Reflections on steel and composite armor


The perforated armor steel IMPAS manufactured by MTL offers light vehicles increased levels of protection


Innovations in material technology lead to a significant increase in vehicle protection levels. Consider some suggestions for steel and composite armor.

Technological developments in the production of steel and composite armor in recent years have allowed companies to offer lighter, cheaper and more efficient systems for protecting vehicles and personnel.

The Iraqi and Afghan theaters of war, where more advanced solutions were sought after, contributed to significant progress in this area. Currently, these conflicts are close to completion, the industry, taking advantage of the "pause", is actively investing in this industry and uses the latest developments in materials and design to offer its products to foreign markets.

Traditionally, steel and composite materials have occupied a different position in the field of protection regarding cost, features and applicability in various vehicles. But now the contours are beginning to blur, high-strength steel products become lighter and thus penetrate the market for lighter machines, and composite materials with multi-impact characteristics (the ability to withstand multiple hits) become cheaper and enter the market for heavier machines. This process was the result of constant investments in technologies of these two directions.

Compound Composites

Lead engineer for reservation systems at Morgan Advanced Materials Anthony Moran said in an interview that the main materials for composite materials are fiberglass, aramid fibers and low molecular weight polyethylene in combination with various binders.

“They come together in a plastic matrix, of course, there are many brands of similar materials on the market,” he said. “We combine them with innovative production technologies in order to minimize the mass of our vehicle and people protection systems.”

Moran called autoclave molding, direct pressing in forms and non-autoclave molding flexible from a technological point of view, processes that allow you to create materials with the best properties and the minimum weight.

“Traditionally, you need to have expensive stamps and very large, powerful presses, but we are trying to use autoclave or non-autoclave technologies with lower cost materials in order to offer similar characteristics at a lower price.”

However, material suppliers have also developed relatively cheap brands that allow the use of polyethylene, which has always been a very expensive material. New materials plus their production technologies open up the market. New materials may well find widespread use in military vehicles, for example, in the manufacture of fragmented podboboy complex shape.

Composite materials are mainly used where mass is the main problem. Moran noted on this occasion that when replacing steel with a composite, one can hope for a decrease in mass of about two times. "On a standard 4x4 car, we can save one ton, if not two, by changing the standard case of the car from steel to a composite material."


Bradley BMP in Iraq with Rafael Dynamic Protection Blocks Installed

Survival armored vehicles

Since September, 2013, Morgan Advanced Materials has collaborated with Tata Motors as part of the Indian Light Armored Multipurpose Vehicle (LAMV) light armored vehicle program for which it is developing a composite armored vehicle capsule. The first prototype was shown at the exhibition Defexpo 2014, and the company continues to refine this machine in order to begin its mass production.

The first reservation protection kit has already been manufactured and Tata uses it in preliminary tests in India. However, the set of requirements of the Indian government has changed.

“There will be another development stage where we will slightly redo the design to meet technical specifications with certainty,” said Moran. “Before that, there was just a demonstration model for testing technology, and now we will test it against the entire set of requirements, not only ballistic characteristics, but also conduct tests on the effects of external conditions, such as fire, smoke toxicity and corrosive environments.”

“This is an area where we combine the molding technology of composites developed in the UK with some of the new methods of encapsulation in ceramics in order to obtain the same multi-impact characteristics as the steel case, but at half weight. We hope to prepare for a full-fledged bid for Indian requirements in 2016. ”

More steel?

In the sphere of armor steels, the industry also does not stand still and moves forward by leaps and bounds.

Rick Milne, Business Development Manager at MTL, said that developing ultra-high-strength steel production processes with Brinell hardness from 600 or 700 units provided protection with a lower mass. He added that steel mills, as a rule, did not recommend the production of alloys of such hardness, but MTL invested in know-how in order to create products that bring steel armor to the next level.

