Military Review

From quadcopters to unmanned aircraft

From quadcopters to unmanned aircraft

The most interesting drones of the exhibition "Interpolitech-2015"

A characteristic sign of our time was the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for solving a wide range of tasks. A whole galaxy of new drones debuted at the XIX International exhibition of means of ensuring the security of the state and the individual Interpolitex-2015.

Unmanned aerial vehicles, or drones (English drone - drone), depending on weight, time and altitude, are divided into classes: micro (up to 10 kg, up to 1 hour, up to 1 km), mini (up to 50 kg, a few hours, to 3 – 5 km), midi (up to 1000 kg, 10 – 12 hours, up to 9 – 10 km) and heavy (flight altitude up to 20 km, flight time - 24 and more hours).

The Russian company NELK presented already well-known and new developments. Among the first ones, the airborne reconnaissance complex based on a helicopter-type UAV (NELK-V6) and an experimental vertical-take-off device with an on-board power plant based on fuel cells (NELK-V8) should be noted.

NELK-B6 is designed to solve a complex of tasks in the interests of law enforcement agencies and civilian agencies. With an take-off (own) mass of 7 (up to 3), a kg of a UAV can fly at altitudes up to 500 m, traveling up to 10 km for about 40 minutes. NELK-V8 with an onboard power plant on low-temperature fuel cells with take-off weight up to 12 kg with a target load 3 kg can solve problems at speeds up to 50 km / h at a similar altitude during 12 hours.

The premieres of the manufacturer were airborne reconnaissance and radar detection systems based on aerial and helicopter-type UAVs. So, an unmanned aircraft "NELK-С3" weighing up to 2,5 kg with an electric motor at speed 70 – 120 km / h can operate at altitudes up to 3000 m for up to 60 minutes. The “Rotor” rotor weighing up to 3 kg is equipped with a radar, which provides round-the-clock radar reconnaissance of the terrain and mobile objects at a distance of up to 10 km with the transmission of information about them over the radio channel for removal to 5 km. A UAV with a speed of up to 50 km / h, when equipped with an onboard power plant, can fly at altitudes up to 1500 m for 5 hours.

At the same time, multifunctional systems - aircraft-type and helicopter-type UAVs equipped with electric engines - can, depending on their characteristics, carry out photo, video or thermal imaging ("Griffin-02") and 3D-terrain mapping ( “Gryphon-11”, “Gryphon-12”) at a distance of 15 – 90 km for up to 3 hours. The more modest copters, the Griffon-41 and Griffon-07, are capable of performing similar tasks at a distance of 5 – 15 km within 30 – 60 minutes.

The heavy-duty aircraft class Kaira aircraft, demonstrated by RTI Aerospace Systems LLC, provides monitoring of ice conditions, fish stocks, gas and oil pipelines, power transmission lines, high-risk facilities, as well as aerial photography and mineral exploration. To transmit information complex "Kaira" is equipped with satellite radio. Possessing a mass up to 1500 kg, it can fly at speeds up to 300 km / h at altitudes up to 8000 m and with a payload on board in 230 kg can be airborne for up to 35 hours.

Remote observation complexes with UAV of the Pomegranate series were presented by Izhmash - Unmanned Systems. These are portable and transportable variants with the “Granat-1-E” and “Granat-4-E” UAVs (supplied for the needs of the Ministry of Defense), as well as the Takhion UAV complex. According to the developer, the latter is designed for round-the-clock information gathering in hard-to-reach conditions at a distance of up to 40 km, remote detection of moving and stationary objects, including a person, as well as relaying information and control signals. With a take-off mass of up to 7, kg BLAH can operate at altitudes up to 4000 m at speeds of up to 100 km / h for at least 2 hours. Under direct visibility conditions, the application radius is at least 40 km.

According to company spokesperson Yevgeny Zaitsev, at the end of 2015, the test of the Granat-5 UAV convertible plane of vertical take-off and landing will begin. A unit weighing 7 kg, which can carry the load up to 1 kg, is created for the special forces of the Navy. A convertible with rotary engines operating in both helicopter and airplane modes is planned to be offered to troops in the 2016 year.

Osa unmanned aerial vehicle at the Interpolitex-2015 international exhibition of state security equipment in Moscow. Photo: Vladimir Astapkovich / RIA News

The representative of the geodesy department Alexander Kostritsa spoke about the latest initiative development of ZALA Aero Group “Russian Planet”. According to him, the UAV under the code name 421-Е5 is intended for monitoring large areas in emergency zones, patrolling and solving other tasks. A drone with a wingspan of 5 m can carry up to 5 kg of payload and fly for 7 hours at a distance of up to 150 km at altitudes of 1000 m and above. The device has already attracted the attention of specialists EMERCOM, the Ministry of Defense and the Border Service of the Federal Security Service of Russia.

In turn, the Russian Emergency Situations Ministry presented the UAV of an Aerob A2V type aircraft with a case in the form of a pipe, inside of which an electric motor with batteries and a payload is located on a sliding platform. According to Vitaly Kovynev, the deputy director of Aerobe, the design ensures a quick load change and the replacement of batteries. UAVs with a take-off weight of 6,5 kg at speeds up to 120 km / h can operate at altitudes and distances in 50 – 150 m and up to 50 km, respectively, for 3 hours. The device is able to fly automatically on a certain route and return to a given point.

