Military Review

"Messerschmitt" in service with the Israel Defense Forces

39
On May 29, 1948, Palestinian Jews were able to assemble the first four Czech fighter-bomber Avia S-199. This aircraft was a post-war modification of the German fighter Messerschmitt Bf.109. Surprisingly, to protect the Jewish population from the Arabs, an airplane was purchased, which was the personification of the military power of Nazi Germany. The planes were in the Holy Land as a result of an agreement that was reached between Israel, Czechoslovakia and the USSR. At that time, the young Jewish state felt an urgent need for its own air force, but they had only a few dozen training, communications and transport aircraft at their disposal. The supply of military aircraft from Czechoslovakia was supposed to withdraw Aviation Israel to a new level.


For various political reasons, it was the Czechoslovak government that, with the approval of the Soviet Union, decided to support the formation of the State of Israel and sell weapons to this country in order to reduce Britain’s influence in the Middle East. In April, 1948, Hagana’s arms purchasing agent Otto Felix announced that Skoda was ready to sell Avia S-25 199 fighters. The Haganah is a Zionist Jewish military underground organization that existed in Palestine from 1920 to 1948 during the British Mandate. The organization was banned by the British authorities, which, however, did not prevent the Hagane from organizing a fairly effective defense of Jewish settlements. With the formation of the State of Israel, this organization became the basis of the Israel Defense Forces.

Already on 23 on April 1948, the envoys of the Hagany arrived in Czechoslovakia, where they entered into an agreement with the country's government on the supply of weapons, including Avia S-10 fighter jets with bombs and ammunition. For ten fighters, Israel paid 199 a million dollars, that is, for 1,8 180 dollars for a plane - a huge sum for those times. For example, one of the best American fighter of those years, the P-000 "Mustang" cost 51 a thousand dollars, that is, more than 51 times cheaper. A month later, the 3,5 in May 20, the Israelis additionally acquired another 1948 Czech fighter S-15.



It is worth noting that история The Israeli Air Force began even before 1948. So in the 1930-ies in Palestine, a flight school called Avron was opened. Graduates of this flight school took part in the Second World War on the side of Great Britain. And on November 10, 1947 of the year, in the then-illegal Jewish army, appeared its own air service, Sherut Avir. However, the Israeli Air Force became a real military force only after the acquisition of Messerschmitt fighter planes of the Czech post-war production in the S-25 version.

To deliver these planes to Israel, they were taken apart and loaded into C-46 “Commando” and C-54 “Skymaster” transport aircraft. After a long flight, they landed at the Israeli Ekron airbase. Upon arrival at the scene, the combat aircraft were assembled by Czech mechanics, who were simultaneously engaged in the process of training the Jews, the ground staff of the base. In Israel, the planes delivered from Czechoslovakia received the designation "Sakin" (Hebrew - knife). It is curious that the word messer is also translated from German.

The circumstances were such that, just a day after the first four fighters were assembled in Israel, Egyptian troops came close to Tel Aviv. David Ben-Gurion, who served as Israeli Prime Minister, decided to send in support of the Givati ​​infantry brigade, which was fighting in this direction, literally the newly created Israeli aircraft - all 4 aircraft that became the 101 Fighter Squadron. Each of the S-199 aircraft that went on a mission carried two bombs weighing 70 kilograms each. The bombs were dropped on a cluster of Egyptian vehicles near Ashdod. After the bombing was completed, the fighters carried out an attack on the Egyptian troops, firing at them from cannons and machine guns.