"The research work that we have carried out for the last three to four years also included tests whose purpose was to see what happens during the bending of the product, find out the cause of the destruction and understand the effect of the bending process of the parts on its ballistic characteristics, how it changes properties, starting with the flat state and ending with flexible and machining. In addition, one should not forget about stamping, investment in tooling is necessary in order to stamp these complex parts into the final high-strength product. ”

“We buy a flat sheet from a steel plant, whether it’s Brinell’s 600 units or the Armox Advance brand or a similar grade, and we process it in our production. Then we cut it with a laser and a water jet, bend it on a bending press, then mechanically process it, possibly drill it, cut the thread and weld it into a single assembly. ”

Milne said that by developing lightweight products using the Armox Advance, mass savings of 40% can be achieved with the same level of protection that homogeneous armor or armor with Brinell hardness of 500 units traditionally provides, all at a single cost.

“It is necessary to remind that when you save 40% per ton, you get 40% weight reduction at the same price per ton, that is, your price for this lightweight part or assembly will not differ too much from the price you pay for armor with Brinell 500 hardness. In this case, you get a big jackpot, which consists in reducing the mass by 40%. "

Lag

As the threat level increases, traditional armor with 500 HB hardness begins to lag behind, as customers seek greater protection while reducing weight and cost. Offering the same level of protection when using more durable steels with less mass opens up new opportunities for steel in the armor market, which it did not have on it before.

In theory, this means more details of armor steel for light vehicles that were previously made from composite materials. On the other hand, with a decrease in the total mass of the machine, this makes it possible to use cheaper and correspondingly heavier steel in other places.

Milne named some of the growth directions of this business, in particular, protective steel covers and barriers for optical-electronic systems and tower sights. On the body of the car there are also special places, such as wheel arches and racks, which can be made of armor steel.

“We have seen highly specialized production in the market capable of processing this superhard armor, so that the buyer, instead of a sheet with a thickness of 9 mm, can use a sheet with a thickness of 5 mm for protection corresponding to the 1 level of STANAG. That is, you have good mass savings and this is of great interest to customers, especially when they have limited budgets, and you are able to offer more subtle materials to counter the same level of threat. This satisfies many of their requirements, and we played back part of the business again when we were able to achieve it. ”

“Of course, there are parts that can be made from both metal and other non-metallic material, but at the same time there are parts that are made only from ceramics and composite materials. At present, we have opened the doors, so that large and small manufacturers can come in and ask for a composite or ceramic part to be made of metal. In most cases, we say yes, now it can be made of armor steel in its weight limits, whereas previously it was necessary to refuse due to weight restrictions. ”

At the request of the client

Steel has the advantage of technological flexibility, because at the request of the customer it can be cut on a panel of any size. Of course, the customer himself or the steel manufacturer can develop the necessary part from the armor plate, but Miln noted that if they have steel sheet in the factory, they can start production within a few days, quickly responding to urgent requirements.

There is also a certain division among steelmakers, those who use cold stamping and those who use hot stamping. The first process does not use heat for stamping parts, everything happens at ambient temperature, whereas during hot stamping, the steel is heated to bend or roll.

“This is something that we have always questioned,” said Milne. “People who make hot rolled armor always say that heating does not affect the properties of the armor or the ballistic characteristics, but we doubt it.”

“During cold forming there is no exposure to elevated temperatures, that is, you do not change the properties of the steel. In cold stamping zones, you apply a different type of pressure, but we ... understand this and with the help of our metallurgists and strength specialists we cope with this, so it does not affect the ballistic properties. ”

He continued: “But by heating the material, you change the mechanical and ballistic characteristics and we don’t want to go that way, since we can replace almost everything with cold stamping. Definitely applying this method gives our customers satisfaction and confidence. ”

The only area where, as Milne believes, hot-stamped components can be used is heat-resistant covers in civilian vehicles, for example, Land Cruiser, since the geometry of these parts is only suitable for hot stamping.

The company MTL also offers for machines and structures that require protection corresponding to the STANAG level 4, their perforated IMPAS armor. This attachment booking solution can be integrated into any platform; its sheets are usually installed from the body of the machine at a distance of 50 mm, but it can be regulated for specific threats.

