Military Review

China, the Xinjiang issue and the Islamic State

60
The spread of religious extremism in the Middle East and Afghanistan creates certain problems for such a powerful player in world politics, which is the People’s Republic of China. As you know, China, from the very beginning of the hostilities in Syria, spoke unequivocally against the introduction of NATO troops into the territory of this Middle Eastern country, although it never declared its support for the regime of Bashar al-Assad. The Chinese leadership is known for its extremely cautious foreign policy, as it seeks to maintain political and economic ties with most countries of the world. At the same time, on the whole, China traditionally supports the positions of the Russian Federation on many key issues of world politics, including the situation in the Middle East.


It is known that in recent decades, China has been increasing its presence in many regions of the world. If before China actively positioned itself in the Asia-Pacific region, primarily in South and Southeast Asia, Oceania, and also in Central Asia, then later, Africa and Latin America were involved in the orbit of China’s interests. Naturally, China has its own interests in the Middle East, including Syria. China planned the development of the strategic project “The Great Silk Road”, which was supposed to pass, including in part of the Syrian territory. However, the civil war in Syria has confused China’s plans to develop the Silk Road. Therefore, the PRC is completely unprofitable, by and large, destabilization of the political situation in Syria and such scenarios as the disintegration of the state with the transformation of its former territory into a zone of “perpetual war of all against all”, or the victory of religious extremists with the construction of an absolutely unpredictable and non-contact totalitarian state. On the other hand, China fears the penetration of religious extremists in the Middle East into its own territory - through the same Afghanistan or the former Soviet republics of Central Asia. Despite its political, military and economic power, China is a country with considerable conflict potential, caused, among other things, by the peculiarities of the ethnic and religious situation in the country.

Ethno-confessional problems in Western China

As you know, China includes a vast territory known as historical East Turkestan region. In this territory, which is part of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of the People’s Republic of China (XUAR), a number of Turkic-speaking and Iranian-speaking peoples and ethnic groups professing Islam live. The largest among them are the Uyghurs, a ten million people who profess Sunni Islam. Linguistically, the Uyghurs are a Turkic-speaking people, close to neighboring Uzbeks and speaking the Uighur language of the Karluk branch of the Turkic languages. Until the 1933th century the Uyghur state maintained independence until it was captured by the Qing empire. However, even then, the central government of China loosely controlled the internal regions of East Turkestan, which in fact lived by their own laws. The Uyghurs regularly raised anti-Chinese uprisings, and in the twentieth century. twice there have been attempts to create independent Uyghur states - the Islamic Republic of East Turkestan in 1934-1944. and the East Turkestan Revolutionary Republic in 1949-1949. After the final inclusion in the PRC in 1910, the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region was created. Uyghur nationalists claim that their people throughout history have been discriminated against by the Chinese, and in modern China, discrimination has taken on the character of restricting the birth of the Uyghurs, the Chinese settling the Uyghur territories by the Chinese, and oppressing the Uyghurs in various spheres of life. In addition to the Uyghurs, in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China there are several more “Turkestan” peoples who are under the Uyghur cultural and political influence and also constitute a rather conflictogenic part of the Chinese population. Firstly, these are the Turkic peoples of Central Asia - Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, Tatars, Salars and Uzbeks, as well as Dunsyans - a small Mongol-speaking nation. For the most part, with the exception of a small part of the Kirghiz Buddhists, they profess Sunni Islam, however (except for Uzbeks and Salars) religion plays a lesser role in their life than in the life of Uyghurs. Secondly, these are the Pamir peoples - the Sarykol and Vakhans, who are considered Tajiks in China. They profess Shiism of Ismaili persuasion and are more independent of Uyghur cultural influence. The third group is Hui, or Dungans, Chinese Muslims who speak Chinese, but have long practiced Islam, which predetermined their cultural specifics and particular historical and political development. However, the Hui are more loyal to the central Chinese government than the Uyghurs. That is why Hui always played the role of “intermediaries” between the Chinese administration and Muslims of East Turkestan, although they themselves often acted as instigators of mass anti-government protests, especially during the existence of the Qing Empire and the first stage of the existence of Chinese republican statehood (1930-XNUMXs .).

The extent of the spread of Islam in China until recently underestimated, but according to a sociological survey conducted in 2015, over 22% of Chinese under the age of 30 are Muslims. That is, almost every fourth young citizen of China is a Muslim. This is explained, among other things, by the peculiarities of the national and demographic policy of the PRC. The fact is that for a long time Chinese families were not allowed to have more than one child, while families of national minorities, including the Muslim peoples of Eastern Turkestan, had privileges - they were allowed to have more than one child. As a result, a situation arose when the actual Chinese (Buddhist-Taoist-Confucian) population of the country began to grow old, and national minorities started to grow younger. For example, among Chinese older than 60, at least half of the years are practicing traditional creeds of the country - Taoism and Confucianism. However, despite the fact that Muslims among the Chinese youth are noticeably more than among the older generations, in general, Chinese Islam is not yet characterized by a high scale of radicalization. But this - if we talk about Chinese Muslims - Hui. As for the Uighurs, the situation there is somewhat different. The fact is that the Uigurs truly represent a nation that is fundamentally different from the Chinese and has its own rich history, cultural traditions, written language, and finally - religion, which is one of the pillars of national identity. The Uighurs' struggle for national liberation has continued since the lands inhabited by the Uigurs fell into the orbit of the political interests of the Chinese empire and were attacked by Chinese troops.

China, the Xinjiang issue and the Islamic State


Ancient people without a state

The Uigurs are an ancient people whose name has been known since the beginning of our era. In the IX century. AD Turkic Uygur tribes migrated to the territory of East Turkestan, where the further development of Uygur culture and statehood took place. The Iranian-speaking ethnic groups living on the territory of East Turkestan were assimilated by the Uighurs and joined the Uighur tribes. For a long time, the territory of East Turkestan was a region of unique confessional pluralism — traditional for Turkic peoples, Shamanism, Manichaeism, Buddhism, and Nestorian Christianity were spread among the local population (the Nestorians were active in preaching in Central Asia and China). In the X century. in the largest oasis cities of Eastern Turkestan — Yarkende, Kashgar and Khotan — Islam began to spread through the efforts of Arab-Persian merchants. However, the process of Islamization of the Turkic population of Eastern Turkestan stretched out for several centuries and only by the 16th century. Islam practically supplanted all other religions that had previously been professed by the people of the region. In the process of Islamization of the Uigurs, the Uighur writing was supplanted by Arabic writing, borrowed from Arabic and Persian languages ​​into the Uigur language, began to strengthen cultural cooperation not only with neighboring Central Asia - Western Turkestan, but also with Persia, the Arab East, Northern India. At the same time, the ethnonym Uigur itself in Central Asia of the XV-XVII centuries. It was not widely used because it was widely used to identify the local Turkic Muslim population with the terms “Muslim” or “Turks”, or with narrower regional or tribal names - “Kashgarets”, “Hotanets”, etc. (these are the names of the “yurts” - sub-ethnic groups of the Uyghur people). Gradually, tribes of Mongolian origin, who wandered here, gradually mixed with the Turkic population, joined the Uygur community of Eastern Turkestan.

After the territory of East Turkestan began to be gradually seized by the Qing Empire, the era of severe tests began in the history of the Uyghur people, including, in particular, attempts to fight for the preservation of national statehood. However, the Uighurs could not fully resist the much stronger Qing Empire. Xinjiang Province was established on the territory of East Turkestan, and its intensive settlement with Manchus and Chinese began. Thus, in Xinjiang, garrisons recruited from the Solon and Daur of Manchuria were placed in 1764. Several thousand Siboes were resettled in the Yili valley, representatives of the Manchurian-speaking people who lived in northeastern China, in the modern provinces of Liaoning and Jilin, which on the border with the DPRK. Nevertheless, uprisings were repeatedly raised and de facto independent Uygur states were created on the territory of East Turkestan. These included, in particular: the Kucharsky Khanate, created in 1864 as a result of an uprising in the territory of Turfan, Hami, Aksu and Usha; Dungan Khanate (later - Urumqi Sultanate), which appeared in the same year in Urumqi; Khotan Khanate, created by Mullah Habibullah; Kashgar Khanate, in the same 1864, created by Buzruk-Khoja. The Uigur movement wore anti-Manchu and anti-Chinese character, uniting all the Muslim peoples of Eastern Turkestan - Uygur, Dungan, Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, Tatar, Uzbeks, Salars, Pamirs, Tajiks. However, in 1875, the troops of the Qing Empire were moved to East Turkestan, which were previously tasked to achieve the conquest of Dzungaria. By December 1877, the Manchu troops managed to restore the power of the Qing Empire almost over the whole territory of Xinjiang, except for the Ili region. Last in 1871-1881. was part of the Turkestan Military District of the Russian Empire, and in 1881, in accordance with the Petersburg Treaty, was transferred back to the Qing Empire for compensation of expenses related to the ten-year Russian administration of this territory.