"Messerschmitt" in service with the Israel Defense Forces


Two planes did not return from the first combat sortie, they were hit by Egyptian air defense ground forces, but the Egyptian units also stopped the offensive when they saw that the Jews had their own combat airplanes. In fact, the defenseless Tel Aviv was not abandoned and captured by Egyptian units only because of the psychological effect of a single air attack. The next day, the two remaining “Sakina” took part in striking the Jordanian army near the city of Tulkarm - on this section of the front, the Jordanians sought to break through to the city of Netanya. 20 armored personnel carriers with infantry support were at the disposal of Jordanian units. These Arab units were confronted by the extremely small Israeli Alexandroni Brigade. Israeli S-199 fighters dropped bombs on the railway station, to which the enemy troops arrived. In this fight, the Jews lost another combat aircraft, which suffered from the fragments of their own bombs, the fighter crashed into the sea. The last of the remaining “Sakins” in the ranks took off again the next morning, on June 1, he bombed the fortress of Latrun, which was occupied by the Arabs.

Israeli pilots won their first air victory on 3 June 1948. On that day, Colonel Mordechai Alon, controlling the last S-199 from among the first fours assembled, shot down two D-COTA C-47 transport aircraft of the Egyptians, which were converted into bombers, over Tel Aviv. The first “Dakota” Mordechai Alon shot down over the city of Rishon-le-Zion near Tel Aviv, and the second when he tried to get out of the battle over the Mediterranean Sea. After this air battle, Egyptian aircraft never dared to make daytime raids on Israel.

Thus, the first four fighters S-199 played a very important role in the war for the independence of Israel. It is unknown in whose direction the balance would have swung if the planes had not arrived in Palestine before the Egyptian units launched an offensive against Tel Aviv. However, the Arabs themselves, who on 19 on April 1948 of the year, bombed the bus station in Tel Aviv, were indirectly responsible for the Israeli haste, and the 42 man died as a result of the raid. Upon learning of this bombardment, the Israelis and foreign volunteers, who were then in Czechoslovakia, did everything possible to send combat vehicles to Palestine as quickly as possible.



By 9 July 1948, the Israeli Air Force 101 Fighter Squadron again reached the 4's aircraft, after which it was sent to attack the Egyptian positions in the Gaza Strip. Then the 3 aircraft returned from the battlefield. On July 10, two Teksan AT-6 Syrian aircraft bombed Israeli positions north of Tel Aviv. These were training aircraft that the Syrians converted into bombers, similar to the Egyptian Dakota. The return air battle between the two “Sakins” and the two “Texans” ended in a draw 1: 1. With the same result, the 18 air battle of July between the “Sakin” link, just arrived from Czechoslovakia, and Egyptian aviation ended.

And in early August, 1948 between the warring parties, a truce was concluded, which lasted two months. During this time, Israel has managed to complete deliveries of fighters S-199, as well as to replenish their air force with combat aircraft from other countries. This fact, as well as frequent breakdowns of Arab aircraft, led to the fact that at the end of the truce, Israel continued to conduct combat operations, having relative parity with the enemy in the air. A year later, 20 August 1949, the war for the independence of Israel ended in victory for the Jewish side.

From 25, the Messerschmitts, which were to be supplied under an agreement between Czechoslovakia and Israel, managed to ship only 22 machines to Palestine. One of the transport aircraft that was transporting fighters crashed during an attempt to land at the Sde Dov alternate aerodrome during a sandstorm, where it was mistakenly fired from anti-aircraft gunners from the ground. The second transport aircraft during its flight to Israel for technical reasons was forced to land in Athens, where its cargo was arrested by the military.



Avia S-199

Avia S-199 - a piston single-engine fighter, which was in service with the air forces of Czechoslovakia and Israel after the end of the Second World War. The aircraft was a post-war modification of the German fighter Messerschmitt, which was developed in Czechoslovakia. The release of the aircraft was engaged in a local company Avia. The aircraft was used as a fighter, fighter-bomber and reconnaissance aircraft. On the armament of the Czechoslovak Air Force machine was before the beginning of the 1950-ies.