“This decision enhances the original machine protection. If it is STANAG Level 1 or 2, then you can very quickly raise the level of protection. This gives another 30-40% mass savings compared to traditional armor. If the sheet weighs 10 kg, then our perforated armor will weigh 6 kg, so you will further reduce the weight with the IMPAS armor. ”

He added that this solution was successful, since the mass of the new armor is comparable to the mass of composites and ceramics, but the components are “much cheaper”. Also, this armor is easy to add or quickly remove if necessary.

Multi-hit features

Milne believes that one of the most sought-after properties of perforated IMPAS armor, “significantly superior to composite materials,” is its ability to withstand multiple hits.

Milne agrees that traditionally it was a problem of composites, but at the same time, he believes that all this can be overcome.

“From the very beginning, one of the drawbacks of ceramic systems is their multi-shock characteristic, when ceramics protects from the first bullet, and the second can already make a hole in the target,” he explained. “We spent a lot of time checking the materials we use and how to combine them to get extremely small distances between hits in composite ceramic parts.”

“We use the AP55 standard and this is a pretty tough test - 25 mm between pairs of hits, which is very difficult for a traditional ceramic system. Some new technologies are really pushing the boundaries of what's possible for this type of system. ”

Moran added that composites can also be added to steel shells, and therefore Morgan designs ceramic elements to integrate with steel.

“If you want to increase the capabilities of the platform, since it has to be deployed in an area with a higher level of threats, then you can develop a ceramic plate, bolt it to the sides of the machine and, thereby, increase the levels of protection with a relatively small increase in mass.”

Way east

Both markets, both composites and steel, have experienced similar bursts in the last five to ten years in connection with the hostilities in Iraq and Afghanistan, especially in connection with urgent operational orders. However, at present, sales have declined and both sectors must aggressively compete for foreign markets, especially now, when the characteristics of armor products are increasingly converging.

Moran said that for Morgan, composites technology developed for the British Department of Defense during the Afghan conflict "really allowed progress in many areas."

At the same time, he added: “The technology works for the UK and its allies, and we currently expect to use the same technology internationally, so we are focusing on expanding markets, such as the Middle East and Asia, while continuing to serve larger markets in Britain and North America.

In North America, Morgan opened a branch in the Canadian province of Ontario. This market is very large, and mainly products made of steel and aluminum armor are in demand here.

“Perhaps this is due to the fact that the metal is a more understandable and proven material, whereas since the advent of composites we have not accumulated enough data about them that are necessary for many of our programs,” explained Moran.

However, he believes that currently there is a "change of mood" in the North American region along with the rest of the world, as an increasing number of requirements are put forward for machines that have mass restrictions. Since machines must be deployed strategically, they must weigh less, but the threats remain the same.

“There must be a compromise,” he continued. - Therefore, when the level of threat exceeds the carrying capacity of the chassis and you must apply new materials, primarily non-metals, there are composites and find their niche. Steel and aluminum are well tested and for some applications they are just brilliant. They offer you a less bulky system with good multi-shock characteristics, but they are heavier than the composite alternative. "

“Another advantage of the hull or other composite parts of the machine is that they collapse gradually, so when firing armor-piercing ammunition, a shell, passing through the composite, does not form additional fragments inside the machine. They are used as anti-splinter podboy inside metal structures. If you have a car made of composite materials, then you do not need this slaughter, because there will be no formation of fragments in the car. ”


Tata's Light Armored Multipurpose Light Multi-Purpose Armored Vehicle is equipped with a composite armor crew capsule (photo from Defexpo India)

Space saving

The idea is that in order to reduce the number of parts in the kit instead of a set of flat panels connected together, the composites are molded into curved complex shapes. This saves zakronevy volume and can provide better coverage of the surfaces of the machine regarding survivability.

Moran said that mass requirements are being put forward in various vehicle development programs, not only in North America, but throughout the world, in order to reduce costs over the entire lifespan, as well as reduce harmful emissions.

“It was a huge and difficult task of moving from a pure idea to its practical application in cost-optimized systems for emerging markets such as Asia and the Middle East. They really want technology and performance, but this is a price-sensitive market and we are trying to use high technologies and production methods, but we adjust them to a specific market in order to get a more profitable product. ”

In the meantime, Milne noted that the situation looks similar for steel, the markets outside Europe are “lively” and show interest in MTL.

