Lenin and Stalin will continue to be poured with liberal mud, fooling the minds of the average man.
        And only telling the truth can you turn the tide.
        To author +
        1. Babr
          Babr 8 November 2015 15: 57 New
          0
          Quote: Stroporez
          that, allegedly, there are "early Stalin and Stalin" late and that Stalin

          I realized that these pebbles are in my garden.
          Yes, I think so. The unbeaten path has been traveled through trial and error.
          And only at the end, did the really rise in the well-being of the people begin.
          To quote Stalin, not understanding the processes taking place in the world, excuse me stupidly. tongue
          1. Sling cutter
            Sling cutter 8 November 2015 16: 50 New
            +2
            Quote: Babr
            I realized that these pebbles are in my garden.

            You are playing out megalomania lol
            Although I do not know your doctrine by hearsay ... but I consider it to be proposed as the dogma of our parties as a political mistake for the sake of a petty-bourgeois, or rather, opportunist ideology wink
            Quote: Babr
            Quote Stalin, not understanding the processes taking place in the world, sorry stupid
            heh ...
            Now find 10 differences from today!
            "Under capitalism, no enterprise can do without
            capital. The current coalition led by
            The government is the largest enterprise in Russia. Not one hour, not one
            minutes, it cannot exist without the appropriate capital. Special
            now, in a war of war requiring countless casualties. The question is:
            What capitals does the new (completely new!) Coalition intend to exist on?
            .
            The answer is clear. Coalition will exist on American billions, for
            which then the Russian workers and peasants will then have to puff off.
            Coalition Financing American Imperialist Bourgeoisie
            the Russian imperialist bourgeoisie (Milyukov!), the military (Kerensky!) and
            petty-bourgeois leaders, servile servants of the "living forces" of Russia (Tsereteli!)
            - here it is, a picture of the current situation.
            "Sympathy" of American capital for the Moscow Conference,
            backed by a five billion loan, isn’t this what the gentlemen sought
            convened a meeting?
            I.V. Stalin. ("American Billions" vol. 3 p. 233.)
            1. Babr
              Babr 8 November 2015 17: 26 New
              -1
              Quote: Stroporez
              You are playing out megalomania

              God forbid !! I’m modesty myself! Below grass, quieter than water. And I hate komunyak, unlike the communists. yes
              Quote: Stroporez
              Although I do not know your doctrine by hearsay ... but I consider it to be proposed as the dogma of our parties as a political mistake for the sake of a petty-bourgeois, or rather, opportunist ideology

              Trotsky is resting !!! (Do you know such a speaker?)
              Only me, and yours do not dance!
              Yes. I have my own beliefs. As one of the fellow soldiers said, to whom all the same (in private conversation) you have a full cup, and there’s no point in pouring something there. tongue
              Shed by.
              1. Sling cutter
                Sling cutter 8 November 2015 17: 40 New
                +1
                Quote: Babr
                you have a full cup, and it makes no sense to pour something there, it makes no sense.

                just you have a drink and repeat laughing
                1. Babr
                  Babr 8 November 2015 17: 46 New
                  +1
                  Quote: Stroporez
                  Quote: Babr
                  you have a full cup, and it makes no sense to pour something there, it makes no sense.