Fighter Bf-109 or as it is also called Me-109 (by the name of the designer) was produced throughout the Second World War. In addition to Germany (from 1936 to 1945 year), it was produced in Hungary, Romania and Spain. In total, more than 33 thousands of aircraft were assembled, including the 30 573 fighter in Germany itself. Thus, Messerschmitt became one of the most massive combat aircraft in the history of aviation, second only to the Il-2 attack aircraft. The most common modification was the fighter Bf-109G (Gustav).

In May, the 1945 of the year, after Germany capitulated, remained in Czechoslovakia details that were enough to create more than 500 Bf-109 aircraft of various modifications. Therefore, the Czechoslovak government decided to establish the production of these aircraft. It was planned to build a single model fighter Bf-109G-14 and double - Bf-109G-12. Their release was to deal with the Czech companies Avia and Letov. In the Czechoslovak Air Force, the planes were originally to receive the designations S-99 and CS-99, respectively.



But by the year 1947 managed to build the entire 20 fighter S-99 and 2 CS-99. The reason for such a small release was the terrible force of the explosion that occurred at the sugar refining plants in Krasna Brest in September 1945 (there was a version that the explosion was a diversion of Sudeten Germans from the Werolf organization). This explosion also destroyed ammunition depots located nearby, which among other things contained almost all the Daimler-Benz DB605 aircraft engines for Messerschmitt fighters available at that time in Czechoslovakia. The way out was found by installing on the Bf-109 fighter jets other German engines available in the country - Junkers Jumo-211F with a metal screw VS11. Initially, these engines were intended for He-111H bombers.

The problem was that this motor developed significantly less power compared to Daimler-Benz DB605 (1350 hp vs. 1800 hp). As a result of the installation of a Junkers Jumo-211F engine on a fighter, its performance deteriorated - the maximum flight speed fell from 621 km / h to 540 km / h, the climb rate - from 16 m / s to 11 m / s, the practical ceiling decreased from 10 800 meters to 9350 meters. The single version of the fighter with this engine received the designation S-199, two-seater CS-199.

In addition to excessively high weight and low power, the aircraft engine Junkers Jumo-211F had another drawback - due to the large-diameter propeller, which was not optimal, uncompensated torque was created during the flight of the aircraft, and the fighter pilot had to constantly make tangible efforts to eliminate it. For this reason, the S-199 fighter was difficult to fly and kept the pilot in constant tension during the flight.

The armament of a Czechoslovak-made fighter consisted of two synchronous (i.e. shooting through the propeller disk) 13,1-mm MG-131 machine guns, which were located under the hood of the car, as well as two MG-20 automatic guns located in the wing gondolas. It is worth noting that on the original Bf-151G-109 fighter jets, in addition to the two MG-14 machine guns, there was also one 131-mm MG-20 or 151-mm 30 gun, which fired two under-wing gondolas on the plane with MG-108 guns was originally planned.

Information sources:
http://www.waronline.org/IDF/Articles/avia.html
http://warspot.ru/257-tak-sozdavalsya-tsahal-messershmitty-v-izrailskoy-armii
http://ilgid.ru/science/heil-avir.html
http://www.airwar.ru
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 2 November 2015 08: 01 New
    14
    In May 1945, after Germany surrendered, details remained on the territory of Czechoslovakia, which were enough to create more than 500 Bf-109 aircraft of various modifications.Not forged weapons for the Reich .. And forged shock ...
    1. avt
      avt 2 November 2015 08: 45 New
      +7
      Quote: parusnik
      .A forged shock ...