By the beginning of the twentieth century. In East Turkestan, ideas of the region’s political independence began to spread, acquiring more modern outlines. Thus, Jadidism and Pan-Turkism spread, penetrating into the region from Russian Turkestan and from Turkey. As is known, the Jadids advocated the modernization of Islam, called for the use of national languages ​​in teaching children and replacing religious schools with secular ones in which modern knowledge would be taught. The spread of Jadidism in Eastern Turkestan played an important role in the formation of the Uyghur national liberation movement. But even more influenced by the revolutionary events in Russia. First, a stream of Turkic migrants from the Soviet Union, primarily from Central Asia, poured into East Turkestan. Many immigrants were politically literate people and advocated the creation and strengthening of the Turkic nationalist movement, using, moreover, the support of Western powers interested in weakening the positions of the USSR in Central Asia. Secondly, on the other hand, the creation of national republics in neighboring Central Asia allowed the Uygurs to gain hope for possible political independence or, at least, autonomy from China, taking into account the example of their neighbors - co-religionists and brothers in Turkic blood. Meanwhile, in Xinjiang, Governor Jin Shujen came to power, who began a policy of violent Sinization of the Turkestan population, banning Islamic events and replacing Uighur and Dungan officials with Han Chinese and representatives of other non-Muslim Chinese groups. Naturally, this activity of Shuzhen caused an increase in discontent among the Muslim population of East Turkestan. Against the policies of Shuzhen, rebellions of the local Muslim population repeatedly flared up. So, 16 March, March 1933 was an independent Khotan Emirate, led by the Bukhra brothers, was proclaimed as a result of an uprising of workers at gold mining near the town of Keriya. The rebels destroyed the officials of the Chinese administration, defeated the garrisons and forced the peaceful Chinese population to convert to Islam.



In September 1933, the creation of the East Turkestan Republic was announced, and on November 12, the creation of the Turkic Islamic Republic of East Turkestan (TIRST), also known as the Uyguristan Republic. Khotan Emirate and TIRST acted independently of each other, while TIRST controlled the territory from Aksu to Khotan. The authorities in TIRST were supporters of Jadidism, who supported the political and economic modernization of Uygur society and the transformation of East Turkestan into a modern country independent of China. But plans to create such a state have failed. First, none of the neighboring countries agreed to provide support to the self-proclaimed republic. The Soviet Union refused to cooperate with the Turkic nationalists and Islamists. The authorities of British India also did not want to spoil relations with the Soviet Union and China and support the separatist movement. Even Iran, Afghanistan and Turkey refused to help the Uygur separatists. TIRST had certain hopes of support from Germany and Italy, but ultimately Hitler’s Germany preferred to cooperate with China than to provide support to dubious and small separatists. Soviet brigades — the Altai and Tarbagatai — whose soldiers, to disguise and withdraw from the Soviet Union in support of one of the sides of the confrontation in Xinjiang, dressed in the form of the white Cossacks, were even attached to the Chinese troops of Sheng Shitsai, who were sent to pacify the Huizu revolt. The participation of Soviet troops in the suppression of the Uighur uprising was associated with Moscow’s fears of a possible spread of the Turkic nationalist movement to the territory of the Soviet Central Asian republics, where they only managed to cope with their own Basmaan movement and with the possible use of Xinjiang separatists by Japan, which actively used the practice of building on Chinese territory national minority states. Thus, with the support of Japan, Manchukuo in Northeast China and Mengjiang in Inner Mongolia were created. The troops of the Kuomintang and the Dungan general Ma Zhantsana attacked TIRST and inflicted a crushing defeat on the independence supporters of Eastern Turkestan, cutting out a large part of its defenders. The President of the Republic, Khoja Niyaz, escaped on the territory of the Soviet Union, other prominent leaders of the uprising fled to Afghanistan and India.

The repeated attempt to gain state independence by the residents of Eastern Turkestan took place in 1944-1945, when the East-Turkestan Revolutionary Republic was established in the Ili, Altai and Tachen districts of Xinjiang Province. As a result of the uprising against the Kuomintang troops, 12 in November 1944 the independence of the East Turkestan Republic was proclaimed, which was positioned as a democratic state of all the peoples inhabiting Xinjiang. It is significant that the government headed by the head of the Muslims of the Ili district, ethnic Uzbek Alikhan-Ture (pictured), included not only Uighurs and Uzbeks, but also Tatars, Kazakhs, Kalmyks and even Russians IG. Polinov and F.I. Leskin. After the defeat of the KMT, 19 September 1949 Burgan Shahidi, who headed the government of Xinjiang and, by the way, appointed to this position by Chiang Kai-shek, went over to Mao Zedong and announced the entry of East Turkestan into the PRC. The armed forces of East Turkestan were incorporated into the People’s Liberation Army of China. However, despite the fact that Xinjiang received formal autonomy within the Chinese People’s Republic, the situation of the Uyghur population in the country has not improved at all.

Religious radicalism and separatism in Xinjiang

A serious blow to the Uighurs and other Muslim peoples of Turkestan was dealt with during the years of the “cultural revolution”, which was characterized by a powerful onslaught on religion. Separatist sentiments spread in the region, which intensified after the collapse of the Soviet Union and the emergence of the independent Turkic republics of “Western Turkestan” - Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan. Naturally, this had an encouraging influence on the Uyghur national movement. On the other hand, the radicalization of the Uyghur Muslim community, including the penetration of radical ideas from Afghanistan and Pakistan, has become an important source of the growth of separatist sentiments in Xinjiang. The fact is that in the middle of the twentieth century, after Xinjiang joined the People’s Republic of China, a significant part of the Uigurs, who did not want to submit to the Chinese Communist government, emigrated to neighboring Afghanistan and Pakistan, a very large Uyghur diaspora was formed in Turkey. In emigration, the process of creating religious-fundamentalist and nationalist organizations advocating the independence of East Turkestan began. Later, some Uighurs took part in the hostilities in Afghanistan - on the side of the Taliban and in Pakistan - on the side of Waziristan.

Back in 1993, the Eastern Turkestan Islamic Movement (IDTB) was created, advocating the creation of a Sharia Islamic state in East Turkestan and the conversion of the entire population of the region to Islam. The organization was founded by Hasan Maksum, who is also Abu-Muhammad al-Turkestani (1964-2003) - a native of Kashgar and a professional fighter who joined the armed organization that opposed the Chinese authorities in Xinjiang at the age of twenty. Subsequently, Maksum was granted asylum in Afghanistan, and the Taliban issued him an Afghan passport. After pushing the Taliban back to Pakistan, he moved to where he died in 2003. Establishing Uighur radicals with the Afghan Taliban and Al Qaeda led to the gradual spread of Salafism among the younger part of the radical supporters of Uyghur independence and the creation of East Turkestan Islamic Sharia state.



In 1997, the IDTF was reorganized, after which the movement began active military operations in Xinjiang, receiving financial and military assistance from the Afghan Taliban and international terrorist organizations such as the Al Qaeda banned in Russia. After the death of Hassan Maxum, the organization was actually headed by Abdul Shakur al-Turkestani, who was killed only in 2012, also in Pakistan, as a result of an attack by an American drone. IDVT fighters managed to carry out a whole series of terrorist acts on the territory of the PRC. They include a warehouse explosion in Urumqi 23 in May 1998, an explosion in Khotan 25 in March 1999, an explosion in Aksu 19 in August 2010, an attack in Khotan 18 in July 2011 and Kashgar 30-31 in July 2011, capture hostages in Hume 28 in December 2011, attack in Kashgar 28 in February 2012. Also, militants of the Islamic Movement of Eastern Turkestan take part in the civil war in Afghanistan and armed resistance of Waziristan in the Tribal Zone in Pakistan. In China, as well as the USA, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and a number of other states, the Islamic Movement of Eastern Turkestan is recognized as a terrorist organization. By the way, in the People’s Republic of China terrorists also consider the much more moderate political organization of the Uyghur people - the World Uygur Congress, headed by well-known Uyghur human rights activist Rabiya Kadir. According to the Chinese leadership, this organization may be behind the organization of riots in Urumqi in 2009. Then, as a result of clashes that took place on July 5 2009, 129 people died, about 1600 people were injured and injuries of varying severity. The cause of the unrest was the revenge of the Uyghur activists for the events in the Chinese province of Guangdong, where a mass brawl broke out between Chinese and Uygur workers as a result of a domestic quarrel, during which two Uighurs died. In response to Urumqi, the Uygur radicals staged a “Chinese pogrom”, but the unrest was suppressed by the police and militarized police. Thirty detained participants in the riots were sentenced to the death penalty of the PRC - the death penalty.