                  just you have a drink and repeat laughing

                  I would be glad. I do not drink. lol
              2. The comment was deleted.
  3. Bator
    Bator 8 November 2015 06: 55 New
    21
    According to a certificate prepared in February 1954 by Prosecutor General R. Rudenko, Minister of Internal Affairs S. Kruglov and Minister of Justice K. Gorshenin, for the period from 1921 to February 1, 1954 he was convicted of counterrevolutionary crimes by the OGPU collegium, “triples »By the NKVD, by the Special Meeting, the Military College, the courts and military tribunals of 3 people, including 777 people were sentenced to death. This is for thirty-one years. This is the end of the Civil War, this is the era after it. This is four years of a terrible war with Hitler. This is the period after the Second World War. This is a fight against gangs of Bandera and forest brothers. This includes Berry and Yezhov, and other bloody executioners. Here are the traitors of Vlasov. Here are deserters and looters. Self-shooters. Alarmists. Participants in the gangster underground. Nazi accomplices who shed blood. This is the "Leninist Guard", which destroyed a great country to the joy of the enemies of Russia. Here Zinoviev and Kamenev. Trotskyists in this number. Figures of the Comintern. Traitor and traitor Tukhachevsky, who was about to arrange a military coup. The executioner Bela Kun, thousands of drowning officers in the Crimea with stones on their necks. A multifaceted figure, polysyllabic.
    If you divide the total number of executed by the number of years, you get less than 22 people a year. A lot of? Of course. But let’s not forget what years it was. And there are no tens of millions executed. This is exactly a deliberate lie. Remember this figure: 642 people. That was. This must be known and remembered.
    1. Basil50
      Basil50 8 November 2015 12: 06 New
      +6
      The numbers given by you are even more surprising in comparison with similar figures of England (metropolis) or the USA. No wonder some figures are classified there, and in America convicts for vagrancy and some other criminal articles are transferred to the category of social protection, these are those that were sent to hard labor and built as convicts including the Hoover Dam. The reports of those killed at this construction site were erased and the number of victims was much smaller. This is not about racial * segregation * and other manifestations of slavery, but the amazing thing was the lights of * democracy * and all sorts of truth-seekers and champions of the ideals of freedom fled there.
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. The comment was deleted.
    4. MrK
      MrK 8 November 2015 19: 15 New
      +5
      The executioner Bela Kun, thousands of drowning officers in the Crimea with stones on their necks.

      Dear Bator. You seem to be a left-wing person, and repeat the stupid thoughts of the liberals.
      I will quote from Alexander Kurlyandchik's book "The Cursed Soviet Power" ... Maybe it will help you understand your mistake.

      After the liberation of Crimea from Wrangel troops, according to the democratic scribes, it was chopped up with drafts and drowned in barges from 60 000 to 80 000 White Guard officers. Remember N. Mikhalkov’s film “Sunstroke”. A certain Zinaida Borisova, the head of the Samara House-Museum, MV Frunze, claimed that the Bolsheviks had drowned white officers in the Crimea - 200 000. “These officers were executed in a terrible way,” says the woman. “They were built on the seashore, each hung a stone on his neck and shot in the back of the head.” Imagine a picture - 200 of thousands of people (the same population of the city) were built on the seashore and everyone needs to tie a stone to his neck and shoot him in the back of the head. This is how many people need to be involved in this, how many ropes, ropes, etc. need to prepare for hanging stones. And what kind of psyche you need to have in order to shoot so many people.
      And so as not to be unfounded, let us turn to the book of Baron P.N. Wrangel's Notes (November 1916 - November 1920) in two books. And in chapter IX "Everything on Wrangel" of his second book P.N. Wrangel notes: “By September 1, our forces did not surpass 25 000 bayonets and 8000 checkers. And in Crimea, for the prepared fortifications, even a smaller number of the military personnel of our troops managed to retreat. ” Well, let's say 30 000 backtracked. If each officer in the subordination had at least four to five soldiers, it turns out that in Crimea there were about 6 000 white officers. Total!!!
      Of course they were shot. How many? I suppose a hundred, another, whose hands were up to the elbow in blood. Otherwise, where did the thousands of white officers come from in Turkey, Bulgaria, Korea, China, France, the USA, and around the world. Let me remind you that on all fronts (ON ALL) in the white army fought only 40 000 officers (TOTAL).
      That's about it, and anti-Soviet "black" myths are composed! And seemingly respectable people with advanced degrees.
      1. Severomor
        Severomor 8 November 2015 22: 14 New
        +3
        Let me remind you that on all fronts (ON ALL) in the white army, only 40 officers fought (TOTAL).


