Military Review

Hope was unkind

28



1 November 1914, a significant event occurred in stories British fleet: For the first time in more than 100 years, an English squadron was utterly defeated in a naval battle. In general, the fall of the 14th turned out to be a shocking failure for the “mistress of the seas”. On September 20, in the port of Zanzibar, the German cruiser Königsberg shot and drowned the English light cruiser Pegasus. On September 22, a German submarine easily and naturally sent three British armored cruisers to the bottom. On October 27, a mine was blown up and the newest battleship Odesias sank, and four days later the German “Squadron of the South Seas” under the command of Admiral Maximilian von Spee in a battle near the Chilean port of Coronel dealt with the English flotilla of Admiral Christopher Cradock, drowning the armored battleships and “Good Hope” (translated as “Good hope”).
At the same time, none of the crews of the cruisers escaped, they died in full force, including Admiral Cradock himself, and the Germans did not lose a single sailor. The halo of invincibility and omnipotence of Royal Nevi noticeably faded, and for the first time since the time of Bonaparte the British appeared at the sea a formidable rival.
True, the margin of safety of the largest in the world at that time British naval forces was still enormous. After sustaining a series of strikes, they took revenge for Coronel a month later, destroying the Spee fleet in the battle of the Falkland Islands, but that was another story.
On the screen saver - burning "Hood Hope" a few minutes before death.





The armored cruiser Hood Hope is Admiral Cradock's flagship.



A group of Hope Hope officers. They all died exactly 101 a year ago, and with them - 867 cruisers sailors.



The armored cruiser Monmouth, which survived Hope Hope for an hour and a half. It killed 735 people.



Light cruiser "Glasgow". In the battle of Coronel, he received six shots, but managed to escape due to high speed and the onset of night.



The scheme of the battle of the port of Coronel.



German collage with photos of the brave admiral von Spee and his ships Zyudzee-Geschwader - the cruisers Scharnhorst, Gneisenau, Nuremberg, Leipzig and Dresden. .





The flagship von Spee armored cruiser "Scharnhorst" in pre-war yellow and white color.



One with the "Scharnhorst" cruiser "Gneisenau".



Light cruiser "Nuremberg".



Light cruiser "Dresden" during a visit to New York in 1909.



Light cruiser "Leipzig".
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  1. Sakhalininsk
    Sakhalininsk 7 November 2015 07: 02 New
    11
    Whoever said that, but the Germans didn’t very badly fight at sea during the WWII, and yet they had a very young fleet and they had no experience in naval wars at all.
  2. Aleksandr72
    Aleksandr72 7 November 2015 08: 00 New
    24
    At the Battle of Coronel, Cradock's detachment had no chance against von Spee's squadron: Monmouth and Good Hope were inferior to the armored cruisers Gneisenau and Scharnhorst in everything: both in armor and in armament (all the more because of the fresh weather, the armored cruisers of Cradock could not use part of their side artillery, set too low, so that the wave flooded the gun ports in the casemates), and in speed. Besides "Scharnhorst" and "Gneisenau" before the war were the best ships of the Kaiser in terms of training their artillerymen, they constantly took the emperor's prizes at shooting practice. The British ships "Good Hope" and "Monmouth" were in reserve before the war, being mobilized at the beginning of the war, were staffed by poorly trained reservists. Cradock had only one light cruiser "Glasgow" against 3 Germans, surpassing them (the Germans) only in speed (which later helped him to escape). "Otranto" does not count at all - it is an auxiliary cruiser, which the Germans practically did not pay attention to during the battle - if the Germans had taken on "Otranto" seriously, it would have joined the "Monmouth" and "Good Hope". However, Cradock did not back down without disgracing the honor of the British flag and the naval traditions of the Royal Navy.
    And then Sir Fischer sent the battle cruisers Invincible and Inflexible to the South Atlantic, which slowly came to the Falklands, where they caught von Spee and sank almost all the ships of the Südsee-Geschwader, with the exception of one light cruiser, which even before battle separated from the squadron and went free sailing. The sides changed roles: the British became hunters, and the Germans, respectively, were game, moreover, helpless - they could neither escape (the speed is too low), nor fight back (the armor and the main caliber of the artillery were simply incomparable). At the same time, the British suffered practically no losses in personnel. To the credit of von Spee, he also resisted to the last, without throwing a white flag in front of the strongest enemy. The Germans left the British battle cruisers for quite a long time, firing back from them on the retreat, and the von Spee flagship was in a place of honor, closing the column of their squadron and, accordingly, receiving most of the British shells. In this battle, together with von Spee, both of his sons who served on the ships of the squadron were killed.
    I have the honor.
    1. Alex
      Alex 7 November 2015 19: 19 New
      +5
      Quote: Aleksandr72
      And then Sir Fisher sent the battlecruisers Invincible and Inflexible to the South Atlantic, which took their time to come to the Falklands, where they caught von Spee