Bloody attacks - the work of extremists

1mart 2014, eight people in masks and black clothes, armed with machetes and long knives, burst into the waiting room of the Kunming Railway Station - the capital of the southern Chinese province of Yunnan. They staged a massacre in the station building, having managed to kill and injure an 29 man by the time the police arrived and kill the 143 man. Policemen shot four criminals at the scene, wounded another woman terrorist, and three terrorists who managed to escape from the station building were caught several days later. The Chinese media dubbed the attack as “our eleventh of September”, drawing attention to the large number of human victims, and to the cruelty and ruthlessness of the terrorists who acted in a brutal way. Two days after the terrorist attack, the Chinese authorities reported identifying the identities of the terrorists - they, according to the Chinese police, were immigrants from the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Chinese law enforcement agencies say that in recent years, violent acts of terrorism committed by fighters for the independence of East Turkistan have become more frequent. At the same time, the trend of terrorists is going beyond the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region - obviously, the terrorists are trying to show the Chinese people that the problem of East Turkestan is not local, but national in nature and can be affected by their actions in any part of China. However, the actions of the Uyghur radicals also provoke a backlash from the Chinese against any representatives of the Uyghur, as well as other Turkic and Muslim peoples of China. In particular, in the eastern provinces of China, there are attacks by local people on Uigur workers and students, the Uygurs prefer not to provide jobs and not to rent apartments and other premises. The Chinese government, in turn, tightened the police regime in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.



Despite the police activities, terrorist attacks in the territory of the PRC are continuing. In October 2013, extremists committed a terrorist act in the very center of Chinese statehood - on the famous Tiananmen Square in Beijing. Three "suicide bombers" in a jeep with numbers of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region crashed into a group of tourists who were walking at the gates of the Forbidden City on the square. After the jeep hit people, it caught fire and exploded. As a result, the terrorists themselves and two passersby died. About forty more people were injured. 18 people died on 22 on June 2015 during an attack by extremists on a police checkpoint in the city of Kashgar, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR). The Chinese authorities are seriously concerned about the issues of the country's internal security and are allocating considerable forces and means to antiterrorist activities. First of all, law enforcement agencies and security forces in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region are being strengthened, on the territory of which, given the presence of numerous hard-to-reach places, including in the mountains, there may be bases of militants leaking from the territory of Afghanistan and Pakistan. At the same time, the Chinese leadership has recently been actively avoiding informing the population about the national identity of the terrorists, paying attention only to the fact that they are from Xinjiang. This is done, first of all, to prevent the "pogroms" of the Uyghur communities in the cities of other provinces of the People's Republic of China, as well as to appease the Uighurs themselves, who should not feel second-class citizens and, accordingly, join the ranks of radical organizations. However, the activization of extremists in China depends on international factors, which include both the stimulation of their activities by international structures interested in destabilizing the political situation in China, and the overall intensification of the armed struggle of religious fundamentalists in the Middle East, North and West Africa in Central Asia.

Radicals from Xinjiang and the "Islamic State"

The emergence in the Middle East of a new active force in the face of the "Islamic state" (a terrorist organization banned in the Russian Federation) creates certain risks for China. Firstly, it is widely known that the IG has recently intensified its activities in Afghanistan, where it is beginning to gradually turn into a rival of the Taliban. Accordingly, certain positions of the IG have in neighboring Pakistan. Naturally, East Turkestan-Xinjiang, which is in close proximity to Afghanistan and Pakistan, is also of interest to the Islamic State, especially given that the XUAR’s Muslim population is dissatisfied with its position, and the youth are ready to take radical steps to change their position and possible creation of an independent Muslim state. Secondly, many Uygurs took and take part in hostilities in Iraq and Syria, fighting on the side of the "Islamic State". It is known that interested Turkish organizations, which have long-standing and well-developed ties with the Uyghur national movement, play a certain role in transporting the Uyghur militants to Syria. The unemployed Uyghur youth, especially those associated with the nationalist movement and not having the opportunity, because of their unreliability, to find work in the XUAR, are sent from China to work in countries where there is a need for working hands. Many of them come to Malaysia, Indonesia and some other countries of Southeast Asia. In the Malaysian capital, Kuala Lumpur, according to the Turkish newspaper Hurriyet, the Uygurs from the PRC receive Turkish certificates, with the help of which they have the opportunity to travel to Turkey, where Uigur militants are trained in training camps and their further transfer to Syria and Iraq.

It should be noted that the countries of Southeast Asia, not wanting to quarrel with China, prefer to hand over Chinese citizens of Uyghur nationality detained on their territory and suspected of involvement in the terrorist underground to the Chinese special services. So, in July 2015, the Thai government issued 109 Uighurs to China - and this despite the fact that protests against extradition were expressed by the USA - Thailand's main military-political ally in the Asia-Pacific region. Most of the deported Uigurs were illegal immigrants who went to Thailand to work on local rubber plantations. According to Thai media, at least 13 from the arrested Uigurs planned to travel to Syria and Iraq in the near future to take part in hostilities on the side of the Islamic State. After it became known about the deportation of Uighurs from Thailand to the PRC, a local Uygur radical youth attacked the Thai consulate in Istanbul in Turkey. After the hooligan action of the diaspora, Thailand has closed indefinitely the country's embassy in Ankara. It is known that the Turkish Uygurs are the most radical and have close ties with radical organizations, because at one time the core of Uyghur emigration to Turkey was composed of convinced nationalists - Pan-Turkists and Islamists, who did not see a future for themselves in communist China. In Indonesia, in September 2014, February and June 2015, groups of citizens of Uygur origin who carried out terrorist activities in Indonesia received long prison sentences. However, despite precautionary and preventive measures, some Chinese citizens still manage to penetrate Syria and Iraq. Thus, according to some data, the number of IS militants with Chinese citizenship, predominantly Uyghur by nationality, reaches at least 300 people. It is likely that there may be more, given the large number of the Uyghur population of the PRC and the bitterness of the radical part of the Uyghur youth over their position in the PRC. On the other hand, for the Chinese leadership, the secret departure of radical Uygurs to Syria and Iraq also has some benefit - at least, Beijing gains the hope that a significant part of the "power potential" of the Uygur radicals will be diverted to fighting in Syria and Iraq, and many radicals will never return to China, dying in hostilities with the Assad government forces, the Iraqi army or the Kurdish militia.

China is unlikely to provide direct military assistance to the Assad government or even the Russian Federation in the event of the further development of the antiterrorist operation in Syria. Given that China has its own accounts for religious radicals from the IG, one of whose constituent organizations is leading a terrorist war in the territory of Xinjiang Province, the Chinese leadership will not want to lose multi-billion contracts in case of deterioration in relations with Saudi Arabia. The trade between China and Saudi Arabia exceeds seventy billion dollars a year, that is, it is seventy times more than the Russian-Saudi trade. Accordingly, cooperation with Saudi Arabia is very significant for the Chinese economy, especially since we are talking about many projects that are under development and should be supplied with orders from Chinese companies and enterprises for many years to come. On the other hand, China’s economic ties with Iran are expanding, and the latter, as we know, is the main regional ally of the government of Bashar al-Assad in Syria. Therefore, it is likely that the PRC, without interfering in the Syrian conflict, will tack between the various opposing sides, in general, is more favorable to the position of the Russian Federation. As Vasily Kashin, an expert at the Center for the Analysis of Strategies and Technologies, said in an interview, considering the position of the Chinese political leadership on the issue of the Russian Federation’s military operation in Syria, “China is positive about our operation. At the political level, Beijing has expressed support for Moscow in the fight against terrorism. Comments of major Chinese media are also benevolent. But China is not yet ready to intervene in the Syrian conflict. True, the discussion on this topic is underway. Previously, such questions as “Shouldn't we intervene?” Or “Under what conditions should we get into this?”, In principle, did not arise ”(quoted on: http://lenta.ru/articles/2015/10 / 30 / kashinonsyria /).

On the other hand, we should expect further strengthening of the anti-terrorist activities of the Chinese special services and law enforcement agencies, primarily in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, which will be associated with countering the possible infiltration of terrorists from the territory of Afghanistan and Pakistan into the Chinese territory, and possibly the former Soviet republics of Central Asia. For the Russian Federation in the current situation, the importance of cooperation with China in the field of ensuring antiterrorist security in the region of Central Asia, primarily in Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, increases. China, as the largest power in the region, has its strategic interests in it, but at the moment they overlap with the interests of Russia - namely, to prevent the expansion of the influence of religious extremists on the territory of the Central Asian republics and, if possible, to prevent religious radicals from significantly strengthening their positions in Afghanistan. It is known that the PRC government closely cooperates with the authorities of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan in terms of organizing joint prevention of terrorism and extremism. At the request of the Chinese intelligence services, citizens of the People's Republic of China from among the representatives of the Uygur radical organizations located in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan are issued to China for the further implementation of investigative measures. In turn, the PRC provides assistance to the Kazakh and Kyrgyz leadership in countering the spread of religious radicalism in the republics.
Author:
Photos used:
http://tvorec.gorod.tomsk.ru/, http://maxpark.com/, http://www.anaga.ru/ , 3wwar.ru
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 30 October 2015 07: 28 New
    +3
    Thank you Ilya, read it with great interest, filled in the blanks ..
    1. Your friend
      Your friend 30 October 2015 13: 34 New
      +3
      Quote: parusnik
      Thank you Ilya, read it with great interest, filled in the blanks ..