        Dear, they will not be able to respond normally to you, the logic and statistics are not in their competence! Throatism is YES!
      2. The comment was deleted.
  4. Bator
    Bator 8 November 2015 06: 56 New
    20
    About the allegedly repressed command staff of the Red Army from May 1937 to September 1939 in the amount of 40 thousand people. It was such a round figure that the Spark magazine (No. 26, 1986) called for the first time, followed by Moskovskiye Novosti and others. Where did this figure come from? But from where.
    The fact is that on May 5, 1940, the head of the Main Directorate of Personnel of the People’s Commissariat of Defense, Lieutenant General E. Shchadenko, presented to Stalin a “Report on the work of the department” for 1939. It said that for 1937-1939. from the ranks of the Red Army 36898 commanders FIRED. Of these, 1937 people were laid off in 18. (658% of the headcount of the commanding and political personnel), in 13,1 1938 people were laid off. (16%), in 362 9,2 people were laid off. (1939%).
    The motives were as follows: 1) by age; 2) for health reasons; 3) for disciplinary offenses; 4) for moral instability; 5) were fired for political reasons 19 106 (of which, after complaints filed and checks made, 9247 were reinstated in 1938-1939); 6) was arrested, that is, repressed, there were 9579 people of the commanders (of which 1457 was restored in 1938-1939).
    Thus, the number of officers arrested in 1937-1939's. (no air force and fleet), is 8122 people. (3% of the total number of teams on 1939). Of these, 70 was sentenced to be shot, 17 was shot - mostly the highest, for example, two out of five marshals (Tukhachevsky for organizing a Trotskyist military plot, Egorov for participating in espionage, preparing terrorist acts and participating in a candidate organization), also One Marshal Blucher was arrested for involvement in the military-fascist conspiracy, which led to unreasonable losses and the deliberate failure of the operation on Lake Hassan, but died in prison. Also for similar highly dangerous crimes 5 from 9 commanders of 1 rank (Belov, Yakir, Uborevich, Fedko, Frinovsky) and other representatives of the “fifth column” were shot.
    “... The Wehrmacht just betrayed me, I perish at the hands of their own generals. Stalin committed a brilliant act by arranging a purge in the Red Army and getting rid of rotten aristocracy "(from the interview of A. Hitler to the journalist K. Shpeydel in late April 1945)
  5. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 8 November 2015 08: 18 New
    +5
    A very important publication. Especially in the sense that it is written at present. Many thanks to the author! Happy November 7!
  6. Gray 43
    Gray 43 8 November 2015 08: 40 New
    +8
    As soon as our media, in the 90s, did not describe Lenin and his death ?! Of course it's safe to kick a dead lion .....
  7. Dimy4
    Dimy4 8 November 2015 10: 26 New
    0
    In the carbonaceous years of Gorbachev's perestroika, cries of all sorts of "predictors" and "seers" were heard - as soon as you remove Lenin's mausoleum and the mausoleum with him, we will immediately live.
  8. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 8 November 2015 10: 44 New
    0
    I often get the idea that nothing can be hushed up in History, but, unfortunately, it is difficult to formulate a huge historical material. I will try to explain with reference to a person: Country = person.
    A person has such periods of life:
    1) Before birth (lives 9 months inside the mother)
    2) Birth
    3) Infancy
    4) Preschool childhood
    5) School childhood
    6) The teenage period
    7) Growing up, etc.
    God has decreed that all people remember themselves from the preschool period. Previous ones are not given to remember. Imagine what will happen if you take away from a person knowledge not only about individual events, but also about the whole period of his life? , and maybe hard. Also, the history of the Country: you can not be ashamed, groan or cross out.
  9. waiting in
    waiting in 8 November 2015 10: 47 New
    0
    Was Lenin sick with syphilis, or is it a fake of the 90s? Who can say for sure?
    1. washi
      washi 8 November 2015 11: 32 New
      -2
      Quote: varnak
      Was Lenin sick with syphilis, or is it a fake of the 90s? Who can say for sure?

      Do you have your own brains?
      Let them have a purely platonic relationship with Krupskaya and Armand. Then with whom else did he cheat with them? And the named syphilis did not have.
      Pick up household? then we wouldn’t have heard about many of VIL’s comrades-in-arms (to see a little with Trotsky he pledged)
      1. Bijo
        Bijo 8 November 2015 23: 20 New
        -6
        Quote: Vasya
        Let them have a purely platonic relationship with Krupskaya and Armand. Then with whom else did he cheat with them? And the named syphilis did not have.
        Pick up household? then we wouldn’t have heard about many of VIL’s comrades-in-arms (to see a little with Trotsky he pledged)

        With Zinoviev in a hut, with Leiba he could pick up, there is a version - Lenin is a homosexual, I can not judge, but there is a lot of information on this topic in the internet.
      2. waiting in
        waiting in 9 November 2015 11: 42 New
        0
        Quote: Vasya
        Let them have a purely platonic relationship with Krupskaya and Armand. Then with whom else did he cheat with them?