      Rather not caught, but lured. In one of the issues of "T - M" there was an excellent article "Radio war: the first volleys", where a version of a radio game on radio codes captured from the Germans is being worked out quite well.

      In the Battle of Coronel, Cradock's squadron had no chance against von Spee's squadron: Monmouth and Good Hope were inferior to the armored cruisers Gneisenau and Scharnhorst in everything
      And who is the doctor to him, that he left "Canopus", which was specially given to him to enhance the artillery power. Yes, of course, he was outdated and slow-moving and would not slow down the squadron, but then what was Cradock hoping for when he rushed to intercept a stronger enemy? But he could not help but know that the Scharnhorst's gunners had taken the Kaiser's personal prizes for excellent shooting for the last two years. So here the self-confidence of the British in the invincibility of the Royal Nevi most likely played a role. Well, and the fact that he did not surrender, but stupidly ruined the sailors who believed in him ... However, the British have always believed that it is better to drown the ship and people than to admit defeat.
      1. Aleksandr72
        Aleksandr72 8 November 2015 19: 21 New
        +2
        Cradock knew very well about the fate of Admiral Trubridge, who missed the German "Goeben" and "Breslau" in the Mediterranean Sea, which broke into the Black Sea and for a long time served as a bogeyman for the Black Sea Fleet (and as many researchers believe, Admiral Souchon with his ships "sold" to Turkey became catalyst that pushed the Sultan to enter the war on the side of the Central Powers). Despite the fact that Trubridge had only outdated armored and weak light cruisers and was physically unable to intercept the Goeben - the Lords of the Admiralty considered him guilty of losing face by the British fleet. Cradock knew the same would happen if he let von Spee pass. Therefore, he went into battle without taking with him the slow-moving battleship Canopus and the armored cruiser Defense (moreover, just withdrawn from the fleet reserve and staffed by poorly trained reservists) and went into a hopeless battle against Spee only in order to save his honor and the British fleet. As one of the best British naval commanders, Admiral Andrew Cunningham, said, “it takes 3 years to build a ship, and 300 years to create traditions,” and the king (of English) has a lot of them (ships). Cradock acted stupidly as a naval commander, but courageously as a man and a gentleman.
        I have the honor.
        1. BM-13
          BM-13 13 December 2015 21: 50 New
          0
          Quote: Aleksandr72
          Cradock was well aware of the fate of Admiral Trubridge, who missed the German Goeben and Breslau in the Mediterranean Sea, which broke into the Black Sea

          Judging by the chronicle of this "interception", Trubridge was very similar to the chicken from the joke: "Am I running too fast?"
  3. Monster_Fat
    Monster_Fat 7 November 2015 08: 21 New
    +3
    There is a fiction book by Vladimir Knecht about Kredok and his squadron and is called "Good Hope". http://www.ozon.ru/context/detail/id/4661216/
  4. Bagno new
    Bagno new 7 November 2015 10: 01 New
    -2
    it was impossible to defeat the British at sea at that time, for their fleet met the two-state standard!
    1. Albert1988
      Albert1988 7 November 2015 14: 50 New
      +1
      Quote: BagnoNew
      it was impossible to defeat the British at sea at that time, for their fleet met the two-state standard!