      Excellent article.
    2. Karlovar
      Karlovar 30 October 2015 19: 50 New
      -1
      The author "forgot" to write how in the Middle Ages the Uyghur Kaganate (a powerful power in those days) pestered China with endless predatory raids on the border regions of China ... Just one fine day, the Chinese emperor got tired of everything and he decided once and for all to end this threat at the borders ... the kaganate was liquidated ...
      1. Down House
        Down House 30 October 2015 20: 53 New
        +1
        Quote: Karlovar
        (powerful power in those days)

        Yes, if it were not for RI-China, which once divided the "big Turkestan", this region would have been more than a serious state.
  2. Boris Zidkov
    Boris Zidkov 30 October 2015 08: 55 New
    +2
    We know a bad story. On the territory of southern Siberia there was the Uyghur Kaganate. Then it was replaced by the Kyrgyz Kaganate. On the territory of the Krasnoyarsk Territory the Kyrgyz people still live.
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. avt
      avt 30 October 2015 09: 13 New
      -1
      Quote: Boris Zidkov
      We know a bad story. On the territory of southern Siberia was the Uyghur Kaganate.

      In fact, it was the Uyghur empire that Genghis saddled after the death of Presbyter John, a Christian - a Nestorian, her last emperor who did not leave an heir. That actually is completely stated in the annals, By the way, all the "Mongol" ones for some reason are written in Uyghur.
      1. Zymran
        Zymran 30 October 2015 09: 20 New
        +2
        Quote: avt
        In fact, it was the Uyghur empire that Genghis saddled after the death of Presbyter John, a Christian - a Nestorian, her last emperor who did not leave an heir. That actually is completely stated in the annals, By the way, all the "Mongol" ones for some reason are written in Uyghur.


        I'm sorry, what?

        About the annals. Written in the Uyghur alphabet, but in Mongolian.
        1. avt
          avt 30 October 2015 14: 03 New
          -2
          Quote: Zymran
          . Written in the Uyghur alphabet, but in Mongolian.

          laughing And why not immediately in Kazakh then? Again, invent your own alphabet like that? laughing Again, if you want for the "classical Mongolian language", then these specific chronicles of the ancestors of the present Mongols have come down to the present time IN TRANSCRIPTION BY CHINESE HIEROGLYPHS.
          Quote: Zymran
          I'm sorry, what?

          I will not forgive and I won’t give links, it’s time I myself would not only go to the library and read it, by the way, the Tatars from Kazan have released a good selection of documents as a separate book, but at least learn how to use the search engine.
          1. marshes
            marshes 30 October 2015 14: 20 New
            +1
            Quote: avt
            Kazan released a good selection of documents as a separate book, and at least learn how to use the search engine.

            To Kazan, already treated with caution, after shuttle trips to the Crimea, events.
          2. Zymran
            Zymran 30 October 2015 15: 00 New
            +2
            In fact, it was the Uyghur empire that Genghis saddled after the death of Presbyter John, the Christian Nestorian, her last emperor who did not leave an heir


            Whose inventions of Fomenko or Gumilyov?

            Quote: avt
            By the way, the Tatars from Kazan released a good selection of documents as a separate book


            Tatars could release on the Golden Horde.
            1. marshes
              marshes 30 October 2015 15: 13 New
              +2
              Quote: Zymran
              Tatars could release on the Golden Horde.

              They will release what they are told.
              Türkic finougres.
              Quickly they removed their representative from Astana. This is the one with the Kazakh surname. Crimea.
              With KAMAZ, it’s time to tie. There are URALS and GAS. It is time to end with patronage.
            2. avt
              avt 30 October 2015 16: 15 New
              -1
              Quote: Zymran
              Whose inventions of Fomenko or Gumilyov?

              laughing Coekakers who have learned a couple of surnames like me.
              Quote: marshes
              They will release what they are told.

              Yeah, they, and "released" what they were told to release the Dominican Andre, who visited the earth in 1245, and others like Plano Krpini and Wilhelm of our Robruk, well, these are only those who have their Latin sources, for the Arab and do not say, there are NO Mongols AT ALL - only the Tatars, well, at the same Ibn Al-Athir in 1230 / 31m, it is clear that the Tatars tried, even the ancient Kazakhs were lost in the Arab chronicles. laughing
              Quote: Zymran
              Tatars could release on the Golden Horde

              Yeah, what can I say .... Well, if only to be treated, be treated and be treated again fool laughing Onet Tatars are like that, they all copied from the Golden Horde from Kazakh to Uyghur, Arabic, Latin, there are again Byzantine chronicles, Chinese, Armenian, well, in short. laughing And Fomenko helped with Nosovsky and Gumilyov standing nearby. wassat
              1. marshes
                marshes 30 October 2015 16: 26 New
                +1
                Quote: avt
                , there are generally NO Mongols - only Tatars,

                There is a hypothesis that thousands of hands began to call the Mongols, or rather the Myn Kala, thousands of hands because of Mogulistan.
                Quote: avt
                Clearly, the Tatars tried, even the ancient Kazakhs were erased in the Arabic annals.

                Yes, with modern Tatars, Tatars in one word. Throughout life, the guys are good, in the 80s they even helped on the train but changed, their relatives were fancy-artful. not to take away. But the steppe is not === bet.
                What is ABT with genealogy, it is not a genealogy with its own tree laughing . figured out a tree? laughing
              2. Zymran
                Zymran 30 October 2015 16: 57 New
                +3
                Quote: avt
                laughing Coekakers who have learned a couple of surnames like me.


                Be more serious, you’re all like you weren’t such a fool as you appear now. Specifically, the kingdom of presbyter John was actively forcing Gumilev.

                Quote: avt
                Yeah, what can I say .... Well, if only to be treated, treated and treated again fool laughing Tatars are one, they all copied from the Kazakh Horde from Kazakh to Uyghur, Arabic, Latin, there are again Byzantine chronicles, Chinese, Armenian , well, everything is shorter. laughing And Fomenko helped with Nosovsky and Gumilyov stood nearby. wassat


                And here is the Kazakh language and the Tatars with the Golden Horde.
                My remark "The Tatars could have released the Golden Horde." It means that the Tatars are now actively publishing articles on the Golden Horde, but I have not yet met on the history of Ancient Mongolia.


                Quote: avt
                Yeah, they, and "released" what they were told to release the Dominican Andre, who visited the earth in 1245, and others like Plano Krpini and Wilhelm of our Robruk, well, these are only those who have their Latin sources, for the Arab and do not say, there are NO Mongols AT ALL - only Tatars


                But Rashid al-Din, the court historian of the Hulaguids generally calls them Türks. So what?
                1. avt
                  avt 30 October 2015 18: 45 New
                  -2
                  Quote: Zymran
                  Specifically, the kingdom of presbyter John was actively forcing Gumilev.

                  laughing They decided to go on a campaign to illustrate the saying - to teach fools - only to spoil. laughing I’m talking about the authors that in 1230-1245 they walked the land there and left reports, but here it turns out Gmilev is to blame! laughing Now the campaign is not Tatars, but Gumilev rewrote all the annals. laughing laughing laughing
                  Quote: Alibekulu
                  Well, this is the school curriculum - the notorious "presbyter John" is Kereyt Togrul, aka Wang Khan.

                  Yeah, of course it’s clear that you don’t want to go to school - it’s better to buy a certificate right away. So Learn, study and study again, then
                  Quote: Alibekulu
                  , then the RF is an object in the "Great Game" for the West in opposition to the growing Han empire.

                  you look you will start to distinguish the difference between the OBJECT, SUBJECT AND THE PLAYER of the “Big Game”, but you can also do it differently - not to learn, but to throw stupidly show-off and wishful thinking
                  Quote: Alibekulu
                  And the rearguard battles around Ukraine are the first stage of the struggle against China.

                  ,, Only when everyone dies, only then will the Big Game end, and frighten us
                  Quote: Alibekulu
                  Russia will gradually and systematically be "returned" to the fold of Western civilization))

                  There is no need, they already tried to "return" us in 1812,1914, 1941, 1991, and actually in XNUMX, nothing - somehow we will deal with the current "return" together with our allies - the Army and the Navy.
                  1. Zymran
                    Zymran 30 October 2015 18: 54 New
                    +2
                    Quote: avt
                    laughing They decided to illustrate the campaign with the saying - to teach fools - only to spoil. laughing I'm talking about the authors that in 1230-1245 x they walked the land there and left reports, but here it turns out Gmilev is to blame! laughing Campaigns are now not Tatars, but Gumilev rewrote all the annals. laughing laughing laughing


                    Are you really an idiot? A link to the authors of 1230-1245, who left a report on the kingdom of presbyter John, please.
                    1. Karlovar
                      Karlovar 30 October 2015 20: 07 New
                      0
                      Today, in the vast expanses of tyrnet, one can find diaries, chronicles, bhgalter reports of Sargon, Ashurbanipal, Thutmosis, Agamemnon, Nebuchadnezzar, even the mother ancestress of the human race ... everything that is interesting is exclusively in electronic form .....
        2. traveler
          traveler 30 October 2015 16: 54 New
          +2
          and Manchu script based on the Uyghur, indirectly through the Mongolian
      2. Alibekulu
        Alibekulu 30 October 2015 18: 01 New
        +1
        Quote: avt
        the Uyghur empire was saddled by Genghis after the death of presbyter John, a Christian Nestorian, her last emperor who did not leave an heir
        Nda recourse this is the school curriculum - the notorious "presbyter John" is Kereyt Togrul, aka Wang Khan.
        Quote: marshes
        The PRC, in this century, will "break" and not without the help of the Russian Federation.
        By the way, if we recall the favorite "horse" of the shark shark about the objectivity of the Republic of Kazakhstan, then the Russian Federation is also an object in the "Great Game" for the West in opposition to the growing Han empire.
        And the rearguard battles around Ukraine are the first stage in the fight against China. Russia will gradually and systematically be "returned" to the fold of Western civilization))
        By the way, how do you feel about the gestures of the son of Rakhat Aliyev? what
        1. marshes
          marshes 30 October 2015 18: 08 New
          0
          Quote: Alibekulu
          And the rearguard battles around Ukraine are the first stage in the fight against China. Russia will gradually and systematically be "returned" to the fold of Western civilization))

          By the way, this has already begun ... laughing
          Quote: Alibekulu
          By the way, how do you feel about the gestures of the son of Rakhat Aliyev?