        Those. Ilyich never with anyone? Appassionata .... :)))
  10. gattus
    gattus 8 November 2015 11: 11 New
    +2
    "Revolutions are conceived by idealists, carried out by romantics, and the state is being built by pragmatists." This happened in the USSR. Romantics should not be allowed to power - the experience of mankind testifies to this. Robespierres, Dantons, Lumumbas ...
  11. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 8 November 2015 11: 49 New
    +2
    I explain to the one who set (-) It is impossible to cross out and blame Lenin, Stalin and the whole Soviet Time. But one cannot but know about the Heroes of World War I. Everything should be known and accepted without any stupid repentance and shame. The past has no subjunctive mood.
    And who put (-) means there are no arguments for the scientific community.
    Nothing personal, this is not the 1st and not the last (-) with me.
  12. unknown
    unknown 8 November 2015 12: 02 New
    -17
    The very phrase "Vladimir Ilyich Lenin" appeared in 1920 in the work of M. Gorky.

    Until this time, both domestic and western sources featured Nikolai Lenin, aka Karpov.

    The image of Nikolai Lenin is well known, this is the so-called "Lenin in makeup".

    When analyzing the available photographs of "Lenin", forensic scientists came to the conclusion that at least four people appear under the name of Lenin.

    The real leader of the October Zionist coup was Leiba Davydovich Bronstein, aka Trotsky.
    He arrived from the United States on a ship along with 300 Zionists, among whom was Nikolai Lenin.
    Boris Reinstein was responsible for the ideological support in Russia; most of the so-called "Leninist" works belong to him.
    1. Saratoga833
      Saratoga833 8 November 2015 14: 47 New
      +3
      Honey, where did you get these passages from the scraps?
    2. Sling cutter
      Sling cutter 8 November 2015 14: 54 New
      +4
      Quote: ignoto
      Until this time, both domestic and western sources featured Nikolai Lenin, aka Karpov.

      Well, what can I say? belay
      It is not clear where you come from ....
    3. Baloo
      Baloo 8 November 2015 17: 56 New
      +2
      ignoto The real leader of the October Zionist revolution was Leiba Davydovich Bronstein, aka Trotsky.
      He arrived from the United States on a ship along with 300 Zionists, among whom was Nikolai Lenin.


      Three times ha ha ha. Are you by any chance Alexander Suvorov or B. Akunin?
    4. Baloo
      Baloo 8 November 2015 17: 56 New
      0
      ignoto The real leader of the October Zionist revolution was Leiba Davydovich Bronstein, aka Trotsky.
      He arrived from the United States on a ship along with 300 Zionists, among whom was Nikolai Lenin.


      Three times ha ha ha. Are you by any chance Alexander Suvorov or B. Akunin?
    5. nail
      nail 10 November 2015 23: 54 New
      0
      Yes, I made you laugh.
  13. RUSS
    RUSS 8 November 2015 12: 08 New
    -16
    Burn in hell dog Lenin!
    1. Bijo
      Bijo 8 November 2015 23: 33 New
      -6
      Quote: RUSS
      Burn in hell dog Lenin!