      And for themselves, the Me-262 double with a radar remained its assembly.
      Already on 23 on April 1948, the envoys of the Hagany arrived in Czechoslovakia, where they entered into an agreement with the country's government on the supply of weapons, including Avia S-10 fighter jets with bombs and ammunition. For ten fighters, Israel paid 199 a million dollars, that is, for 1,8 180 dollars for a plane - a huge sum for those times. For example, one of the best American fighter of those years, the P-000 "Mustang" cost 51 a thousand dollars, that is, more than 51 times cheaper. A month later, the 3,5 in May 20, the Israelis additionally acquired another 1948 Czech fighter S-15.
      Having said A, it would be nice to add B as well. And how did they appear there and who let them go there? wassat The Americans were cheaper and they were also bought, including bombers, but the hitch is a spoon for dinner, and not even full of holes. In the USA, the future, strategic ally in the region bought and without airplanes slowed down Jews to help, Uncle Joe came, "they drove the airplanes through Yugoslavia, and what’s typical - the subsequent" Spitfire "of the Czechs didn’t seem to get through - like that happened with comrade Josipv Broz Tito.
      1. Pimply
        Pimply 2 November 2015 17: 40 New
        0
        Quote: avt
        Having said A, it would be nice to add B as well. And how did they appear there and who let them go there? The Americans were cheaper and they were also bought, including bombers, but the hitch is a spoon for dinner, and not even full of holes. In the USA, the future, strategic ally in the region bought and without airplanes slowed down Jews to help, Uncle Joe came, "they drove the airplanes through Yugoslavia, and what’s typical - the subsequent" Spitfire "of the Czechs didn’t seem to get through - like that happened with comrade Josipv Broz Tito.

        The Americans began to consider Israel more or less only in the 60's, before that, various sticks were placed one by one
    2. complete zero
      complete zero 3 November 2015 07: 35 New
      0
      "forged shockly" and where to go?
  2. tchoni
    tchoni 2 November 2015 08: 02 New
    +8
    An interesting and informative article ...
  3. Engineer
    Engineer 2 November 2015 08: 49 New
    10
    What kind of fiction? Charet Moshe (future Foreign Minister) addressed with help to Gromyko, on the supply of weapons from the Union. By the decision of Stalin in Czechoslovakia, a military airfield was allocated for the supply of captured German weapons, so that there were no suspicions that the weapons were coming from the Union. Mortars, machine guns, and other small arms were delivered, in the Brno area they were disassembled into parts of Me109 and sent to Palestine. By the way, most of the pilots were Americans - former military pilots. I don’t even want to comment on the frenzied figures for the cost of airplanes - where did the rebels get such money from then?
    1. avt
      avt 2 November 2015 10: 16 New
      0
      Quote: Engineer
      . By the way, most of the pilots were Americans - former military pilots.

      But isn't it from the Royal Air Force? Well, the first ones sort of started back on the Island.
    2. Captain nemo
      Captain nemo 2 November 2015 12: 39 New
      0
      Quote: Engineer
      I don’t even want to comment on the frenzied figures for the cost of airplanes - where did the rebels get such money from then?

      Jewish "rebels", this is not Donetsk rebels. Read the history of Israel from the 1st World War when, in the quiet of the Arabs, the Britons promised them Palestine, which they had promised the Arabs before, and you might get the impression that they collected all the Jewish world and the whole world into their "promised land" .
    3. The comment was deleted.
    4. Pimply
      Pimply 2 November 2015 17: 46 New
      +2
      Quote: Engineer
      I don’t even want to comment on the frenzied figures for the cost of airplanes - where did the rebels get such money from then?

      Actually, at that time, an entirely effective state was formed with a parliament, a law enforcement system and a tax system. Jewish diasporas from all over the world made donations (and not only them). So the state that was then forming had some money. But a little. In certain years, defense spending accounted for more than a third of the budget, and the so-called so-called. "Asceticism" (Hebrew משטר הצנע) - card distribution of staple foods.
  4. rubin6286
    rubin6286 2 November 2015 10: 45 New
    +1
    The article is interesting, informative. A two-seater version of the Me-109 G-12 was produced in small quantities at Czechoslovak factories in 1943 by order of the Luftwaffe to train pilots and protect submarines when following them in the coastal zone from attacks by enemy aircraft. The armament consisted of 2 13 mm machine guns and two 20 mm outboard guns.
  5. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 2 November 2015 11: 35 New
    +8
    Here the Syrians (quite unfairly) were scolded for barrel bombs.