          Football? laughing They say the grandfather can press.
          1. Alibekulu
            Alibekulu 30 October 2015 19: 09 New
            +1
            Quote: marshes
            Football? They say the grandfather can press.
            In the future, the Republic of Kazakhstan with him can greatly substitute ..
            Recall whose son ..
            Nagashy, once told such a "boyan"
            In his youth, he noticed that the elderly are clearly shunned by one family.
            The elders explained that they are "Kanisher." Then he did not understand anything. It came later when the brothers from this family committed the murder ..

            Why am I? "Prince Jofri" son you know who. And the current "dancing with a tambourine" are the first symptoms .. and tomorrow and "I do not want to be a free queen, I want to be the mistress of the sea .."
            And if we remember that everyone, including the opposition to the National Academy of Sciences, "came out" against Rakhat.
            The problem is that Kazakhstan with it can easily fall under external control. Moreover, here in the neighborhood there are people willing to provide "international assistance"
            Quote: marshes
            Partially chaprashty but it happened ...
            It feels like making excuses .. wink
            Quote: avt
            how will we deal with the current "return" together with our allies - the Army and the Navy.
            I kind of respect for youhi especially against the backdrop of clown Meehan ..
            1. Zymran
              Zymran 30 October 2015 19: 16 New
              +3
              Quote: Alibekulu
              The problem is that Kazakhstan with it can easily fall under external control. Moreover, here in the neighborhood there are people willing to provide "international assistance"


              Do you think the old man is not poh? The only thing that worries him is his family. If the granddaughter will steer under the protectorate of neighbors, then this will suit him perfectly.

              Quote: Alibekulu
              I, as it were, absolutely respect for youhi especially against the background of the clown Meehan ..


              The same clown as Meehan. The Uyghur Empire of Elder John, which Genghis Khan saddled what is worth. laughing
              1. Alibekulu
                Alibekulu 30 October 2015 19: 25 New
                +2
                Quote: Zymran
                If the granddaughter steers under the protectorate of the neighbors, then it is quite satisfied with it.
                So, of course, it will suit, but with this fool it is unlikely that even a "protectorate" will work
                Quote: Zymran
                The same clown as Meehan.
                Not against the background of Vitali, almost anyone seems adequate.
                Quote: Zymran
                The Uygur empire of Prester John, which was saddled by Genghis Khan, is worth something.
                Well, to me, like kerey - it's especially interesting to hear ..
                1. Zymran
                  Zymran 30 October 2015 19: 50 New
                  0
                  Quote: Alibekulu
                  Well, to me, like kerey - it's especially interesting to hear ..


                  There is such an article, I warn you, the conclusions may not be pleasant

                  www.molgen.org/rjgg/index.php/RJGGRE/article/download/121/137
        2. Karlovar
          Karlovar 30 October 2015 20: 14 New
          0
          I will say more: now the war is not even between the United States and China, but between world China and world Jewry ... the US is the economic, political, military, resource base of Jewry ..., China is the same base of China .... Each side makes alliances on whether allied, on vassal principles, who can ....
      3. Karlovar
        Karlovar 30 October 2015 19: 53 New
        0
        The Mongols did not have a written language, the Uyghurs had .... It was not in Lithuanian that the Mongols wrote history ...
    3. Humpty
      Humpty 30 October 2015 18: 23 New
      0
      Quote: Boris Zidkov
      On the territory of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, Kyrgyz people still live.

      These are Khakassians, but not the Ulug-Kem Kyrgyz. A small tribe of Siberian Kirghiz was killed, I won’t tell anyone in 1703, and finally finished off in 1704.
    4. Karlovar
      Karlovar 30 October 2015 19: 51 New
      0
      All the Kirghiz-Yenisei .... From the Yenisei, they are all ...
  3. Slobber
    Slobber 30 October 2015 09: 22 New
    0
    And to me, on the contrary, Islamic Uyghurstan impresses more than China.
    1. gans_sp
      gans_sp 30 October 2015 10: 38 New
      +1
      Why do you need another hemorrhoids at the borders of Russia?
      1. Karlovar
        Karlovar 30 October 2015 20: 18 New
        0
        For a change ... maybe romance ..
    2. marshes
      marshes 30 October 2015 14: 11 New
      +1
      Quote: razgildyay
      And to me, on the contrary, Islamic Uyghurstan impresses more than China.

      Better East Turkestan Republic.
      The PRC, in this century, will "break" and not without the help of the Russian Federation.
      1. traveler
        traveler 30 October 2015 16: 58 New
        +2
        Why not Uyghurstan? due to multinationality?
        so Kazakhs, Uzbeks, Kyrgyz and Tajiks already have their own national states.
        1. marshes
          marshes 30 October 2015 17: 30 New
          +1
          Quote: traveler
          Why not Uyghurstan? due to multinationality?

          And here it is.
          The most troublemakers at that time were Kazakhs, Ospan-Batyr and advisers from the White Guards.
          present-time Kazakhs have two television channels and a radio, training in the Kazakh language, etc.
          Uighurs, crush ... It wasn’t figs to kill our policemen, the answer was cruel, but they didn’t touch the children. They passed it to the diaspora.
          Quote: traveler
          so Kazakhs, Uzbeks, Kyrgyz and Tajiks already have their own national states.

          That is why they were initially in China. And then there was an opportunity, but "they understood shortsightedly .."
          1. Zymran
            Zymran 30 October 2015 17: 48 New
            +2
            Quote: marshes
            The most troublemakers at that time were Kazakhs


            In the second VTR - Kazakhs. In the first Uigurs.
            1. marshes
              marshes 30 October 2015 17: 56 New
              0
              Quote: Zymran
              In the second VTR - Kazakhs. In the first Uigurs.

              Uigurs, they lost a lot of things, they didn’t perpetuate the steppes. And it is understandable, our ancestors were not angels. smile
          2. traveler
            traveler 30 October 2015 18: 56 New
            +1
            Uyghurs-crush

            Well, Kazakhstan is always happy to help his older brother in this.
            1. Zymran
              Zymran 30 October 2015 18: 59 New
              +3
              Quote: traveler
              Well, Kazakhstan is always happy to help his older brother in this.


              It is easy to help the Uighur brothers as Turks, being in the reach of China, both militarily and economically.
              And where do we go?
              1. traveler
                traveler 30 October 2015 20: 50 New
                +1
                it’s all right, it’s better to curry favor, and then no matter what happens.
                and the Turks, what to take from them, subpops, not batyrs.
                1. Zymran
                  Zymran 30 October 2015 20: 52 New
                  +1
                  Quote: traveler
                  it’s all right, it’s better to curry favor, and then no matter what happens.
                  and the Turks, what to take from them, subpops, not batyrs.


