Military Review

Russia in Syria: top view


On September 30, a Russian military operation began in Syria. Aviation For a month, the Russian Air Force attacked hundreds of Islamic State terrorist targets, but these actions were not always and not always welcomed by the international arena. "Power" summed up the first results of the stay of the Russian military on Syrian soil.

The operation in Syria — the de facto first full-fledged military maneuver since the “five-day war” with Georgia in 2008 — the Russian Defense Ministry began preparing well before the official appeal of President Bashar Al-Assad and the meeting of the Russian Security Council 29 in September, at which it was finally decided to help Syrian troops in the fight against terrorists. According to Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov, about the upcoming air strikes on terrorist positions, Vladimir Putin informed US President Barack Obama during the meeting on the margins of the UN General Assembly in New York. Obama's response was brief: "We assumed so."

According to Vlast, the buildup of forces and equipment at the logistics station in Tartus began in August-September, when the large landing ships Novocherkassk, Korolev, Saratov, Azov, Caesar Kunikov, and Also, the Alexander Tkachenko cargo ferry was loaded to Novorossiysk with special equipment, ammunition and fuel and lubricants, and sent through the Bosphorus to the Mediterranean Sea. Having copied enough in paragraph weapons (air bombs, air bombs and air-to-ground missiles), the military had to solve only one task - to relocate the aircraft. It was objectively easy to do this against the background of the Center-2015 exercises, which involved more than 150 aircraft. Under this cover, the Russian fighter Su-30SM, front-line bombers Su-34 and Su-24M, attack aircraft Su-25 flew to the airfields of Krymsk and Mozdok, and then, bypassing the Caspian Sea (or the airspace of Azerbaijan), as well as Iran and Iraq, got to Syria. By September 30, a full-fledged mixed aviation group from more than 50 machines was created at Hmeimim airbase: by then Mi-8 and Mi-24P helicopters were added to the aircraft, and they still attack the Syrian provinces, which are located in the territory of the militants from the "Islamic State" and "Dzhebhat an-Nusra".

According to the Ministry of Defense, in the period from September 30 to October 22, the Russian pilots made 934 combat sorties from Hmeimim (of which more than a hundred at night) and destroyed at least 819 objects. Most of the strikes were carried out using high-precision air-to-surface missiles X-29L and KAB-500С adjustable bombs, whose maximum deviation from the target, according to the military, is no more than 5 meters. According to the source "Vlasti" in the defense-industrial complex, due to the increased demand of the military for the supply of arms because of the operation in Syria, the employees of the Tactical Missile Weapons Corporation were forced to go to work in three shifts. For the delivery of cargo to Tartus, the Russian Navy, on an emergency basis, acquired eight transport ships from Turkish shipowners, quickly enlisted in the lists of auxiliary vessels with military status: large landing ships could not cope with such a load alone.

In addition to the aviation component on October 7, four Caspian ships flotilla (small rocket launchers Uglich, Grad Sviyazhsk, Veliky Ustyug, and the Dagestan watchdog) launched 26 3M14 Caliber-NK cruise missile attacks on 11 ground targets, as Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu reported to the President on the same day personally. This case stands apart: on October 5-6, intelligence discovered objects of militants, which, by decision of the leadership of the Ministry of Defense, it was decided to immediately destroy. The military managed to get consent to launch Iran in the shortest possible time, through the airspace of which the missile trajectory ran.

Judging by the updated data of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, the main attacks of the Russian armed forces are mainly on the provinces of Aleppo, Idlib, Deir-ez-Zor, Raqqa, Lattakia, Palmyra, Damascus and Hama. According to Russian intelligence, most of the militant command posts, positions (in particular, fortified areas and mortar points), weapons depots, and training camps are concentrated there. The first strikes immediately caused criticism from Western countries. “We would welcome Russia's constructive position if it takes on the fight against the Islamic State,” said Mark Toner, a spokesman for the US Department of State. “We didn’t see them hitting targets of terrorists.” “Russia in Syria does not strike at the Islamic State grouping,” said Turkish President Recep Erdogan. “Eight of the 10 air strikes inflicted by Russia fell not on the Islamic State’s facilities, but on the moderate Syrian opposition, including the Free Syrian Army,” British Prime Minister David Cameron echoed. A representative of the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, Rami Abderakhman, stated that “since the start of the operation at least 300 civilians died, in particular, dozens of them died on the first day of the Russian Su-24 bomber's missile attack on the center of the city of Tell-Bis” . And on October 22, a Pentagon spokesman accused the Russian military of using cluster munitions in areas where there might be civilians.