      Let it be so! Lenin, a schizophrenic sadist seized power, a killer of millions of Russian people, a passive homosexual syphilitic.
  14. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 8 November 2015 12: 21 New
    -2
    About syphilis. There were programs on TV, Channel 365 and Historical about syphilis. But as I understand it, these are some kind of hereditary phenomena. And not a real illness acquired by Lenin himself. At that time it was often. At first thought Purishkevich and Kerensky were treated, somewhere it was mentioned. But I can’t cite the sources. That is, when they write about sulfuric ointment, some mercury preparations are a treatment for syphilis. Also, the mention of a certain doctor (surname) pre-revolutionary also speaks about this.
    By the way, I thought that Lenin’s life, chronology, are documents about everything. About doctors and specific medicines - nothing. And the link? And abroad? Do not hide the treatment. I still think that it is some kind of investigative complications. Although the doctor can, probably, can call it other, medical terms.
    1. Baloo
      Baloo 8 November 2015 19: 31 New
      0
      There was no one syphilis, this was shown by relevant studies.
      The German professor simply knew little. There was a bullet that crushed the common carotid artery, which was the reason for the remaining irreversible processes. There were metabolic disturbances caused by psycho-emotional stress hormonal changes. Learn the materiel.
    2. Uncle Joe
      Uncle Joe 9 November 2015 00: 54 New
      +2
      Quote: Reptiloid
      That is, when they write about sulfuric ointment, some mercury preparations are a treatment for syphilis
      http://wiki.istmat.info/%D0%BC%D0%B8%D1%84:%D0%BB%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%BD_%D1%83
      %D0%BC%D0%B5%D1%80_%D0%BE%D1%82_%D1%81%D0%B8%D1%84%D0%B8%D0%BB%D0%B8%D1%81%D0%B0
  15. RUSS
    RUSS 8 November 2015 12: 29 New
    -13
    The first in the new "dynasty"
  16. Jan Rudzutak
    Jan Rudzutak 8 November 2015 13: 29 New
    +2
    The article as a whole is correct, although simplified. Stalin had a very hard time !! And his position to be called stable will be wrong! And he threatened with a remnant and spoke out against bloodthirsty sentences. The entries are all already published. But seeing what kind of audience he was dealing with, he realized that he himself could expect the same fate, because the revolutionaries who wanted to rekindle a world fire and throw Russia into the firebox as logs and sit out in Switzerland themselves were stopped by Stalin !!! By the way, Stalin’s power only strengthened after 1934, and Tukhachevsky was still ahead!
  17. holgert
    holgert 8 November 2015 14: 53 New
    +2
    Thank you VO --- a good article. We look forward to continuing ..... V.I. Lenin will be able to correctly evaluate only in a few years, that way in 100 ----- today there are still too many emotions.
  18. pilot bin-bom
    pilot bin-bom 8 November 2015 17: 52 New
    -1
    Comrade Lenin said that if ninety percent of Russians die, he will consider this a justifiable victim in the name of the victory of world communism.
    So the question is, did anyone read Levashov's book “Curved Mirrors”? And what is most interesting - not a single Jew could refute this work. By the way, each page gives a link to a reliable literary source.
    So excerpt from the book:
    So why is the revolution in Russia called the Great Russian Revolution, if it was theoretically justified by the Jews, they were practically brought to life with money, again, mainly, American Jews? The last part of this money - twenty million dollars, was delivered to Russia in August 1917 by a Jew of nationality born in the Russian Empire, an American citizen - Lev (Leiba) Trotsky (Bronstein). It was with this enormous money, at that time, for American gold of the “ally” of Russia, PERSONS OF JEWISH NATIONALITY HIRED LATSKY SHOOTERS, CHINESE CRIMINALS, WHICH TOGETHER WITH JEWISH MILITERS DONE THE GREAT GREAT. At the same time, overthrowing the Provisional Government, again led by the Jew Kerensky. So, what is Russian in all this except the name?
    After the victory of the “Great Russian Revolution” and the destruction of the color of the Russian nation, the new JEWISH RULES starved to death TWENTY MILLION PEASANTS (war communism, surplus appropriation) by artificial hunger. In addition, the strong peasant was ANNOUNCED by the FIST and ... FIVE MILLION more people were suddenly robbed and thrown out of their homes and in what was on them, they were sent to Siberia. These "voluntary immigrants" were sent to live not in finished cottages in comfortable settlements, but in nature, in an open field, or rather in the virgin taiga.
    1. E. Sutton, “Wall Street and the Bolshevik Revolution.” ISBN: 978-5-98404-008-2 (“Wall Street and the Bolshevik Revolution” by Antony C. Sutton, 1974, Buccaneer Book, Inc., Cutchogue, NY, ISBN 0-89968-324-X).
    1. vassa
      vassa 8 November 2015 20: 59 New
      +1
      Well done, say it right .. Only here you’ll get the cons, they don’t like the truth with us. I also think that you can’t embellish the story - that was what happened. And his girlfriend was wonderful - the Peasant, this one who drowned several thousand prisoners by barges. With particular pleasure. About this and Pushkov repeatedly told, and Mikhalkov made a film according to I. Bunin. Lenin (Blank) did not work a day in his life. He lived for some incomprehensible reason, ate in restaurants, well, liked to eat tasty food, loved to visit foreign countries for money, London, Paris, Rome, especially Geneva. He had meetings there were ... Well, these are just the facts. Then you can think out for yourself.
      You have to be a PATRIOT, guys. BUT NOT A URA-PATRIOT, like so many here.
      1. Severomor
        Severomor 8 November 2015 22: 23 New
        +1
        , and Mikhalkov made the film according to I. Bunin.
        this 5 !!!!

        Studying the story according to Mikhalkov is great !!!