    The Israelis also used them in the War of Independence.
    Moreover, once they hooked under Messer a barrel with liquid Mr.
    (agricultural fertilizer). And the pilot so successfully dumped her - she soiled beautiful
    uniform of an Egyptian officer who examined the surroundings with binoculars
    from a jeep in front of a convoy of several tanks - that a furious officer ordered
    turn back. He was not ready for such a war laughing . (it was at the Dead Sea).
    1. Captain nemo
      Captain nemo 2 November 2015 13: 04 New
      -10
      Quote: voyaka uh
      The Israelis also used them in the War of Independence.

      Israel didn’t wage a war for independence in the 20th century, it just bought it from England, which had a mandate for Palestine, and the question of Israel’s “independence” was resolved before 1933, almost immediately after the first kind of World War I Versailles Middle East.
      And only then Israel in 1947 began to fight with those who considered Palestine their land, that is, with the Arabs. In addition, the English "oppressors" of the Jews were the constant defenders of the Jews from Arab oppression, both with and without a mandate.
      1. Mountain shooter
        Mountain shooter 2 November 2015 13: 54 New
        +3
        You are not up to date. So much has been written about this war ... It’s worth leafing through for a change. And about what the Melkritians did in Palestine. And when.
        1. Captain nemo
          Captain nemo 2 November 2015 19: 00 New
          -2
          Quote: Mountain Shooter
          You are not up to date. So much has been written about this war.

          What kind of war for "independence" are you talking about, if in the Ottoman Empire in the 1st World Jewish population there were from 3 to 5% of all those living in Palestine, and where to look for something else?
        2. Captain nemo
          Captain nemo 2 November 2015 19: 35 New
          -3
          Quote: Mountain Shooter
          Scroll through for a change.

          Leafed through, 86 dead Jews for the entire 1st World War in Palestine in the British Corps. Somehow it was not impressive compared to how many Arabs died for Palestine.
        3. The comment was deleted.
      2. avt
        avt 2 November 2015 14: 59 New
        +1
        Quote: Captain Nemo
        Israel didn’t wage a war for independence in the 20th century, it just bought it from England, which had a mandate for Palestine,

        laughing Not, of course, the machinations of Zionism, but maybe you can tell the descendants of those crown officers whom the future Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin seemed to have patterned in the King David Hotel? At the same time, it seems to the relatives of that British Air Force pilot shot down by the Jewish ,, Sakin "well Bf-109 with Yumo engine.
        1. Captain nemo
          Captain nemo 2 November 2015 19: 20 New
          -1
          Quote: avt
          patterned in the hotel, "King David"?

          I didn’t understand what the word “patterned in the hotel” means, but probably the fact that an English pilot was shot down by an Israeli.
          Everything happens in life, but if England after that did not declare war on Israel, then it was a "friendly fire" in her own way. Like us in 1939, they shot in Western Belorussia and Western Ukraine at the Germans without being at war with Germany.
      3. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 3 November 2015 11: 39 New
        0
        6,373 Israelis died in the War of Independence.
        Out of 800,000 Jewish people at that time.
  6. rubin6286
    rubin6286 2 November 2015 12: 48 New
    +2
    Chaim tells his grandson about the war.
    Chaim: In the war, I was where the most bullets and shells ...
    Grandson: All the time at the forefront?
    Chaim: No, in the ammunition depot.
    1. Maki Avellevich
      Maki Avellevich 2 November 2015 13: 50 New
      +6
      Chaim tells his grandson about the war.
      Chaim: In the war, I was where the most bullets and shells ...
      Grandson: All the time at the forefront?
      Chaim: No, in the ammunition depot.