Due to the increased military demand for arms supplies, the employees of the Tactical Missile Weapons Corporation were forced to go to work in three shifts.

The Russian military does not recognize any of the accusations: the last statement of the American military by the Russian Defense Ministry spokesman Igor Konashenkov called completely absurd and unsupported fantasies. According to the Vlasti source in the General Staff, the selection of targets for destruction is based not only on Russia's own data (the situation is monitored by the Persona N2 optical or electronic reconnaissance and Orlan-10 unmanned aerial vehicles practically around the clock), but also on information received from the allies of the operation - Iran, Iraq and Syria. To coordinate the activities, the countries created an information center deployed in Baghdad: its main functions are to collect, process, compile and analyze current information about the situation in the region. The center will be headed by officers of the armed forces of the four countries, three months each on a rotational basis (the Russian side is now represented by the commander of the 6 th combined-arms army, General Sergey Kuralenko).

According to General Kartapolov, before striking at each target, a special form is prepared, computer simulations of the forthcoming strikes are carried out, and only after that the final decision is made to defeat a particular target. “We only hit objects of internationally recognized terrorist groups. Our planes do not work in the southern regions of Syria, where, according to our information, there are units of the Syrian Free Army,” said Kartopolov.

The Russian authorities have repeatedly stressed that the military operation of the Russian Air Force in Syria is absolutely legal, as it is carried out at the request of the legitimate head of state, while the United States, France, Turkey and other countries strike the Syrian territories without any legal grounds. It is very difficult to talk about full-fledged cooperation now, since the United States has set itself the goal of not so much the struggle against the "Islamic state" as the displacement of Assad, the military-diplomatic source of the government is convinced. However, there is still some slight progress: for example, the parties agreed on all the technical issues of ensuring safety of flights over Syria, in addition, the Russian side still expects to receive data from the US military, which coordinates and identifies the location of both militants and residential areas .

International scandals arose several times, not directly related to the bombing. For example, on October 3 in 12: 08 local time, the Su-24M attack aircraft made a short-term entry into Turkish airspace in the Hatay province. The Russian military explained the incident to bad weather conditions, but the official Ankara did not accept this answer: Erdogan said that he could reconsider the issue of purchasing Russian gas. Later, the Turkish fighter shot down a drone near the border with Syria, allegedly of Russian production - Turkish Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoglu promised that, if necessary, the military would also go with the aircraft. The Defense Ministry categorically denied any belonging of the drone to the armed forces.

The fact that Russia does not intend to participate in the land part of the military operation, both in the Kremlin and the Ministry of Defense stated from the very beginning. The military contingent in Syria is present, says the Vlast source in the General Staff: it is based on contract servicemen from the 810-th separate brigade of marines (Sevastopol) and 7-th airborne assault mountain division (Raevskaya village). However, according to him, their main task is to a greater extent in the protection of objects, but in no way in the conduct of hostilities with Islamic radicals.

In fact, Russia is the first time in modern stories leads military action on the doctrine of the Italian General Giulio Douai. Back in 1921, he published the book "Dominance in the Air", in which he described the leading role of aviation in the war, believing that air strikes against key enemy targets could lead to victory. Before the Syrian operation, the Russian armed forces maneuvered in a completely different way: gradually getting rid of the global war model inherited from the Soviet past, focusing on the land component (using shock armies, corps, battalions), the armed forces continued to use disparate forces.

Russia for the first time in modern history leads military action on the doctrine of the Italian General Giulio Due

Alexander Perendzhiev, an expert of the Association of Military Political Scientists, notes that the Russian military men encountered a number of difficulties during the operation in Syria. "The problem is the lack of interaction with the Western coalition, moreover, not every goal can be destroyed so as not to enter into aggravation with the local population," he said. "There is still a lot of work ahead for some of the military component, what it really is. " According to Perendzhiev, the problem lies in the weak advancement of the Assad government army: "The participation of the Russian Air Force in the operation is more morally supportive of Bashar Assad, gives him hope that the territory of Syria will be freed from the terrorists."

According to unofficial information, the troops of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps could provide support to the troops of Bashar Assad, but information on the participation of its representatives in the clashes has not yet been received. The very first large-scale offensive on the territories seized by the terrorists of the "Islamic State" began on October 8. This was announced by the head of the General Staff of the army and the armed forces of Syria, General Ali Abdullah Ayub. The troops attacked the positions of militants in the valley of al-Gab and the mountains of northeastern Latakia. It was emphasized that the 4 th Assault Corps of the Syrian Army, which had not been directly involved in military operations, played a special role in the operation.