Another unmanned aircraft - BS-103 vertical takeoff and landing - made in the form of a convertoplane with a body made of composite materials. As Sergey Alexandrov, Chief Designer of Record-Electronics OJSC, explained, the device weighing up to 11 kg is capable of carrying 1,3 kg of payload. Helicopter and airplane flight times are 30 and up to 150 minutes, respectively, and the horizontal speed at altitudes 300 – 2000 m can reach 80 – 100 km / h. According to Aleksandrov, it is planned to increase the flight altitude to 3000 – 5000 m, the payload to 3 kg, as well as the time of “freezing” at one point. The choice of such a scheme is due to the demand for UAVs, which are capable of independently take off and land in unequipped places without additional devices. At present, there are no analogues of the chosen scheme, according to the designer, in Russia.

Lucien Marcellet spoke about the latest French tactical vehicles at the PIK PIK Company booth. Helicopter-type “Osa” UAV with two coaxial rotors with own weight up to 16 kg can carry 15 kg of payload and fly at altitudes and distances up to 80 m and 3000 (25) km, respectively, at speeds up to 120 km / h respectively in remote control mode (offline). The UAV is equipped with a unique gas turbine engine with minimal noise.

Meanwhile, the Kite aircraft with a pusher propeller and a body made of composite materials can be used both in unmanned and manned modes. With a weight of 550 kg “Kite” with a speed of 340 km / h, it is able to carry 250 kg of payload (or 2 pilots) to a distance of up to 1200 km and operate at altitudes up to 6800 m.

A whole family of drones aviation complexes with UAVs of the "Busel" type were shown by the Physicotechnical Institute of the National Academy of Sciences (FTI NAS) of Belarus. Aircraft-type devices weighing 6-14 kg at a speed of 40-120 km / h can stay in the air for 60-150 minutes and conduct video monitoring from an altitude of 1500-5000 m at ranges of 20-50 km, while a long-range UAV of the Burevestnik type »Can observe the terrain and moving objects with the transmission of information at a distance of up to 300 km. With a mass of 180-300 kg and a flight speed of 80-220 km / h, they are capable of functioning at altitudes of 200-5000 m for 4-10 hours.

SEC "Yurion" showed a UAV - a repeater for radio communications, created by radio engineers. With a mass of 3,5 kg, it can carry a payload weighing up to 530 g. The device is capable of operating at altitudes 60 – 3000 m with a speed of 70 – 120 km / h for 45 minutes.

Among other UAVs, the Aeroxo Era-100 UAV and fan-type vertical take-off and landing UAV OMV deserve attention. The first is a convertoplane with a take-off mass of 18 / 25 kg, which can act at a speed of 150 – 200 km / h to a range of up to 120 (1000) km on batteries (with a generator) for up to 48 hours. The UAV drones of the new generation air family are distinguished by a combination of high payload and long flight duration. They are compact, quickly brought into working condition, are characterized by increased maneuverability and ease of management.

In short, domestic interesting new products have been shown a great variety. Denis Fedutinov, a specialist in the field of unmanned aerial systems, believes that the tendency of foreign UAVs to move in Russia under domestic brands, which appeared several years ago, has disappeared today. The current geopolitical situation, he said, has contributed to an increase in the number of its developments in this area. According to Fedutinov’s forecast, now cooperation with foreign developers of UAVs will move, rather, towards a deep localization of the production of their vehicles here and the transfer of technology within the framework of this cooperation.

Repeater STC Yurion. Photo: Anatoly Sokolov / "Russian Planet"
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  1. Alex_Rarog
    Alex_Rarog 8 November 2015 06: 54
    Good luck to all domestic developers, we must become the best ...
    1. NEXUS
      NEXUS 8 November 2015 19: 10
      Quote: Alex_Rarog
      Good luck to all domestic developers, we must become the best ...

      We owe it to us, but the Americans are already planting a V-47V strike UAV on an aircraft carrier. We would rather re-equip the Yak-130 and make an attack UAV with good armament, as we intended.
    2. Andriuha077
      Andriuha077 9 November 2015 16: 20
      BS-103 vertical takeoff and landing in the form of a convertoplan
    3. The comment was deleted.
  2. Filxnumx
    Filxnumx 8 November 2015 09: 13
    A large number of exhibitors are definitely happy: we are not standing still moving forward. However, diversity is somewhat annoying; in the army, diversity is dangerous and costly: you need a universal or quasi-universal flying (and crawling does not hurt) platform, but it is not there yet. One center near Kolomna is not enough to conduct military tests of all these models.
    1. lelikas
      lelikas 8 November 2015 11: 29
      And there are no "heavy", shock UAVs.
      1. opus
        opus 8 November 2015 13: 12
        Quote: Fil743
        One center near Kolomna is not enough to hold troop testing all of these models.

        Quote: lelikas
        And there are no "heavy", shock UAVs.