      Unfortunately, this awareness of their own invincibility at sea, apparently, was the main reason for their defeats, coupled with the underestimation of the enemy. Hence the result - a number of "minor" defeats, plus the battle at Coronel - a complete defeat, although then they won back, and Jutland actually lost "on points".
  5. Miner
    Miner 7 November 2015 10: 31 New
    +4
    What is the article about?

    PS
    I did not have time to start reading it, as it had already ended ...
  6. Frideric1871
    Frideric1871 7 November 2015 10: 50 New
    +4
    The German fleet proved to be very good PMV, remember the battle of Jutland where the high seas fleet defeated the British fleet
    1. saigon
      saigon 7 November 2015 11: 12 New
      +1
      yes not really Germans won? Here is a new word in naval affairs, having miraculously managed to escape at night from the Angichans they won. Seydlets, Derflinger and Fondertan are not warlike in the morning. The strikes of the guns of the 5th squadron of battleships of Granflith did not withstand the ships of Germany. So what about the victory of the German fleet is overkill
      1. Olezhek
        Olezhek 7 November 2015 14: 46 New
        +3
        Yes, not really defeated the Germans?


        The Germans did not win! Once again - the Germans did not win.
        BUT - they met the Grand Fleet at sea and Hoch See Flotte turned out to be a worthy opponent.

        Germany had the strongest army + fleet capable of meeting the British ..
      2. Albert1988
        Albert1988 7 November 2015 14: 52 New
        +3
        Quote: saigon
        Yes, not really defeated the Germans?

        Only the Germans lost 800 sailors killed, and the British more than one and a half thousand. Considering that both sides did not achieve their goals, then the victory "on points" is clearly behind the Germans.
        1. saigon
          saigon 7 November 2015 16: 30 New
          +1
          Argentina Jamaica is 5-0 so roughly. The British lost 2 battle cruisers and the losses are higher. But one small but the LC of the Germans practically lost their combat effectiveness and 14 shells from English ships were enough for this. After which the fleet of the open sea fell under the fire of the battleships Geliko escaped otherwise not be called. The miracle of salvation at night gave occasion to speak to the Germans almost about victory.
          1. Albert1988
            Albert1988 7 November 2015 21: 59 New
            +1
            Quote: saigon
            The British lost 2 battle cruisers and the losses are higher. But one small but the LC of the Germans practically lost their combat effectiveness and 14 shells from English ships were enough for this. After which the fleet of the open sea fell under the fire of the battleships. Geliko fled not to be called otherwise. The miracle of salvation at night gave occasion to speak to the Germans almost about victory.

            But on the other hand, this cannot be called a defeat, the Germans, of course, did not achieve their goal, but they also avoided an outright defeat, inflicting serious damage on the enemy, and most importantly, the German fleet showed better training than the English, which was very good for the "mistress of the seas" alarm signal.
    2. Olezhek
      Olezhek 7 November 2015 14: 48 New
      +2
      Here it is - Hoch See Flotte!
      1. Olezhek
        Olezhek 7 November 2015 14: 57 New
        +2




        And a little more hoch see flotte ...
        1. Bashibuzuk
          Bashibuzuk 7 November 2015 21: 47 New
          +1
          But who knows - WHY?
          See in German only means LAKE-. and nothing else. Brought - SEE, in Russian.
          The sea, in German - MEER (Me ... such a cunning -r-).
          In English, the Sea is Sea, and it is pronounced differently, this is simple. (e - .. shortened ---)
          .
          There are, of course, well-established terms, phrases, such as - a sea captain.
          All the rest just swim from the curb to the curb.
          .
          But, what interests me - WHY .. in marine terms, the Germans use the concept of -Ozero?
          Do you have German speakers on the site? Native speakers?
          1. Secta haki
            Secta haki 8 November 2015 03: 14 New
            +2
            The degree of sea disturbance (class of seaworthiness of ships).
            In English High Seas. Also low german term.
          2. Olezhek
            Olezhek 8 November 2015 08: 16 New
            +1
            See I (-s, -n) lake ein großer See - a large lake ein kleiner See - a small, small lake

            II (=, -n) sea die See ist ruhig - the sea is calm wir waren schon auf hoher see, als ... - we were already in the open sea, when ... bei ruhiger wir an die See - this summer we will go to the sea

            something like request
          3. Olezhek
            Olezhek 8 November 2015 08: 33 New
            +1
            Do you have German speakers on the site? Native speakers?