The Kremlin at the same time recognizes that without the ground part of the operation, success will be impossible. “No matter how many bombings you can achieve, we initially understood this and planned these actions only in coordination with the Syrian armed forces,” Sergei Ivanov, head of the presidential administration, told journalists during the Valdai-2015 forum. sincerely wants to counteract the obscurantists, terrorists who cut off their heads, rape women and the like. "

Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Rocket and Artillery Sciences Konstantin Sivkov believes that none of the operational tasks set at the beginning of the Syrian operation have been achieved: “The Russian air group works to the limit of efficiency, but the advancement of the Assad army is only only local - our troops in Syria for the conduct of hostilities are not enough, and the Assad forces have neither sufficient ammunition nor specialists to carry out the offensive quickly. "

Last week, Bashar Asad flew to Moscow to meet with Vladimir Putin. And he did it in a rather unusual way: on the IL-62M plane of the RF Ministry of Defense, which followed October 20 on the Latakia flight - the Chkalovsky airfield, and the 21-th flown in the opposite direction. The parties did not disclose the content of the talks: Putin only stated "serious positive results" that Syria has achieved in the fight against international terrorism recently, and Assad thanked him for his assistance in this fight. On Valdai-2015, Sergei Ivanov clarified that the heads of state touched upon the interaction of the Russian Air Force and the Syrian ground forces, and expressed the opinion that the ground operation against the Islamic State, Dzhebhat an-Nusra and other terrorist groups in Syria should be conducted Syrian army and Kurdish militias. However, a clear answer to the main question - how long it will last - has not yet been heard from anyone.
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  1. spech
    spech 28 October 2015 05: 37
    on September 0
    please correct.
    1. Kostyar
      Kostyar 28 October 2015 05: 50
      However, a clear answer to the main question - how long will it last - has not yet been heard from anyone.

      What for a clear answer do you need, May 9 at 9:00 ...?!
      Until these creatures die, which the kids send to death, so much will last !!!!
      1. rpek32
        rpek32 28 October 2015 06: 04
        more informative (clickable) map. Expand to full size.
      2. varov14
        varov14 28 October 2015 13: 53
        War, as such, is immoral, but since it is too late to pray to God. If the tactic is scorched earth, then stick to that tactic. Burned out - partners have taken, it is better for factories to work in three shifts than to send people to death, it is not yet known for whose interests. Armament, renewable means, human resources, in our time, not very, women are flimsy, men are passive. By the way, you will burn out ten times (no fools) on the eleventh, both civilians and "military" will be washed off.
    2. Junior, I
      Junior, I 28 October 2015 06: 11
      30 September))) Correcting
      1. science fiction writer
        science fiction writer 28 October 2015 10: 21
        However, a clear answer to the main question - how long will it last - has not yet been heard from anyone.

        What for a clear answer do you need, May 9 at 9:00 ...?!
        Until these creatures die, which the kids send to death, so much will last !!!!

        A good article for a history textbook and no more.
        1. afdjhbn67
          afdjhbn67 28 October 2015 12: 51
          Quote: fiction
          A good article for a history textbook and no more.