      Good joke

      My great-grandfather was in Budapest and in Berlin and his name was Jacob.
      1. rubin6286
        rubin6286 2 November 2015 14: 34 New
        +2
        The couple emigrated from Odessa to New York. Only ten days pass, and the head of the family calls his friend in Odessa:
        - Syoma, we’re in paradise! Syoma, here on Brighton Beach! The day before yesterday, we were with Sofochka in their restaurant ... You still won’t believe it - I just ate fifteen dollars, scummed ... mincemeat, liver with onion, soaked watermelons ... Syoma, here we are all !!! ... Lucik from the 7th fountain, Aunt Tsilya from Moldovan ...
        Syoma screams into the phone:
        - And what about America?
        - Ah ... she knows ... We don’t go there!
  7. Mountain shooter
    Mountain shooter 2 November 2015 13: 58 New
    +5
    Messer with a motor from Junkers was extremely unsuccessful, and the Czechs sold it - expensive. Well, they didn’t sell military aircraft to the Jews, all from under the floor and at exorbitant prices. But they fought - what will happen, because it was necessary to save the population
    (in some kibbutzim the majority were children who were former prisoners of concentration camps - without parents).
  8. svp67
    svp67 2 November 2015 17: 11 New
    +2
    And not for long, the former opponents - Bf109 and "Spitfire", wing to wing defended the sky over the newborn state of Israel ...

    [Center]
    [/ Center]
    1. complete zero
      complete zero 3 November 2015 07: 38 New
      0
      when Messer beats Spit ... like a balm for the soul of Spitfire's nastiest contraption)))))
  9. svp67
    svp67 2 November 2015 17: 49 New
    +1
    In general, Israel used the weapons that it could acquire, when for money, when on the battlefield, and when and as finds, in the former battlefields of World War II
    1. Pimply
      Pimply 2 November 2015 17: 54 New
      +1
      That's right. Order 23000 Mauser rifles, for example
  10. Grigorievich
    Grigorievich 2 November 2015 19: 21 New
    +1
    And who were the pilots? It’s clear from the article that they just gathered and immediately went into battle. Is it really possible to immediately land on another vehicle and immediately fight? The Messer is not easy to fly, especially when taking off and landing.
    1. complete zero
      complete zero 3 November 2015 07: 42 New
      0
      for that song is not a car in the air, and VISH automation is very convenient in controlling, the operation of radiator dampers, etc. ... the review of the rear hemisphere really let us down))))
  11. Old26
    Old26 2 November 2015 19: 43 New
    0
    Quote: Captain Nemo
    I didn’t understand what the word "patterned in the hotel" means,

    He blew up the King David hotels, So understandable?

    Quote: Grigorievich
    And who were the pilots?

    A few years ago I came across a book. Author M.A. Zhirokhov "History of the Israeli Air Force. Wings of Retribution". The formation of the Air Force is described in great detail, especially the first steps. I advise you to read
    1. Captain nemo
      Captain nemo 2 November 2015 20: 48 New
      -1
      Quote: Old26
      He blew up the King David hotels, So understandable?

      Well, after such explanations, of course, it became clear how not to understand.
      Thanks to the genius for the minus and reproached for my lack of understanding.
      1. Captain nemo
        Captain nemo 2 November 2015 22: 54 New
        -1
        I will please you again, giving you the opportunity to put me another minus.
        I’m here today in the topic about F-35, I unsubscribed about someone in the 3rd paragraph of my post, you are no better than them.
  12. Vladimir 1964
    Vladimir 1964 2 November 2015 20: 35 New
    +3
    I liked the article and read the comments with pleasure. Well done, Dear colleagues and author. hi
  13. motorized rifle
    motorized rifle 3 November 2015 00: 49 New
    +1
    couple of pictures
  14. motorized rifle
    motorized rifle 3 November 2015 00: 51 New
    +1
    couple more pictures
  15. motorized rifle
    motorized rifle 3 November 2015 00: 52 New
    0
    participants in that war