                  Well, for the sake of justice, we did not help much in the 30, 40 years? Yes, and in 1870?
                  1. traveler
                    traveler 30 October 2015 22: 09 New
                    +1
                    well enough, it's time to help the Chinese.
                    and who do you mean by "we"? There was no Kazakh state in those years, it reappeared in 1991. Thus, local Kazakhs participated in the East Turkestan events and, as external intervention, the Russian empire and the USSR, certainly not Kazakhstan.
                    1. Alibekulu
                      Alibekulu 31 October 2015 10: 33 New
                      +1
                      Quote: traveler
                      well enough, it's time to help the Chinese.
                      Ok Alexandroid set out your suggestions how to help the Uigurs .. request
                      Here our committee members are sitting - they, I think, read them with interest. With regards to "help", the Kazakhs themselves did not particularly fight for their sovereignty, let alone think about the Uighurs ..
                      It can only be recalled that Murat Auezov, being in India, "made plans" for Kazakhstan's independence, sovereignty and freedom. And in general truncated .. what
                      Quote: Zymran
                      There is such an article, I warn you, the conclusions may not be pleasant
                      THX..
                      1. traveler
                        traveler 1 November 2015 11: 21 New
                        +1
                        Quote: Alibekulu
                        suggestions on how to help the Uighurs

                        first you need to decide on your position - for the Chinese, for the Uighurs or do not care for those and others.
                        at present - for the Chinese.
                        accordingly, the question of helping the Uighurs disappears by itself.
                        Kazakhs themselves did not particularly fight for their sovereignty

                        agree
                      2. Alibekulu
                        Alibekulu 1 November 2015 16: 19 New
                        +1
                        Quote: traveler
                        first you need to decide on your position - for the Chinese, for the Uighurs or do not care for those and others. currently for the Chinese.
                        Well, somehow "I have a desire to buy a cow, but I have no opportunity .."
                        Moreover, “Daddy” managed to give the bomb to the vigorous one .. fool
                        Quote: traveler
                        accordingly, the question of helping the Uighurs disappears by itself.
                        Still, your opinion is very interesting - I did bookmark your comments. Even to myself I retained some of your reasoning - a very non-standard and original approach. Well, at least for me. Therefore, do not jump off and state your vision of "help" .. yes
                        Moreover, there should always be prepared folders for the development of events. Plan "A", "B", "C" ..
                        And about the "fraternal peoples". The only people the Kazakhs take for brothers are the Kyrgyz. And they will stand up for them, even despite the shouts of Ak-Orda.
                        Remembering her age, why, when my mother, answering my questions, very clearly indicated that for Kazakhs, there is no one closer and closer to the Kyrgyz. I will note that I myself have not seen the Kyrgyz people from the very north of K-na, and later one might say did not intersect, but the fact that they are the "Bgat people" is firmly fixed.
                        And the Kazakhs have a rather complicated and ambiguous relationship to the Uighurs ..
                        Quote: marshes
                        and "six" -small Turkic peoples
                        You shouldn't be talking about sixes ..
                      3. traveler
                        traveler 1 November 2015 23: 05 New
                        +1
                        The only people Kazakhs take for brothers are the Kyrgyz

                        there is one. I understand that for the years of independence and the accompanying restoration of interest in themselves, the Kazakhs have been instilled with the strange idea that they are the most Turkic Turks, and the main postulate of this theory is koumiss and yurt (I, of course, simplify). Kyrgyz people fit these criteria.
                        hence the myth of exceptional militancy, such as we are all batyr riders, and these diggers mixed with Tajiks and other Iranians who grow melons and weave carpets, they say, can finally do anything. at the same time, however, it does not take into account that, apart from the golden horde, something serious did not work out, while those unworthy of being considered descendants of the Bumyn-Kagan were still happier - both the sultanates in India and the shahs in Persia, etc. d. etc.
                        in the end, everything, at one time, except for the Ottomans, degraded and lost their independence, and nomads and melon growers.
                        Now about the Uyghurs.
                        if there was a serious desire to help, then there are two options:
                        1. help the Uighurs openly, while going to worsen relations with the PRC. it's just about the cow, not an option.
                        even such an adventurous thought arose - the time for such gestures did not come until the United States entered into a serious confrontation with the PRC.
                        2. help the Uyghurs secretly, in which case portraying bewilderment and pretending to be a hose. permissible option, economic interests and maneuvering of the Kyrgyz Republic towards the Russian Federation and the United States will probably not allow the Chinese People’s Republic to press hard.
                        What help can Kazakhstan provide to the Uighurs?
                        perhaps only shelter or transit.
                        It is no secret that Uyghur activists and not only often run away from persecution in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. Instead of catching them and transferring them to the Chinese, you can give them the opportunity to dump them in friendly Turkey, and from there there is no extradition.
                        Of course, financial, organizational or material and technical assistance to members of the IHTC, etc. and there can be no question.

                        Kazakhs have a rather complicated and ambiguous relationship with the Uighurs

                        the reasons are the same as in the complex attitude of Russians towards Jews smile
                      4. The comment was deleted.
                      5. Alibekulu
                        Alibekulu 2 November 2015 20: 15 New
                        0
                        Quote: traveler
                        they themselves instilled a strange idea that they are the most Turkic Turki
                        Marek had been reading laughing... Of course, he is the brightest representative of the Kazakhs on "VO", but at the same time he is the most odious - "ears fade" from his maxims .. bully And many Kazakhs disagree with him ..
                        Quote: traveler
                        and the main postulate of this theory is koumiss and a yurt (I, of course, simplify). Kyrgyz people fit these criteria
                        Yes, there is much deeper. Something reminiscent of the Russian triumvirate - the great-little-Belarusians.
                        And often the Kazakhs united with the Kyrgyz against the Ozbeks)). Uzbeks, like Ukrainians, have become "non-brothers" for many Russians
                        And kinship is fully reflected in the proverb: "Ozbek oz agam, Turkmen - tor agam, Kyrgyz Cossack - bir tugan, al sart - sadagam."
                        An extensive translation will sound something like this: "Ozbek is his brother, the Kyrgyz is one uterine, the Turkmen is the most honorable, and the Sart is the victim."
                        hence the myth of exceptional militancy, such as we are all horsemen-batyrs, and these diggers mixed with Tajiks and so forth by Iranians who grow melons and carpets weave, they say, finally about anything.
                        So every nation has, such ..
                        I myself have personally read several such opuses, such as "The smart ones rushed off to Pannonia, and the dumb ones stayed in Altai."
                        Or "the passionary Ottomans set off on conquest, while the wilted steppe inhabitants remained to roam the steppes"
                        Quote: traveler
                        not a secret
                        the problem is multi-level - 1) For our supreme power - sovereignty - "Gift of Heaven" (fell)), and no one wants to risk irritating the dragon,
                        2) Part of the Uyghurs realizing that independent Uyghurstan became impossible to cherish plans to create it in Kazakhstan,
                        3) Uyghur separatism in alliance with Islamic fundamentalism, which our authorities perceive as a direct threat to themselves. Already there were a number of attacks.
  • Karlovar
    Karlovar 30 October 2015 20: 31 New
    0
    I agree! The West plans to use the inhabitants of the Russian Federation as free cannon fodder in the war against China !!! The puppet pro-Western government of the Russian Federation will have to ensure an uninterrupted supply of this meat (Putin is still interfering with their plans, but they (the West) are working on this topic). Well, not themselves Anglo-Saxons and Germans will shed blood, storming the Great Wall ..... By the way, the rehearsal is also successful in Ukraine: the puppet pro-Western Ukrainian government (aka the junta) organizes mass preparation of free cannon fodder for the war with Russia for an ideologist and rabid rusofobstva even Bandera skeletons out of the closet did not hesitate to get ... In the Russian version, of course, will get the skeletons Vlasov, Trotsky ...
  • Humpty
    Humpty 30 October 2015 18: 32 New
    -1
    Quote: razgildyay
    And to me, on the contrary, Islamic Uyghurstan impresses more than China.

    You have rubbish. Change to Aspara.
  • Boris Zidkov
    Boris Zidkov 30 October 2015 09: 25 New
    -1
    And on the territory of Kazakhstan there are Uigur settlements? Such as Por-Bajin.
    1. Zymran
      Zymran 30 October 2015 09: 33 New
      +3
      Quote: Boris Zidkov
      And on the territory of Kazakhstan there are Uigur settlements? Such as Por-Bajin.


      No
    2. traveler
      traveler 30 October 2015 16: 45 New
      +3
      Kipchak steppes were not included in the Uyghur Kaganate. there are kimaki yes karluks at that time.
  • marshes
    marshes 30 October 2015 10: 22 New
    +3
    In Soviet times, in the 40s in the Kazakh SSR, "cadres" were prepared for the VTR, for a while when they were friends they were suspended and then again until the 90s. Type "little green men".
    1. Zymran
      Zymran 30 October 2015 10: 37 New
      +3
      Quote: marshes
      In Soviet times, in the 40s in the Kazakh SSR, "cadres" were prepared for the VTR, for a while when they were friends they were suspended and then again until the 90s. Type "little green men".


      So VTR was formed with the full material, technical and military support of the USSR.

      By the way, I read that the Muslim battalion was originally prepared for possible actions in Xinjiang and recruited Uighurs there. Later, when it became irrelevant, all Central Asians were recruited.
      1. marshes
        marshes 30 October 2015 10: 45 New
        +2
        Quote: Zymran
        So VTR was formed with the full material, technical and military support of the USSR.

        So almost they were independent, but here the Korean crisis and Mao had to be attracted to the allies. A gift.
        The plane that flew to Beijing with the leaders of the WTR for negotiations, crashed (exploded), something like this happened.
        Quote: Zymran
        By the way, I read that the Muslim battalion was originally prepared for possible actions in Xinjiang and recruited Uighurs there. Later, when it became irrelevant, all Central Asians were recruited.