          And for me, it’s just a good, detailed and informative article, no cheekbones with a bang .. only the Douai doctrine is superfluous, not really .. but the article is definitely a plus.
      2. The comment was deleted.
  2. Armored optimist
    Armored optimist 28 October 2015 05: 50
    According to the latest intelligence.
    1. Junior, I
      Junior, I 28 October 2015 06: 15
      This is a moderate opposition that you!
      She can't be bombed stop laughing
      1. Kos_kalinki9
        Kos_kalinki9 28 October 2015 06: 39
        And we are not strong. We are moderate. We can paint the bombs pink for moderation. wassat
      2. Imperialkolorad
        Imperialkolorad 28 October 2015 08: 58
        Can. Just moderate bombing.
  3. Observer2014
    Observer2014 28 October 2015 05: 56
    "However, no one has yet sounded a clear answer to the main question - how long will it last?"
    But how much you need, so much and you need to bomb.
    And then lately, too many voices have come out that Americans will enter Syria on the ground, then Qatar and so on. What is it like to drag Russia into the heat of war ?!
  4. Armored optimist
    Armored optimist 28 October 2015 06: 04
    Ammunition disposal, VKS training. For some time, you can refuse to shoot at the ranges.
  5. dukalis
    dukalis 28 October 2015 06: 06
    Opposition, civilians, are we bombing them? So where is the evidence?
    So give the coordinates you know!
    Do not give!
    Naughty from Western duplicity! It seems that they are waiting for our mistake so that they can already attack Russia (morally) !!!
  6. Wolka
    Wolka 28 October 2015 06: 38
    The essay is good, but something about our airplane with the indicated tail number "25" very often flashes among journalists in the materials, no matter how bad it was ...
    1. DenZ
      DenZ 28 October 2015 09: 03
      Who wanted to rewrite the board numbers for a long time. You are so small. The planes themselves will not tell anyone who piloted them.
  7. Wise Kaa
    Wise Kaa 28 October 2015 07: 44
    Good article. A very interesting question was how our planes flew to Syria. thanks for the answer
  8. dvg79
    dvg79 28 October 2015 07: 55
    It is interesting how often the personnel will rotate, it would not hurt to drive more pilots through real hostilities, I would also like to see MI 28 and KA 52 in battle, and indeed you might think that they were never brought to mind.
  9. kuz363
    kuz363 28 October 2015 08: 08
    Such wars usually last for years and decades. Examples of Vietnam, Afghanistan and more. But the local people know how to fight. And equipment in the form of airplanes, missiles, tanks in those conditions does not solve everything. The United States is also bogged down in Afghanistan. And their military power far exceeds Russian. So time will tell.
  10. Proud.
    Proud. 28 October 2015 08: 09
    "... In fact, Russia for the first time in modern history is conducting military operations according to the doctrine of the Italian general Giulio Douet ..."- And it doesn’t lead close! In fact, this definition is a lie.The "Doctrine of Douai" implies strategic bombing behind enemy lines. On economic and state targets, without interaction with ground forces and the navy. Including cities and their populations. The main thesis of Douai is that in this case strategic bombing will lead to moral decline and the quick surrender of the opposing side - within a few weeks, or even days. In our case (the use of aviation of the Russian Aerospace Forces), the article indicates that the strikes are delivered, I quote: “... Judging by the updated data of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, armed forces are targeted mainly in the provinces of Aleppo, Idlib, Deir ez-Zor, Raqqa, Latakia, Palmyra, Damascus and Hama.According to Russian intelligence, it is there that most of the militant command posts, positions (in particular, fortified areas and mortar points) , weapons depots and training camps ... "The RF Ministry of Defense interacts with the ground forces of the government army of the SAR.
    Ivan Safronov, Sergey Goryashko are either not familiar with the Douet doctrine (its theory), or this statement is intentional.
  11. akudr48
    akudr48 28 October 2015 08: 54
    In general, a festive article about how well Russia, according to the theory of the Italian general Douai, conducts modern air wars by solving one problem that is excessive for air divisions of backward or painfully cunning Yankees and other adversaries.

    SU is coming, recalling Mayakovsky about the Mauser, your word, Comrade Sukhoi!

    But the shadow of doubt at the end nevertheless appeared:
    However, a clear answer to the main question - how long will it last - has not yet been heard from anyone.

    After all, this is the whole point, did not sound.
    It will be good if Russia retains the moment of independent determination that it won in Syria and the regiment of honor with victory will immediately return home.

    And if we miss a moment, Shoigu is now Navalny distracted with real estate on Rublevka, damned liberal, then as we understand that we won in Syria, talk shows may not be enough ...
  12. the most important
    the most important 28 October 2015 09: 01
    Only cats breed quickly. Given that Syria has been waging a war with the West for four years, it is logical to assume that its resources have decreased significantly. Therefore, there will be no quick victories. I hope that on May 9 we all will have a good mood from the news from Syria. This is the most optimal time, given that it is also necessary to get the chuchyundriks out of the ground.
    1. Vadim237
      Vadim237 28 October 2015 09: 31
      Vryatli our VKS and the Syrian army will cope with 100000 militant groups in 6 months.
  13. Santa bear
    Santa bear 28 October 2015 09: 41
    Here are the Turks, the venturers are cunning, and the cargo ships sold to our army and helped the terrorists.
    1. veksha50
      veksha50 28 October 2015 11: 13
      Quote: Santa Bear
      and our army sold cargo ships

      Ahem ... Russia bought them out of necessity and urgency to increase the throughput of the "Syrian express" ...