“Turkey, the Middle East and the Far East are on the rise, the production of armored vehicles there is relatively new. They are also little aware of new armor steels, and therefore we have good prospects there. ”

“They are not particularly good qualifications. I was at the DSA 2014 exhibition in Malaysia and many of their cars were relatively poorly protected, because they were built by Western manufacturers. ”

“Currently, they want to design and manufacture their own equipment in cooperation with a western company themselves, they want to do everything in their own country, although they are familiar only with traditional homogeneous armor or steel 500 HB hardness. Therefore, new technologies have become 600 units and higher are often new to them, they were poorly aware of the availability of similar materials on the market that they can be produced, ”Milne continued. “In these bear corners, we collaborated with several manufacturers on design and prototyping in the hope of mass production, which would allow us to obtain products with a decent weight saving.”

Reflections on steel and composite armor

CAMAC Capsule from Morgan Composite Armor

Combined approach

In the Israeli company Rafael believe that the combination of armor materials is the best solution and therefore use a mixture of different processes in the development of their decisions.

A company spokesman said: “Composite materials and steel are the simplest simple technologies for additional booking, but the most effective. However, the combination of these materials with explosive or ceramic materials in the respective configurations offers effective dynamic and ceramic protection for combat vehicles.

“The best balanced protection” is not necessarily a combination of composites and steel. Rafael’s advanced armor consists of metals, ceramics, composites, elastomers, and energy materials. There is no one correct combination of materials for obtaining the best protection. The optimal configuration of armor depends on the required level of protection, the available base armor, its material, thickness and angle of inclination. A combination of experimental and software tools is used to get the best and most unique booking solutions. ”

Like its competitors, Rafael constantly conducts research and development and develops advanced materials. The latest developments include insensitive energetic material with an improved low burning rate for use in dynamic protection that complies with international safety standards and the requirements of the hazard classification system, as well as advanced composite ceramic armor. The company uses injection molding technology to produce reactive armor; computerized autoclaves for bonding composite ceramic armor; vulcanization of multilayer armor plates; heat treatment of steel plates; X-ray and ultrasound to detect microcracks in ceramic tiles as part of the quality control process.

Over the past year and a half, Rafael’s booking contracts have been associated with retrofit kits for the Israeli army. Over the past three to four years, large contracts have also been concluded on advanced dynamic protection blocks for American cars Bradley and Stryker.

Future threats

Predicting future threats to vehicles, Rafael believes that they are associated with "the recent intensification of terrorism and the expansion of asymmetric conflicts," which has contributed to the rapid spread of RPGs and unconventional lethal systems, such as directional bombs and improvised explosive devices.

A company spokesman added that “before the most deadly threats were the coalition forces in Iraq and Afghanistan. This situation has led to the use of appropriate technologies for additional booking, especially technologies of dynamic protection and protection against directional bombs. "

“Most likely, in the future, the main threat to combat vehicles will be powerful armor-piercing sub-caliber 25-mm and 30-mm ammunition. Consequently, one of the main directions of development of vehicle protection against such threats in the coming years will be efficient and easy booking systems. ”

Materials used:
www.morganadvancedmaterials.com
www.rafael.co.il
www.ssab.com
www.shephardmedia.com
www.wikipedia.org
https://ru.wikipedia.org
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  1. inkass_98 28 October 2015 07: 42 New
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    The problem of composite armor is very interesting, current armored cars are too heavy. To some extent, this is a plus, because when a mine / mine is blown up, the mass of the car extinguishes the energy of the explosion, but in other cases the weight is not good, as in the case of a curious landing of the brave marines on the Portuguese coast: “Humvee” could not overcome a narrow strip beach, sowing in the sand.
    As far as I understand, we still have a lag in the issue of equipping combat vehicles with composite armor, which is not encouraging. In addition to its own needs, this is a serious foreign market.
    1. dvina71 28 October 2015 20: 18 New
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      We have no lag in composite armor .. There is a lag in the assortment of LBTs, those same armored vehicles. I do not think this is something bad for us.
  2. pimen 28 October 2015 08: 31 New
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    if the perforated armor, then the holes with an asterisk
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    2. gjv
      gjv 28 October 2015 08: 41 New
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      Quote: pimen
      if the perforated armor, then the holes with an asterisk