        "INTERPOLITEX - 2015" is the International Exhibition of Security Equipment state security.
        Roughly speaking, police news

        Organizers - Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, FSB of Russia, FSVTS of Russia.

        The Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia considers the International Exhibition of Security Means of the State of INTERPOLITECH as the Main Exhibition, conducted in the interests of the law enforcement bodies of the Russian Federation.

        What "shock" and heavy ", what" military "? (/ The Ministry of Internal Affairs has its own training ground, in my opinion," Kadamovsky ".)
        1. The comment was deleted.
        2. mitrich
          mitrich 8 November 2015 18: 18
          So anyway, there are no heavy and shock drums and is not yet in sight. In Syria, Central Asia and the Caucasus, they are just as needed to work on moving integers in real time. And this is all so modeled pioneer mug. And the prices, I think, are considerable.
  3. surrozh
    surrozh 8 November 2015 09: 29
    Quantity should grow into quality and this is good news. Commercials can also get to a flying aircraft carrier (just like in "Marvel").
  4. GOgaRu
    GOgaRu 8 November 2015 11: 18
    Students make such drones in America, Japan. Aircraft modeling club level at the Pioneer House. Ah, industry, where are the serious devices?
    1. chunga-changa
      chunga-changa 8 November 2015 13: 11
      Ah, industry, where are the serious devices?

      Apparently in the same place as the order for them. Serious devices, no one will do without specific requirements from the customer, this is just a waste of money.
    2. APASUS
      APASUS 8 November 2015 15: 41
      Quote: GOgaRu
      Students make such drones in America, Japan. Aircraft modeling club level at the Pioneer House. Ah, industry, where are the serious devices?

      And what does serious devices mean? By what criteria do you determine the seriousness of the device, is Typhoon 5 your serious or again a game?
      On September 14, 2012, the international exercises of the CSTO anti-drug units "GROM - 2012" were held in the Moscow region.
      Or do you perceive only Kamaz-sized devices?
      Helicopter-transformer, SUV, Octocopter AT Black Knight
      1. GOgaRu
        GOgaRu 9 November 2015 09: 07
        Or do you perceive only Kamaz-sized devices?

        I perceive such devices very positively
    3. APASUS
      APASUS 8 November 2015 15: 48
      Quote: GOgaRu
      where are the serious devices?

      Here is another example of a craftsman from China - he is building a manned octocopter with his own hands, powered by eight engines from a motorcycle.
  5. 31rus
    31rus 8 November 2015 13: 22
    I am glad that they started investing money in a very necessary business, but going the same way means at least repeating, we need our own developments, our own types, our own promising solutions, as we have already noted here both "heavy" and "micro", the whole set, not I believe that a country with such potential would not be able to create a platform or a family of UAVs of a new or original design, not expensive and universal
  6. Dragon-y
    Dragon-y 8 November 2015 16: 06
    "Our" drones are good, but whose electronics is inside?
    1. AAV
      AAV 8 November 2015 16: 31
      Electronics inside is different, in the sense of different manufacturers (not only Russian, if that is the question). And by and large there is nothing wrong with that.
  7. Strezhevchanin
    Strezhevchanin 8 November 2015 17: 21
    By and large, at the present time, these devices do a great job, reducing the response time to enemy actions, while saving the lives of children (there is no way to interrogate scrap metal with addiction), I think this is a huge plus.
    In the future, and perhaps already, this is an opportunity for electronic warfare.
    The cost reduction of this method is also advisable for civilian exploration work, it is already being evaluated by both oil workers and forestry enterprises.
    In general, the thing you need, like air, and everyone understands this!
  8. gladcu2
    gladcu2 8 November 2015 18: 11
    I would like to raise the issue of the concept of armament with such drones. In particular, the smallest group according to qualifications.

    Something is seen as a platoon of well-disguised tanks standing in ambush with the task of blocking the possibility of moving enemy troops.
    A drone crashed into a platoon of a technical intelligence group crashes to clarify the situation. The enemy scout meets the drone on the way and before the discovery of well-disguised opponents in the air, a battle of scouts drones flares up. What both parties observe with interest. And so until the moment when one of the parties runs out of reconnaissance modules and someone crawls out with a real piece of equipment to probe, but to see.

    APASUS 8 November 2015 18: 33
    The UAV production industry is very promising, but a lot of questions arise. In fact, UAV production pulls a bunch of related industries, ranging from microelectronics and chemistry to nanotechnology. So in order for our samples to look like toys from a Chinese store, real investments are required.
    In the country there is really a lot of money and to attract them for the benefit it is worth paying more attention to the organization of such devices, or rather buying them at an open competition, where More, Further, Better. We have too closed this area - the technology of choosing suppliers of MO
  10. Locksmith
    Locksmith 8 November 2015 21: 28
    UAV "Wasp" of a helicopter type with two coaxial propellers with a dead weight of up to 16 kg can carry 15 kg of payload

    I just realized ... couldn’t write in Russian that the take-off weight is 31 kg am
  11. Zaurbek
    Zaurbek 9 November 2015 21: 52
    Jet UAVs are expensive and complicated, we are much more important UAV from small to impact type Predator.