      And they sold - trash, and are happy ... I repeat - they are lucky that Russia urgently needed at least this trash ...
  14. slizhov
    slizhov 28 October 2015 09: 45
    The United States with its vassals nourished great power ...
    About 1000 fortified sites were gouged, and the advance of the ground forces is so difficult ...
    Either they fall into continuous mining, or even a lot of underground passages that still help the gangs to conduct a successful reflection.
    But, as I see it, each subsequent week is more significantly rich in relation to the previous event, related to the number of conquered territories! :)
  15. Anisim1977
    Anisim1977 28 October 2015 09: 45
    The most accurate analytics from the very beginning of the company.
    To the author BRAVO !!!!
  16. veksha50
    veksha50 28 October 2015 11: 03
    "To the operation in Syria ... Russian Defense Ministry began to prepare long until the official appeal of President Bashar al-Assad and the meeting of the Security Council of the Russian Federation on September 29 "...

    Yesterday’s news confused me about a Russian soldier who committed suicide ...

    The Ministry of Defense, in my opinion, reacted somewhat illiterately, saying that on the basis of personal relationships with the girl: "contractor ... aged 19 ... from maintenance"...

    What is it, from 18 to 19 years he went through military service and remained a contractor ??? Allowed ...

    However, I remember myself in military service (I served 2 years, I was lucky - I didn’t get kneaded when 2 and 3 year-olds served at the same time): six months - at ShMACE, training as an aircraft mechanic in armament .... Then half a year to the regiment - give-bring-take-under the strict guidance of a pasta mechanic-mechanic (then the warrant officers had just begun to appear) and a technician-officer ... And subsequently practically armored soldiers were not allowed to work independently, without control ...

    And what kind of specialist from this contractor that he was sent to provide combat (!!!) use of the boards ??? !!!

    I apologize, but since yesterday I'm worried about this question ... What is it, in the Moscow Region, they don’t know who and where they are sending ??? Or again burps of Afghanistan and Chechnya, again the same rake ???
    1. Fight cat
      Fight cat 28 October 2015 13: 27
      year of service, and then switched to a contractual basis! Standard practice!
      1. veksha50
        veksha50 28 October 2015 13: 54
        Quote: Fighting Cat
        year of service, and then switched to a contractual basis! Standard practice!

        I wrote in my comment - THAT - is allowed ...

        But the fact that such a green one, and as a specialist - practically none at all - was sent to serve the planes participating in real hostilities - it’s nonsense !!!

        I personally cited an example ... That's what this is about !!!
  17. alstr
    alstr 28 October 2015 12: 57
    About the deadlines:
    Pay attention to the quote: "The center will be headed by officers of the armed forces of the four countries for three months on a rotational basis."

    Countries 4: Russia, Iran, Iraq, Syria.

    If you think logically, then 4 * 3 = 12 months. Those. The operation is designed for a period of at least one year.
    1. Fight cat
      Fight cat 28 October 2015 13: 25
      you can’t refuse logic good
      1. Dr. Livesey
        Dr. Livesey 28 October 2015 14: 29
        Quote: Fighting Cat
        About the deadlines:
        Pay attention to the quote: "The center will be headed by officers of the armed forces of the four countries for three months on a rotational basis."

        Countries 4: Russia, Iran, Iraq, Syria.

        If you think logically, then 4 * 3 = 12 months. Those. The operation is designed for a period of at least one year.

        Quote: Fighting Cat
        you can’t refuse logic

        Your truth, the logic is iron! laughing We take 4 officers, multiply by the number of months that they will be in the coordination center, we get the operation period of 12 months !!! URGENTLY remove an officer of one of the countries !!! And the operation will be reduced to 9! months! Even better to remove three at once! In January we will celebrate the victory! And God forbid, if any other country decides to join!
    2. Deniska
      Deniska 28 October 2015 14: 15
      Or maybe it means that officers gather from countries, lead for three months, and then after rotation a new staff of officers comes from the same four countries?

      Then your logic is gone recourse
  18. Aland
    Aland 28 October 2015 13: 35
    Quote: dukalis

    Naughty from Western duplicity! It seems that they are waiting for our mistake so that they can already attack Russia (morally) !!!

    They don’t need morality,
    for them morality is fear, they don’t understand otherwise.
  19. iouris
    iouris 29 October 2015 14: 16
    It’s time to launch air strikes on oil pipelines captured by ISIS.
  20. Oleko
    Oleko 1 November 2015 02: 54
    Quote: iouris
    It’s time to launch air strikes on pipelines captured by ISIS

    And who will extinguish them?