      What the hell are the stars? The round hole has uniform strength, while the asterisk does not. Tear the star with rays.
      1. pimen 28 October 2015 08: 53 New
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        will tear both one and the other, but there will be more harm to the disc from the star
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        2. gjv
          gjv 28 October 2015 09: 32 New
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          Igor, IMHO the round holes will tear less, and the rush places will be larger in area and therefore slow down the disc more strongly. Although significant harm to the bolvaki is doubtful, especially for solid uranium. IMHO, the perforated armor sheets must be typed in puff bags with a displacement of the layers - hole - metal - hole - etc.
          1. pimen 28 October 2015 09: 51 New
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            I agree about the bias, everything else is pure empiricism by tyke method
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          3. PAM
            PAM 28 October 2015 10: 36 New
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            perforated armor two tasks: first, reduce the weight of the armor (rolled steel sheet); second, take on the impulse of the projectile (bullet), destroy it into fragments or reject (destabilize armor-piercing cores) from a different angle. Another advantage of the perforated panel was that its destruction occurs pointwise (armor resistance remains the same after the first hit). The hole of circular cross section is the most correct solution: simple in terms of production; effective in weight reduction; constructive preservation of strength.
            1. pimen 28 October 2015 12: 12 New
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              Well, let's not forget that the hole is a finished hole that you just need to expand. If the solid armor “flows”, then the whole point of the hole is to: evenly and gently distribute the impact energy in breadth (and this requires taper and thickness), or to shrink and destabilize the projectile, and here the stars should work better
              1. Major_Vortex 28 October 2015 13: 28 New
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                The armor metal under the shell melts. And the “stars” only make the hole bigger and technologically more complicated and more expensive to produce.
                1. ProkletyiPirat 9 December 2017 06: 18 New
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                  the armor metal does not melt, but turns into a liquid state under the influence of pressure, unlike the "mortar" there is no temperature, well, more precisely, it exists, but only at the point of penetration due to the compression of the metal after testing the armor.
    3. dvina71 28 October 2015 20: 15 New
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      No difference. The holes are not for hardening, but against the camouflage. PKS these holes are only a joy, especially if the plate is installed at an angle .. the chance of a rebound is reduced.
  3. tchoni 28 October 2015 08: 34 New
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    I wonder why, when discussing new types of armor, we only talk about composites and steel? Why do bourgeois always bypass aluminum alloys?
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    2. gjv
      gjv 28 October 2015 08: 42 New
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      Quote: tchoni
      I wonder why, when discussing new types of armor, we only talk about composites and steel? Why do bourgeois always bypass aluminum alloys?

      In North America, Morgan has opened a subsidiary in Ontario, Canada. This market is very large, and mainly steel products and aluminum armor.
      1. PAM
        PAM 28 October 2015 10: 48 New
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        I wonder why, when discussing new types of armor, we only talk about composites and steel? Why do bourgeois always bypass aluminum alloys?
        Expensive (expensive materials, difficult in terms of production)! Although quite a lot of submitted samples did not go into series
    3. The comment was deleted.
    4. gjv
      gjv 28 October 2015 08: 49 New
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      Quote: tchoni
      I wonder why, when discussing new types of armor, we only talk about composites and steel? Why do bourgeois always bypass aluminum alloys?

      As a result of the industrial development of new alloys (Alcoa together with FMC), by 1986 it was obtained, passed field tests and adopted high-strength alloy 2519-T87 (here T87 is the heat treatment mode) of the nominal composition Al - 5,8Cu - 0,30Mn - 0,40 , 7039Mg, and armor based on it, which is an alternative to armor 64-T2519 in the armored production of light armored vehicles. Alloy 87-T34,5 in the form of plates, extruded profiles and forgings was used in the United States as the base structural and armor material for the creation of an amphibious armored infantry fighting vehicle of the Marine Corps EFV with a combat weight of 21 tons. The new Korean armored corps K26 is made of the same armor. the mass is 21 tons. The frontal projection of K30 provides protection against a 2-mm BPS with the Kerner gun compartment of the 72A14,5 gun, and the on-board from 32 mm armor-piercing bullets B of the KPVT machine gun.
      Armor made of alloy 2519 in thicknesses from 13 to 100 mm is currently produced according to military specifications TU MIL-DTL-46192C, in the United States it is referred to as third-generation aluminum armor.