        They say they were prepared in Kapchiga, "Apple Orchard". The prime minister was just one of these. And in the early 90s there were a lot of people in one of the state. organ.
        1. traveler
          traveler 30 October 2015 16: 46 New
          +2
          The plane that flew to Beijing with the leaders of the WTR for negotiations, crashed (exploded), something like this happened.

          in Moscow they wanted and it turned out
          1. marshes
            marshes 30 October 2015 16: 55 New
            0
            Quote: traveler
            in Moscow they wanted and it turned out

            There, in general, Uighurs-Kazakhs-Annenkovtsy, Russian white officers. They were. Then the leaders were sent to Tashkent ...
            Annenkovites and part of the Kazakhs left for Mongolia, The first then imimmigrated to Australia, "brain sick" In the USSR, theirs later .... Father was in Mongolia later when he was, they were warned that they should not stop in the villages.
            Those in Australia, the USA and N.Zelandia live.
            1. Zymran
              Zymran 30 October 2015 16: 58 New
              +2
              Part of the Kazakhs went to Turkey. These are the ones that were with Ospan-batyr and Kalibek. "White Russians" - yes, many in Australia.
              1. marshes
                marshes 30 October 2015 17: 32 New
                +1
                Quote: Zymran
                Some Kazakhs left for Turkey

                It's about moving to India, you have to make a movie there. A very tragic story, in the Caravan in the 90s there was an article about it.
  • Russian Uzbek
    Russian Uzbek 30 October 2015 10: 44 New
    0
    Uighurs, they are generally mad ... It’s good that we left this hemorrhoids to whales
    1. marshes
      marshes 30 October 2015 10: 54 New
      +2
      Quote: Russian Uzbek
      Uyghurs are generally mad ..

      You stand each other, your culture and language are almost the same.
      It was funny to watch how the Chundzhinsky and Chimkenskys "butted" in the detachment.
      1. Nagaibak
        Nagaibak 30 October 2015 11: 58 New
        +1
        = swamps "You stand for each other, your culture and language are almost the same.
        And the Russian Uzbek - Ivan is called Swamp.)))
        1. marshes
          marshes 30 October 2015 12: 08 New
          0
          Quote: Nagaibak
          And the Russian Uzbek - Ivan is called Swamp.)))

          Yes, even Boris. laughing
        2. marshes
          marshes 30 October 2015 12: 19 New
          0
          Quote: Nagaibak
          Nagaibak

          Do you have anything to do with the Nogais? For the sake of interest. Perhaps you have Tamga, Uranus ...?
          Nagaybaki (Nogaybaki, Tat. Nagaybәklәr) is an ethno-religious group of Tatars living mostly in the Nagaybak and Chebarkul municipal districts of the Chelyabinsk region. Language is a dialect of the middle dialect of the Tatar language. Believers are Orthodox Christians. According to Russian law, they are officially a small nation [2].

          The census of 2002 was 9,6 thousand people, of which 9,1 thousand were in the Chelyabinsk Region.

          In the Russian Empire, the Nagaybaks belonged to the Orenburg Cossacks class.

          The center of the Nagaybaks is the village of Fershampenuaz (the district center of the Nagaybak District).

          Nagaybaki called Ufa newly baptized are known from the beginning of the XVIII century. According to various researchers, they are of Nogai-Tatar or Kazan-Tatar origin. By the end of the 12th century, they lived in the Verkhneuralsk district, the Nagaybak fortress (near the modern village of Nagaybakovo in the Bakalinsky municipal district of the Republic of Bashkortostan), the village of Bakaly and 1736 villages. In addition to the Nagaybak-Cossacks, Tatars-teppari lived in these villages, with whom the Cossacks had intense marriage. In XNUMX, by order of Empress Anna Ioannovna, in order to strengthen the borderland with the Kazakh steppes, the Nagaybak Cossack army was created on the territory of the South Trans-Urals, and the Nagaybak fortress was laid on the Ik River. There, newly baptized people who moved from Tataria and Bashkiria with their wives and children were collected from the Ufa district for service.

          Some of the Nagaybaks lived in the Cossack settlements of the Orenburg district: Podgorny, Giryal, Alabaital, Ilyinsky, Nezhinsky.

          Campaign you are one of the descendants of the KOK Horde, on a par with the Khakasses Tuvintsy and others. And a couple of Kazakh clans.
  • KareL1978
    KareL1978 30 October 2015 12: 03 New
    +1
    Thank you for the article!
    1. Karabanov
      Karabanov 30 October 2015 16: 31 New
      +1
      I am joining! Substantially supplemented my knowledge on the topic.
      Regarding the mentality of peoples, there is, of course, a subjective view. He lived in Central Asia for several years, communicated with Uyghurs and Dungans.
      I got the impression that the Uyghurs are sociable, but quite cunning, ambiguous, and how to say this ... sharp (well, sort of like our Caucasians).
      The Dungans are quite loyal, friendly, welcoming, but still on their own mind. And real hard workers. Plow in their fields from morning to evening without unbending. I honestly marveled at such hard work. Delicious national cuisine.
      The opinion, as I said, is subjective.
      1. marshes
        marshes 30 October 2015 16: 42 New
        +1
        Quote: Karabanov
        He lived in Central Asia for several years, communicated with Uyghurs and Dungans.

        Where did you live?
        At 8 he was returning home, in Taraz the Dungan-companions came in Russians - here are the Ktiians in Kazakhstan laughing those in pure Russian a couple of phrases are those in touch laughing I told them this is our "Chinese" Dungans - Muslim citizens of Kazakhstan. laughing
        1. Karabanov
          Karabanov 30 October 2015 17: 07 New
          +1
          Chuy region, Kyrgyzstan.
  • marshes
    marshes 30 October 2015 13: 19 New
    +1
    So for the Russian public famous Uighurs. Murat Nasyrov and Alimzhan Tokhtakhunov, Taiwanchik.
    In life smile The wife of a Uigur is not only this, but Manty, Lagman, Tushpara and what is with clover, etc. ... A full stomach. laughing Do not take away in the methods of cooking. Tandoor cakes are something and not shaped bread. In the heat, who drank Uigur tea, salted with milk. smile And then you can drink a lot of water, at best, the legs are swollen, in severe diarrhea. laughing
  • chunga-changa
    chunga-changa 30 October 2015 13: 32 New
    +1
    was transferred to the Qing Empire back - for compensation for expenses associated with a ten-year Russian administration of this territory.

    Honestly, I did not understand this moment. We ruled for ten years, incurred expenses, to compensate for the territory we gave to China. Did he pay us for them? Or did we seize these territories from China for ten years, and then give it back? What does it have to do with expenses and their compensation? Or did China pay?
    1. marshes
      marshes 30 October 2015 13: 54 New
      0
      Quote: chunga-changa
      chunga-changa

      But it would not be bad to have VTR near by, there are Kyrgyz people there too.
      A kind of buffer republic, which can be "promised from three boxes".

      But do not we wave to William, you see, our Shakespeare?

      This is what I mean, in the course of the "breeze" changes. Friendship is friendship and tobacco apart.
      So the fifth anniversary will be quite interesting.
  • Boris Zidkov
    Boris Zidkov 30 October 2015 13: 50 New
    +1
    Salty tea with milk. Not only do the Uyghurs drink it. Childhood and youth passed in Tuva. There are also Uyghurs and Kirghiz.
    1. marshes
      marshes 30 October 2015 14: 07 New
      0
      Quote: Boris Zidkov
      Salty tea with milk. Not only do the Uyghurs drink it. Childhood and youth passed in Tuva. There are also Uyghurs and Kirghiz.

      And How?
      Tuvans also add oil. Same where "Shangri-la" is.
      By the way, in Tuva, what breed of dog were they bred? I don’t see a Mongolian shepherd, they say there are Tuvans.
      Tibetan mastiff, Monogl shepherd, Alabai-Kazakh, Kyrgyz TOBET, and Turkmen which is a little smaller.
  • Boris Zidkov
    Boris Zidkov 30 October 2015 14: 08 New
    0
    Swamps, Tuvans and Khakasses are not descendants of the Blue Horde.
    1. marshes
      marshes 30 October 2015 14: 27 New
      0
      Quote: Boris Zidkov
      Swamps, Tuvans and Khakasses are not descendants of the Blue Horde.

      But they are Türks, after all. smile And whose descendants, and into whose horde, were they?
      1. traveler
        traveler 30 October 2015 17: 07 New
        +3
        they were part of the yuan empire. and in general, it seems like the Tuvans are just from the ancient Uigurs by birth plus mixed with the Mongols.
        Khakasses - from the Yenisei Kyrgyz
  • Boris Zidkov
    Boris Zidkov 30 October 2015 15: 27 New
    0
    Yes, Tuvans and Khakass Turks. Tuva is generally an ancient land. There is a chain of Uigur settlements. There are Turan, the Valley of the Kings, Scythian gold. Excavations are ongoing. Traces of the Scythian and Hunnic periods are found.
    1. marshes
      marshes 30 October 2015 15: 43 New
      0
      Quote: Boris Zidkov
      Tuva is generally an ancient land

      And also the area "Rublyovka"
      okay, then a certain Shtegashev declared the rights to the land of East Kazakhstan region. laughing
      "There" he was probably "corrected" or it was done purposefully.
      Quote: Boris Zidkov
      There is a chain of Uigur settlements

      Quote: Boris Zidkov
      .There is Turan, Valley

      By the way, it’s strange to find monuments, stele with an ancient Türkic runic letter already in the Dneprpetrovsk region of Ukraine. smile
      Quote: Boris Zidkov
      Excavations are underway. Traces of the Scythian and Hunnic periods are found.