            I know, but not as a philologist (it will be possible not to carry out an analysis of the language, even a German) —but Abby Lingvo’s magic program saves it all — marine terms formed by See even more than Meer
            1. Secta haki
              Secta haki 8 November 2015 12: 31 New
              +1
              there is no word "Meer" in Low German, only "See" the program knows nothing about it
          4. Aleksandr72
            Aleksandr72 8 November 2015 19: 11 New
            +2
            Everything will be explained very simply: the seas, to which Germany has an outlet, traditionally have the word See in their name: in particular - Ostsee - the Baltic Sea (literally - the East Lake (sea), Nordsee - the North Sea (translated the same). Therefore, in German marine terms are traditionally based on the word See. Terms from the word Meer (sea) are usually borrowed from other languages ​​(almost all of the English language).
            The writer and historian Alexander Bolny (who can be treated differently because of his obviously anti-Soviet (and Russophobic, too) views, but he writes about the sea battles is very interesting and arugmented), in the name of the Kaiser fleet - Hochseeflotte - High Sea Fleet - is omitted one word is Nord, i.e. Northern, so the full name should look like this - Fleet of the Open North Sea. Which, in principle, is fully consistent with the actual state of things - judging by the design of German battleships - and dreadnoughts and squadron battleships and battlecruisers (thick side armor, solid armoring of cuttings and towers, artillery not too large caliber - 280-305 mm, but with a high initial the speed of the projectile with a flat trajectory and high armor penetration at medium distances, not very high speed and seaworthiness, as well as the cruising range) and the tactical views of the Germans, the entire German fleet, built before World War I, was intended for medium-range combat with an essentially flat shooting trajectory, which only possible with limited visibility characteristic of the North Sea in most of the navigation. This is particularly evidenced by the results of the Battle of Jutland.
            Regarding the battle of Jutland - both sides considered him their victory. I will give only the figures recognized by both parties:
            Losses in ships:
            Grand Fleet (British):
            battle cruisers - 3 (Queen Mree, Indefatigable, Ivincible - destroyed in one salvo, heavy losses in crews),
            armored cruisers - 3,
            destroyers / destroyers - 8.
            High Seas Fleet:
            battle cruisers - 1 ("Lyuttsov", left the battle, sunk by torpedoes of their own destroyers due to complete loss of progress and impossibility of evacuation),
            squadron battleship - "Pommern" (entered service in 1907, the British and Anglophiles, with perseverance worthy of better use, rank it as a battleship, a priori implying a dreadnought type ship),
            light cruisers - 4,
            destroyers / destroyers - 5.
            Crew Losses:
            Britons - 6097 killed and 510 wounded from more than 60000 crew members,
            Teutons - 2551 killed and 507 injured from about 36000 crew members.
            In total, 151 British and 99 German ships took part in this battle. Moreover, Admiral Scheer, in order to somehow reduce the overwhelming superiority of the British in the main caliber, dragged the slow-moving battleships of Admiral Mauve into battle, from which there was no particular sense in the battle, only added the list of losses with the evil "Pommerniy".
            True, Admiral Scheer, announcing his victory, mistakenly believed that he had sunk the British superdreadnought battleship Worspite.
            About the results of the battle:
            On June 2 (i.e., the day after the battle), Admiral Jellico had 31 Dreadnought and Super Dreadnought, 7 battlecruisers and 20 light cruisers as part of the Grad Fleet. Sheer, respectively, 18, 4 and 9 ships of similar classes. Those. the ratio became even worse than before Jutland - the reason is that many German ships (especially battlecruisers) suffered heavy damage and were repaired for a long time. But in fairness it should be noted that they withstood the fire of heavy British cannons of caliber 305, 343 and 380 mm, while on German ships there were guns GK caliber only 280 and 305 mm.
            Who won - judge for yourself.
            I have the honor.
  7. oreh72
    oreh72 7 November 2015 11: 22 New
    +8
    I rated the article positively solely because of the photos, although the article is not about anything, so is a statement of fact. Commentary by colleague Alexander72 carries an order of magnitude more information
    1. Olezhek
      Olezhek 7 November 2015 14: 49 New
      -1
      Love this topic! wink
  8. Alex
    Alex 7 November 2015 19: 24 New
    +2
    Great selection of photos, but expected more from the article. But thanks anyway.
  9. kvs207
    kvs207 7 November 2015 20: 29 New
    +1
    Quote: Monster_Fat
    There is a fiction book by Vladimir Knecht about Kredok and his squadron and is called "Good Hope".