      Amphibious combat vehicle of the U.S. KMP EFV when moving in planing mode. The armored hull design uses 2519 alloy armor, plus ceramic-based modular protection
      1. VIK_1961 16 November 2015 17: 52 New
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        I didn’t catch up ... Hu from um: "... from a 30-mm BPS" with a branch of the "Kerner" gun 2A72, ... "????????????? What is this constructive solution ????? In the drawings for all varieties of Kerner products (061st, 071th, and also on Kerner-B), starting from the stage of the technical design and until the parties presented at the GI and in subsequent ones provided at the CSI-SUCH WORD SET MET. In principle, each word individually is understandable, but together ??? By the way, “Kerner” was originally created to equip b / c to the 42nd cannon (miles sorry, to 2A42), and the 72nd was ripe right to work out the factory stage (with access to the GI). I recall that according to a separate Decision of the Civil Code (from the supply of the Tulmashzavod and at the expense of their resources), their comparative fire was carried out (including the survivability of pipes from the 42nd and 72nd machines). By the way, the 42nd car then (exclusively, not at the expense of the GI, but simply: see what comes of it) withstood TWO denominations in vitality and another half of the denomination, although you can’t get to the barn even 100m, but you can scare the adversary.
    5. The comment was deleted.
    6. gjv
      gjv 28 October 2015 09: 23 New
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      Quote: tchoni
      I wonder why, when discussing new types of armor, we only talk about composites and steel? Why do bourgeois always bypass aluminum alloys?

      The possibility of further increasing the armor properties of high-strength aluminum alloys was found in the group of Al-Cu-Mg-Mn alloys additionally alloyed with small additions of (0,2 - 0,5) silver. Characterized by increased fracture toughness, alloy 2139-T8 was developed in the United States under contracts with NASA, plates from it with a thickness of 25 to 150 mm are manufactured by Alcan Rolled Products. Tests of 2139-T8 alloy armored plates in the USA and Europe showed a better combination of bulletproof and anti-shatter resistance compared to serial aluminum armor, associated with a more energy-intensive mechanism of deformation and destruction of armor material during penetration, which, in turn, is determined by the optimal balance of strength and fracture toughness of the alloy.
      Project Management Stryker (US Army) and General Dynamics Land Systems certified 2139 alloy armor for use in MPK mine protection kits designed for the Stryker wheeled armored fighting vehicle family. At the beginning of 2012, more than 2 thousand of such sets were deployed in the troops, the total mass of which exceeds 2 thousand tons.

      In addition, armor 2139 is planned to be used as part of the BMD M2 Bradley modernization programs when repairing and replacing parts of armored hulls made of 7039 armor.
      1. tchoni 28 October 2015 14: 13 New
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        But, paradox, in the article about the aluminum bronchchka almost nothing was said.
    7. Vadim237 28 October 2015 10: 03 New
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      For this, we continue to work on aluminum and titanium armor with ceramic fillers Carbide Bor, Diboride Titanium, with tensile strength of more than 2000 MPa.
    8. dokusib 28 October 2015 13: 15 New
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      Aluminum alloys emit toxic gases when burned
    9. The comment was deleted.
  4. _KM_ 28 October 2015 11: 05 New
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    The issue of repairing composite and ceramic armor is not easy. For example, a bullet (or projectile) made a chip in steel armor. He was brewed with an electrode.

    What in a similar situation to do with a multilayer composite "pie" (for example, ceramic - composite - aluminum)? To disassemble? And if everything was baked by a shell? Well, they disassembled and replaced ceramics. The polymer was also replaced.