      Well, they found something near Almaty, Usuns say that they are one of the clans. And the Huns are the clan MAJAR, Magyar. their DNA is 98% total.
      And I, as a descendant of those who were at the head of MOGULISTAN, somehow do not "pervarivate" the Indians. laughing
  • Boris Zidkov
    Boris Zidkov 30 October 2015 15: 53 New
    0
    The resettlement of peoples came from the territory of Tuva and Altai. Scythian mounds in Tuva are older than mounds in Ukraine and the South of Russia.
    1. marshes
      marshes 30 October 2015 16: 09 New
      0
      Quote: Boris Zidkov
      The resettlement of peoples came from the territory of Tuva and Altai. Scythian mounds in Tuva are older than mounds in Ukraine and the South of Russia.

      So I'm trying to straighten the conversation. And then everything is separate. First Reply, then if you want to say something.
      You may be wrong here smile It is said that the Slavs owned these lands, laughing so it will be, the hillforts have nothing to do with the Mongoloids laughing , they forgot one thing that high radioactivity prevails in places. And there are mutations at the inter-cellular level. By the way, Kazakhstan is in first place in uranium mining.
      So we are mutants, the indigenous people of Kazakhstan. laughing
      On the other hand, Kazakhstan, It’s possible to live only in the South East and North, KZ.And the rest, the steppe or rather the desert, there’s no water ... And then the problems with water will only increase. China knows ... More ....
  • Boris Zidkov
    Boris Zidkov 30 October 2015 16: 21 New
    0
    I think that the Turkic-speaking people left the territory of South Siberia. Moreover, there are mutations and radioactivity. Yes, and the attitude towards Muslim Turks in Tuva is pretty cool. I lived in Tuva childhood, adolescence.
    1. marshes
      marshes 30 October 2015 16: 35 New
      0
      Quote: Boris Zidkov
      I think that the Turkic speakers left the territory of South Siberia.

      One can say from Altai.
      Quote: Boris Zidkov
      . Note mutations and radioactivity

      And this applies to part of the birth of KZ.
      Quote: Boris Zidkov
      Yes, and the attitude towards Muslim Turks in Tuva is rather cool. He lived in Tuva as a child, a youth.

      Yes, we do not force them laughing , you can beat a tambourine ... I know some shamans, but the Tuvans will disappear within three decades as a nation. In Novosibirsk, they have already begun to collect languages ​​...
      And the Kazakhs are such Muslims that they constantly remember Aruakhs. The Dzhungars, Kalmyks and Buryats and the "six" -small Turkic peoples plus the culprits of the article will soon be remembered from them. smile
  • Boris Zidkov
    Boris Zidkov 30 October 2015 16: 54 New
    0
    Every summer I go to Tuva to visit my relatives. I have never noticed that Tuvans are getting smaller and smaller. In 1949, Mao asked Stalin for Tuva and Mongolia, but Stalin gave him the Uighurs.
    1. marshes
      marshes 30 October 2015 17: 06 New
      0
      Quote: Boris Zidkov
      Every summer I go to Tuva to visit my relatives. I have never noticed that Tuvans are getting smaller and smaller. In 1949, Mao asked Stalin for Tuva and Mongolia, but Stalin gave him the Uighurs.

      And the language? Russian for all locally.
      The second half of mine, Mari El, in 80x was mostly spoken in Mari, in the villages.
      Now they remember the language, and so on Skype in Russian. I have a mother who has lived in KZ for more than 40 years, knows more in Mari than my relatives in Mari El.
      My wife, a German, does not know German as Kazakh ...
      Her grandfather in Germany when he regained consciousness began to ask in Kazakh, where am I, the benefit of honey. Turkish sister was found ..
      And the sisters, in the supermarket, from the Russian Federation, instantly switch to Kazakh, got them along the way ... Well, they lived in the Zhambyl region ....
  • Zymran
    Zymran 30 October 2015 17: 14 New
    +2
    Quote: marshes
    The second half of mine, Mari El, in 80x was mostly spoken in Mari, in the villages.


    Is Sapiev not a relative? wink
    1. marshes
      marshes 30 October 2015 17: 36 New
      +1
      Quote: Zymran
      Is Sapiev not a relative?

      Not ... but Timke et al ... yes! laughing Partially chaprashty but it happened ... laughing
  • Boris Zidkov
    Boris Zidkov 30 October 2015 17: 15 New
    0
    It’s strange, recently the Tuva government tried to recruit Russian language teachers to the districts, paid a million in rubles. But no one went. Tuvans themselves send their children to Russian classes, but this is only in the cities. And there are no Russians
    1. marshes
      marshes 30 October 2015 17: 39 New
      0
      Quote: Boris Zidkov
      It’s strange, recently the Tuva government tried to recruit Russian language teachers to the districts, paid a million in rubles. But no one went. Tuvans themselves send their children to Russian classes, but this is only in the cities. And there are no Russians

      All this will change quickly, is already changing.
      If in Tuva, in Tuva, the Legislative Assembly is working, or office work is underway at the Ministry of Internal Affairs, language and people will exist.
  • Boris Zidkov
    Boris Zidkov 30 October 2015 17: 52 New
    -1
    Moreover, the Ministry of Internal Affairs is a federal structure. In Yakutia and Buryatia, the office work in the Ministry of Internal Affairs is also in Russian. But don’t worry about Tuva, the Tuvans have preserved the customs and faith of their ancestors.
    1. marshes
      marshes 30 October 2015 18: 01 New
      +1
      Quote: Boris Zidkov
      And do not worry about Tuva, Tuvans have preserved the customs and faith of their ancestors.

      Their happiness! While in Moscow there is Shoigu they will not be forgotten. laughing
      and then the ethnic Kazakh, Tuleyev was all worried at one time for abrogens. Kuzbas. smile
  • Humpty
    Humpty 30 October 2015 18: 19 New
    0
    He put a plus sign in the article, although the author in the history of China and the Uighurs in it is not completely informed or not correct. Uighurs in China do not have a freebie. The Chinese have made him 2 television channels where they drive their primitive tin-tirilunyunki. Let them rejoice. Why do even 3-5 peoples in the SA have their own path, flawed, but statehood. But the Uighurs, no? Everything lies in the mentality of the people. Under the Chinese, from time to time 1600 years, sometimes under the Mongols, under the Western Mongols (Kalmyks), under the Uzbeks. Who is strong at one time or another, that is the master.
    In short periods when the Uighurs do not have a master, their quasi-territory becomes a source of wildest prejudices and insanity.
    1. traveler
      traveler 30 October 2015 20: 57 New
      +2
      He put a plus sign in the article, although the author in the history of China and the Uighurs in it is not completely informed or not correct.

      but don’t introduce to us ignoramuses the periodization of 1600 years of Chinese rule. it would be interesting to read
  • Boris Zidkov
    Boris Zidkov 30 October 2015 21: 02 New
    0
    Karlovar. Maybe the jungars got China. But the Uyghur Kaganate collapsed in the 7-8th century. Then, before the 12-13th century, the Kyrgyz Kaganate was defeated. And the Mongols, in turn, kicked the Kyrgyz.
    1. traveler
      traveler 30 October 2015 21: 51 New
      +2
      Uyghur Kaganate collapsed in the 9th century. only the Kyrgyz in Mongolia did not gain a foothold, they went back to the north. and from that time on, Mongol tribal unions proper began to take shape there, eastern Mongolia, to one degree or another, under the rule of the Khitan from Liao, then the Jurchen from Jin. Well, then Chingiz, etc.
  • Boris Zidkov
    Boris Zidkov 30 October 2015 21: 17 New
    0
    Humpty Dish: Khakasses are right and not Khakassians. And not Ulug-kem. And Ulug-khem is the great river Yenisei in Tuvinian. Who finished off in 1704. If there are Kyrgyz in Tuva, these are Kyrgyz in Tuvan.
  • Atigay
    Atigay 30 October 2015 23: 38 New
    +2
    In 1921, Academician Bartold suggested that the Taranchians call themselves Uighurs. Uyghurs living in KZ are descendants of forcibly displaced from XUAR. They were lucky - educated, for the most part, they are fundamentally different from the taranus, the farmers of the XUAR - people who are mostly illiterate.
    By the way, in addition, Bartold proposed making the Andijan dialect of the Uzbek language (a mix of Turkic with Farsi) the state language, and since then we have been speaking different languages ​​with the Uzbeks.
    The XUAR was "privatized" by the Chinese in 1991, when the USSR disappeared, since the SAUR under the agreement between the PRC and the USSR was only under the control of China.
  • Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 31 October 2015 00: 15 New
    0
    Thanks to the author for the article. Comments also supplemented the topic. I am not ashamed to admit, but in school history, if there was one, it is so small that it is imperceptible.