    Shake your hand. An excellent book, especially when you consider that under the pseudonym Knecht, was hiding
    "Knecht Vladimir (real name and surname Vladimir Alekseevich Petrovsky) (1900-1950) - Rear Admiral, writer, participant in the Civil and Great Patriotic Wars.

    He began writing in the 1920s, being a cadet at the Naval School. In the 1930s, his novels The Country in the Castle (1932), Good Hope (1935), Sturm (1937), Quiet Kemio and others were published.
    During the Second World War, Chief of Staff of the Naval Defense of Leningrad. "
  10. Bashibuzuk
    Bashibuzuk 7 November 2015 21: 14 New
    +2
    No, well, I was not interested in detail in the naval wars of the Germans and British.
    Though the warlord himself.
    So, in parts, in battles.
    And here is some interesting material.
    Judging by the battle pattern, did Hope go closing, after turning to the opposite course?
    There it was covered.
    Then they covered Monmouth, I, at least, understood that. It is not clear why he popped in return to the entire German squadron. To let escape easy or perish with honor?
    In any case, a worthy deed.
    And the "lancers" fled. Though by order, I think, they escaped.
    .
    But what is interesting is that the Germans, ours, and even the British, it turns out, knowing that there is nothing to catch, still went into battle.
    Varangian with us, with a Korean. Guarding.
    The Germans are the same. They are offered to intern, they go to death. The same squadron, the same Konigsberg.
    The same "Spee", but during the Second World War - the ship was sunk, the commander shot himself, Langdorf.
    .
    Significantly.
    And I really liked the lifetime photos of the ships.
    Toys, the right word.
    Where to fight on such? To die only is beautiful.
    Choked with oil, fuel oil, coal dust, steam scalded to the bones.
    1. Lone wolf
      Lone wolf 8 November 2015 03: 07 New
      +1
      Hoch zee fleet, at the end of the PM committed suicide ,,, personnel flooded their ships by opening kingstones in Scapa Flow bay ,,, Germany almost re-created the fleet in 30 years
    2. Lone wolf
      Lone wolf 8 November 2015 03: 17 New
      +1
      Choked with oil, fuel oil, coal dust, steam scalded to the bones
      There is a good book Polar Convoy ,,,, Alistair Macklin ,,,, can be found on the internet .. True, it’s not about PM, but about VM, but the essence doesn’t change, Mac Lin himself sailed on convoy ships and knew what he was writing about .. and he wrote just about choked with oil, scalded with steam, caught in icy water ,,,, but they went to death even knowing that they had nothing to catch and at the same time they did not perceive everything as beautiful heroism ..... sailors and officers Grand Fleet just did their job
    3. Olezhek
      Olezhek 8 November 2015 08: 23 New
      +1
      sea ​​wars of the Germans and the British.


      There were wars of Holland and England - on equal - interesting
      There were wars between England and France (royal) almost on an equal footing (the Franks had better ships from the British team) - interesting
      There was a WWI and the collisions of large ships of Britons and Teutons - also interesting - since before this, for a hundred years at sea, no one had ever dreamed of abandoning Britain.

      The battle of Jutland is just some kind of holiday !!!! drinks