    And if the whole cabin is made of such a “pie”, i.e. the composite is sintered in an autoclave. How to eliminate a dent and a hole? Cut a piece and puts a patch? But then the repair unit should have its own autoclave. Those. mini-factory for the production of such parts. Or carry a ready-made set of universal patches?

    Questions, questions ...
    1. voyaka uh 28 October 2015 14: 43 New
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      Mounted metal-ceramic is convenient because
      It is removable and quick-replace. Bolted.
      Engineering technician troops with pneumatics can replace
      broken plates right on the battlefield. Besides,
      plates can be hung in two layers, on extra. frame if, for example,
      the enemy has some new, especially penetrating, ATGMs.
      Sheets of metal armor can not be suspended because of their weight.
      The principle of "head of cabbage" smile .
    2. Xsanchez 29 October 2015 00: 19 New
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      Now all is a one-time-1 law of marketing!
  5. gridasov 28 October 2015 11: 10 New
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    Any relative contact of two bodies is always a magnetic force interaction. The contact with the target of a fast-moving object is to the whole complex of other physical events and the impulse change in magnetic force processes, or called. fields in in this target object. Therefore, we can briefly say that the future lies with armor with an actively changing magnetic field or flows of magnetic force processes in the target in such a way that it is this impulse of the applied destructive force that is used as an impulse of counteraction and directional destruction or destruction of the body of the bullet, projectile, and accordingly those charges of which they are the carrier.
    1. Ladoga 29 October 2015 16: 30 New
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      Comrade gridasov, you seemed to come to us, earthlings, from the future! I am sure that I, like many here, have no power to comprehend everything that you write about. It seems that your channel of communication with space is established. Is that why everything is so smart with you? But is it simpler?
      1. gridasov 29 October 2015 16: 56 New
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        But you are right that I have a lot to learn. And of course it's easier to express your thoughts. And of course thanks for the recommendation. It helps me.
      2. psiho117 30 October 2015 19: 17 New
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        Quote: Ladoga
        Comrade gridasov, you seemed to come to us, earthlings, from the future! I am sure that I, like many here, have no power to comprehend everything that you write about. It seems that your channel of communication with space is established.