        Probably your children will watch the historical film "Citadel Tired by the Sun 2", and you will watch with affection.
        PS And how many barges sank? Well, not according to Mikhalkovsi, but according to the facts ???
      2. The comment was deleted.
      3. Bayonet
        Bayonet 9 November 2015 03: 50 New
        +1
        Quote: vassa
        Only here you will put the cons, they do not like the truth with us

        Because everyone had their own truth - "Pravda", "Komsomolskaya Pravda", "Pionerskaya Pravda" and many other "truths." The collection of newspapers in the title of which contains the word "Pravda", collected by Novosibirsk citizen Alexander Lutkovsky, is included in the Russian edition Guinness Book of Records. It contains more than 580 newspapers from all over the former USSR and 11 foreign countries. wink
  19. Basil50
    Basil50 8 November 2015 18: 55 New
    +1
    Villains are never ashamed to spread nasty things and outright lies, they always refer to someone’s * works * or opinion. After all, following the opinion already held seems to be in a pack and there is no need to strain. Even simple logic chains are ignored. How many rubbish and villains openly work out the orders of enemies, servility is already the basis of ideology. Even knowing that they never lie, they just become more aggressive.
    IN AND LENIN with a party of Bolsheviks saved RUSSIA from fragmentation, later AND IN STALIN and the Communists already saved humanity from Nazism. The only fault AND IN STALIN and the party that they believed too * the words of repentance * and did not punish the renegades in all the strictness of the law.
    1. vassa
      vassa 8 November 2015 21: 04 New
      -3
      If I write about my family, this is not disgusting and lies. "Lenin saved Russia from fragmentation" by subscribing Odessa to Ukraine near the Black Sea. In theory, now Putin is correcting what the Bolsheviks have done.
  20. Nikolay K
    Nikolay K 8 November 2015 19: 40 New
    -5
    Lenin was a great idealist, but at the same time progmatic to the extreme degree of cynicism. On the one hand, he apparently sincerely believed in the possibility of realizing the ideas of a socially just state. On the other hand, he was ready to sacrifice anything, millions of human lives for the sake of implementing his own plans. Nevertheless, he had the strength to admit his mistakes and, in fact, abandon his original views, heading for a new economic policy. Unfortunately, many underestimate the role and importance of the NEP, considering it a temporary retreat, we can say the weakness of the Soviet regime. In my opinion, the NEP has become Leninist insight, an awareness of the utopianism of the original idea of ​​building a socialist state. In fact, the NEP returned to the population economic freedom and ownership of the means of production, i.e. essentially returned the country to a capitalist model of management, but under the leadership of a new political elite. Actually, China has recently been taking the same path. Stalin rightly spoke of the NEP as a step backward in implementing the idea of ​​building a socialist state. Alas, Stalin refused to implement Leninist ideas and curtailed a new economic policy. The country once again embarked on a social experiment that ended in nothing after 60 years
    1. vassa
      vassa 8 November 2015 20: 52 New
      0
      By the way, Lenin (Blank) did not work a day in his life. He lived for some reason, ate in restaurants, well, he liked to eat tasty food, he loved to visit obscure countries for some money, London, Paris, Rome, especially Geneva. He was there ... Well, these are just the facts. Then you can think out for yourself.
      1. Bijo
        Bijo 8 November 2015 23: 45 New
        -3
        Quote: vassa
        He visited abroad, London, Paris, Rome, he especially liked Geneva. He had meetings there ... Well, these are just the facts. Then you can think out for yourself.

        I hung out in rented huts there with Clara Zetken and Rosa Luxemburg, Karl Liebknecht was also present there. By the way, the ladies are "notable" group sex and one poured the other with her son wink
    2. waiting in
      waiting in 9 November 2015 11: 30 New
      +1
      Quote: Nikolai K
      Alas, Stalin refused to implement Leninist ideas and curtailed a new economic policy. The country again embarked on a social experiment that ended in 60 years

      But in what form would the country then meet the 41st? How is a petty-bourgeois, agrarian republic without heavy industry, without a base on which later 50000 t-34s were launched?
  21. Severomor
    Severomor 8 November 2015 22: 35 New
    +1
    Quote: vassa
    Well, these are just facts. Then you can think out for yourself.


    Why are you bothering? He has only 2 years under the USSR. What next?

    AND ONE WAS A CREATOR !!!!

    “We are 50-100 years behind advanced countries. We must make good this distance in ten years. Either we do this, or they will crush us ”(Stalin IV, Works, vol. 13, p. 38 -39).