        Jokes are jokes, but this is really the future of armor protection.
        The common name is electromagnetic armor, although in fact it includes several subspecies:
        - based on directly electrification kum. jet or core;
        - a system that uses electromagnetic start-up of throwing plates (both passively, when hit, and actively - according to the KAZ principle)
        - and electrothermal protection based on the pyrolysis in plasma of the working material.
        In the usual case, electromagnetic armor has two plates located at a fairly large distance, one of which is connected to a high voltage capacitor bank, and the other is grounded. When, upon impact, the cumulative jet or armor-piercing core pierces the plates, they act as a contactor between them and initiate a discharge of electrical energy, which causes a large current pulse in the intruder. This creates magnetomechanical instabilities in the cumulative jet (which leads to its destruction and sharply reduces its breakdown ability)
        or causes instability and expansion in the armor-piercing core, which can lead to its destruction or rebound.
        1. gridasov 30 October 2015 19: 32 New
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          On this topic. There is no need to use a high capacity capacitor bank. If it is known that the momentum of a bullet or projectile at a target causes a potential difference on the surface of the target, then a simple circuit (without or with ground) will create a potential on another part of the circuit. The current problem is to obtain a sufficient energy density or potential difference without breakdown. Therefore, the "earth" is not used. The simplest generator can work not as a generator of energy (in our natural understanding, but as a source of its deep absence "I think that it will not work easier. Therefore, in this case, any bullet hit will initiate the work of such a generator. Fantasy is when there is no justification.
  6. srha 28 October 2015 11: 47 New
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    And I am surprised by the practical lack of spatial thought in the design of armor. Flat surfaces and composites. A little perforation and bulges - already cause controversy. But ricochets have long been known. Tear, deploy, shift to the side, take a hit with a large surface or trap - all this is possible with the help of spatial modeling. If an armor-piercing strike is distributed over an area several times larger than himself, how much does his armor-piercing drop? But to do this is quite simple.
    1. gridasov 28 October 2015 11: 52 New
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      I understand that the level of my justification is quite complicated. But really transforming the linear vector of the projectile or bullet’s flight force into the plane of rotation is not at all a complicated mechanism for understanding and mastering.
      1. pimen 28 October 2015 12: 26 New
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        balls under the top sheet, like put
        1. gridasov 30 October 2015 19: 48 New
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          I think that makes sense, but I thought differently.
      2. The comment was deleted.
  7. Amurets 28 October 2015 13: 06 New
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    I am amazed by the desire for ultra hard armor. Take the end of the 19th - beginning of the 20th century. Krupp's invention of extra soft chrome-nickel armor sharply increased the armor resistance of ship hulls. Take the cruiser Aurora and his brother Diana. How many hits were in their hulls, but the armor belt was not pierced was. A dent formed in the armor plate. But the sheet did not break through. It is not necessary to return to the technologies of the past, but you should think about extra soft armor. In addition to the complex with ceramics and polyethylene, you can create effective armor protection. This is only my personal opinion, not substantiated by calculations, based only on the analysis of damage to armor parts. By the way, it was found out that the greatest damage to the hulls occurs at the joints of armor parts and welds.
    1. dvina71 28 October 2015 20: 24 New
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      The armor should not be soft, but viscous.
      1. Amurets 29 October 2015 01: 03 New
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        dvina71. I write the name as it was written in the patent and permission for the production of this armor in the Russian Empire. And the rest you are right. By the way, there are a lot of discrepancies in the old and new terminology.
  8. _KM_ 28 October 2015 14: 17 New
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    Depends on the characteristics of the projectile. In this case, the type of core, speed and angle of meeting. Probably high-speed small-caliber shells with small deviations from the normal are relevant for light equipment. Apparently super-hard armor works well with such shells. Although perhaps soft composite armor would also be effective.
  9. lshka 28 October 2015 17: 36 New
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    sorry ignoramus ... and if armor reinforced with fibers? like concrete, but not with reinforcement, but with fiber-optic fiber (in concrete "bull-calves" fluffy asleep ...) in theory it will be stronger and more tensile
  10. _KM_ 28 October 2015 17: 44 New
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    The melting point of steel is very high - the fibers will melt.
    1. lshka 28 October 2015 18: 32 New
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      But if the fibers are the same carbon-carbon? so, alum is burned, it’s just ala of a welder’s jacket, or ala to burn steel-punch-reinforcement, although all this I think the designer has already calculated ... = (
  11. Mountain shooter 30 October 2015 05: 09 New
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    A theme with armored armor is already being developed, the basis is fiber from boron nitride, poured with aluminum. While insanely expensive thing, and takes root only in space.
  12. mosquit 30 October 2015 18: 14 New
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    Subject analogue "Fu-35" .... laughing
    The problem of composite armor is very interesting, current armored cars are too heavy. To some extent, this is a plus, because when a mine / mine is blown up, the mass of the car extinguishes the energy of the explosion, but in other cases the weight is not good, as in the case of a curious landing of the brave marines on the Portuguese coast: “Humvee” could not overcome a narrow strip beach, sowing in the sand.
    As far as I understand, we still have a lag in the issue of equipping combat vehicles with composite armor, which is not encouraging. In addition to its own needs, this is a serious foreign market.

    "Conclusion" Expert 1 "...
    What the hell are the stars? The round hole has uniform strength, while the asterisk does not. Tear the star with rays.

    "Arguments" Expert 2 "...
    The possibility of further increasing the armor properties of high-strength aluminum alloys was found in the group of Al-Cu-Mg-Mn alloys additionally alloyed with small additions of (0,2 - 0,5) silver.

    "Silver bullets" ... How without them to fight the deadly steel of the "mordera"! ??
    A theme with armored armor is already being developed, the basis is fiber from boron nitride, poured with aluminum. While insanely expensive thing, and takes root only in space.

    "Space technology" ...
    laughing

    To some extent, this is a plus, because when a mine / mine is blown up, the mass of the car extinguishes the energy of the explosion, but in other cases the weight is not good

    I consider this text - the text of the Day! laughing

    PS. It hasn’t been funny for a long time ... laughing