    On May 6, 1941 he was appointed chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (since 1946 - chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR)

    June 30, 1941 - Chairman of the State Defense Committee (GKO), July 19 - Commissar of Defense of the USSR,
    August 8 - Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces of the USSR.

    they like to leave the Red Army without the CHIEF COMMANDER
  22. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 8 November 2015 22: 42 New
    +1
    Quote: Balu
    There was no one syphilis, this was shown by relevant studies.
    The German professor simply knew little. There was a bullet that crushed the common carotid artery, which was the reason for the remaining irreversible processes. There were metabolic disturbances caused by psycho-emotional stress hormonal changes. Learn the materiel.

    You didn’t bring any sources. I read Semashko’s memoirs about Lenin’s brain. Long ago. Semashko couldn’t explain the situation like other doctors. Also, Ankylosing spondylitis on TV could not explain. Later on TV it was about progressive atherosclerosis. Lenin’s expenses in exile and abroad There were no suspicious expenses for the treatment of syphilis, as well as the disease itself. Alexander had some strange hereditary phenomena. We are talking about the fact that V. I. Lenin had signs of cerebrovascular accident from his youth, one of these symptoms was early baldness. The disease went in such a form (it became visible after the autopsy) that it was surprising that Lenin had written so many works and that he had such a wonderful memory. The bullet was much later. The hypotheses about the health of the Ulyanov brothers all the time were different. I already stopped reading them.
  23. Bijo
    Bijo 9 November 2015 00: 20 New
    -5
    Lenin is from a non-Russian family, "mowed" like a Russian, his brother was in the officially recognized terrorist organization "Narodnaya Volya", Lenin is the same terrorist as Doku Umarov, for example. one came to power and the other did not. Both are terrorists who hate Russia and the Russian people. If it were not for the victory of the "Russian" part of the VKPB headed by Stalin over the "Jewish" one with Trotsky - Kamenev, Russia would have been a khan. I have already given this photo, admire two "doves" singing "lived with a grandmother"
  24. Uncle Joe
    Uncle Joe 9 November 2015 01: 01 New
    +4
    As a result, two years after the death of Lenin, two of his three closest associates - Trotsky and Zinoviev-will lose their former influence, and Stalin will come close to the sole leadership in the country and the party.
    Article minus.

    Trotsky unites everyone who cares about any ideological decay; everyone who does not care about the defense of Marxism; all the townsfolk who do not understand why the struggle is and do not want to learn, think, seek out the ideological roots of the divergence "
    V. Lenin T.20 p .46

    Trotsky knows perfectly well that the liquidators in legal publications precisely combine the slogan “freedom of coalitions” with the slogan: Down with the illegal party, down with the struggle for the republic. Trotsky’s task is to cover up liquidationism by throwing sand in the eyes of the workers.
    Trotsky cannot be argued on the merits, for he has no views. One can and must argue with convinced liquidators and otzovists, but they don’t argue with a person who plays in the guise of mistakes and both: they expose him as a ... diplomat of the smallest test.
    V. Lenin T.21 p .31

    Trotsky arrived, and this scoundrel immediately sniffed with the right wing of the Novy Mir against the left Zimmerwaldists !! So that!! That's Trotsky !! Always equal to himself = wagging, cheating, posing like the left, helping the right while he can ...
    V. Lenin T.49 p .390
    1. Sling cutter
      Sling cutter 9 November 2015 01: 31 New
      +2
      Quote: Uncle Joe
      Uncle Joe

      Cool quotes! good Respect ..
      Unfortunately, I missed ... hi
    2. nail
      nail 11 November 2015 00: 08 New
      0
      Convincing sampling. We need to study more deeply. Thank.
  25. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 9 November 2015 02: 25 New
    +1
    There was a program about that at some point, they began to seize people’s photos of the family and Lenin himself. If they found out (??) that someone had something, employees came and took it away. .The images of the family, Alexander, Vladimir immediately after the Revolution began to mythologize. So this photo is miraculously preserved. In the paintings of the artists, the Ulyanov brothers look different than in life.
    In general, this has always happened in history, in painting.
  26. k174oun7
    k174oun7 10 October 2016 18: 02 New
    0
    The great disgrace on the part of the Bolsheviks was unjustified repression against the church, mainly the Orthodox. Knowing that Dzhugashvili and some other Bolshevik leaders studied in theological educational institutions, they could not help but understand that they affect the deepest feelings of most people. And this is not forgotten. Stalin, to some extent, tried to correct the injustice.
    Nowadays, looking around you, you suddenly notice that almost the only thing that has remained Russian in both form and content is the Russian Orthodox Church.