The first three decades of Vietnamese independence in the twentieth century are история the continuous struggle of the communists and anti-communists. Vietnam was destined to become a place of collision between two “worlds” of that time - the communist led by the Soviet Union and the capitalist led by the USA. It was precisely along the line of ideology that the main section between the political forces of Vietnam initially passed. When, after the end of the Second World War, a real “parade of sovereignties” of the colonies of the European powers in Asia and Africa began, Vietnam also did not fail to declare its political independence. This happened on 19 August 1945, and was the direct result of the defeat of the Japanese army in World War II. The Japanese entered Vietnam even in 1940, and until the beginning of 1945, they formally ruled Vietnam along with the French colonial administration, which sided with the Vichy collaborationist government. But after Vichy France fell, the Japanese no longer considered themselves obliged to recognize the formal administration of the French administration over Vietnam. Instead, they decided to create in Vietnam a fully controlled puppet state - like the Manchukuo, putting him at the head of the Vietnamese emperor Bao Dai crowned as early as 1925. 11 March 1945 g. Bao Dai, under Japanese pressure, proclaimed the independence of the "Vietnamese Empire". However, the history of this quasi-state entity was short. Already in the middle of August 1945, after the defeat of Japan, Bao Dai was in fact deposed from his throne. 30 August 1945. He officially read the act of abdication, after which he left the country. It seemed that Vietnam, freed from the Japanese puppets, would begin the path of building an independent statehood. But independent Vietnam, especially under the leadership of the pro-Soviet Communist Party, did not in any way suit the former "masters" of the country - the French colonialists. Moreover, if in the north of Vietnam, near the Chinese border, the positions of the communists were very strong, the south was traditionally considered anti-communist.
Cochinchina - a special region of Vietnam
Despite the fact that, historically, the south was also part of the Vietnamese state, it became part of it relatively late. A significant part of the population here were not Vietnamese (Viets), but representatives of the related people Muong, as well as the Mon-Khmer and Austronesian peoples (mountain Khmer and mountain tymy). Using national contradictions and the relative weakness of the southern part of the country, in the 19th century France quite easily occupied the region and turned it into a colony of Cochinchina. Note that North Vietnam (Tonkin) and Central Vietnam (Annam) had the status of protectorates, and Cochinchina - the status of a colony. The French influence here was strongest. In Saigon, the capital of the colony, a large European diaspora gradually settled - merchants, seamen, former soldiers and sergeants of the French colonial troops and the Foreign Legion. In addition, French cultural influence gradually spread among the inhabitants of South Vietnam - the number of mixed marriages grew, some Vietnamese and, in particular, members of national minorities accepted Catholicism. Therefore, France has always considered South Vietnam as its patrimony. South Vietnam, by the time of the French colonization, had a number of specific features that significantly distinguished its political and economic development from North Vietnam. According to the candidate of historical sciences M.A. Sünnerberg, these included: 1) a simpler organization of the system of government and the priority of military leaders over civilian bureaucracy; 2) weak influence of Confucian studies on the processes of management; 3) weakness of communal traditions and the prevalence of private ownership of land over communal; 4) is a religious vacuum, filled with the activities of various sects and borrowed religions; 5) the dynamism and openness of the population of South Vietnam to foreign cultural influences (See: MA Syunnerberg. The Formation and Development of the First Republic of Vietnam. Abstract of thesis ... candidate of historical sciences. M., 2009.). The inhabitants of South Vietnam had a less pronounced national identity; they did not associate their own interests with general political and national interests. In many respects, it is these characteristic features of South Vietnamese society that have become one of the main obstacles to the rapid spread of communist ideology in the region. If in the north of the country communism established itself rapidly and organically superimposed on the communal traditions of the North Vietnamese population, in the south the communists for a long time could not find large-scale popular support.
Meanwhile, as soon as Vietnam proclaimed its independence under the leadership of the communists, British troops landed in the south of the country. It was the British who freed the French colonial officers and officials arrested by Vietnamese patriots from prison, after which the administration of the French colonial administration was restored in a large part of the country. However, in 1946, France recognized the independence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam as part of the Indochinese Union. It was a cunning tactical move by the French leadership aimed at preserving the political influence of France in the region. At the same time, the French command was preparing for revenge and regaining control over the territory of the former colony. When British troops left Vietnam, France began to organize armed provocations against Vietnam. The most ambitious and bloody provocation was the shelling of the city and port of Haiphong with artillery of French warships, as a result of which several thousand people were killed. By the beginning of 17, the French forces managed to establish control over most of the territory of Vietnam, and in 1949, the creation of an independent State of Vietnam was proclaimed, with the Vietnamese emperor Bao Dai being again proclaimed the formal ruler. However, in the same 1949, the forces of the Vietnamese communists, having received support from China, launched an offensive and were able to occupy part of the territory of the country in which the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (or North Vietnam) continued to exist.
After the Soviet Union and China recognized the government of North Vietnam as the sole legitimate representative of the Vietnamese people, in response, the United States and a number of other capitalist countries announced the recognition of the State of Vietnam under the leadership of Bao Dai. The armed confrontation of the Vietnamese communists and the French colonial troops began, on the side of which the armed forces of the State of Vietnam also fought. It should be noted that, despite the initial multiple superiority of the French troops in armament and combat training, already in 1953-1954. a turning point in the war in favor of North Vietnam became obvious. After the famous defeat at Dienbienfu, the siege of which lasted from 13 March to 7 in May 1954, France hurried to sign the Geneva Accords, according to which the French armed forces were withdrawn from the territory of Indochina, hostilities ceased between the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and the State of Vietnam, the territory of the country it was divided into two parts - the north remained under the control of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, the south - the State of Vietnam itself - was part of the French Union ve sovereign state. In addition, it was planned in July 1956 to hold elections in North and South Vietnam in order to reunify the country and form a unified government. However, the results of the Geneva Conference were not recognized by the United States of America, which decided to change France at the site of the organizer of the anti-communist forces in Indochina. The American leadership was very worried that the election could be taken by the communist party by legal means, so the policy was taken to prevent the country's unification. Moreover, in the south of Vietnam, local communists also became more active, hoping to overthrow the pro-French regime and unite with the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. After the defeat at Dien Bien Phu, the State of Vietnam, and previously not distinguished by effective management, turned into an even more loose education. Bao Dai, in 1954, the newly appointed formal ruler of Vietnam, chose to leave the country and leave permanently for Europe.
Catholic Confucian Ngo Din Ziem
The actual head of South Vietnam was appointed by the decision of Bao Dai, the Prime Minister of the State of Vietnam, Ngo Din Siem (1901-1963). The candidacy of this man quite suited France and the United States, since Ngo Din Ziem was a representative of the hereditary Europeanized elite of Vietnam, a Catholic Christian by religion. His French full name is Jean-Baptiste Ngo Din Siem. As early as the 17th century, Portuguese missionaries who preached in Vietnam converted the family of influential Vietnamese “mandarins” - the ancestors of Ngo Din S'em - to Catholicism. After that, for many generations, the ancestors of Ngo Dinh Siem suffered, like other Vietnamese Catholics, from oppression by the Vietnamese emperors. When Ngo Dinh Ziema Ngo Dinh Ha's father was educated in Malaya in 1880, another anti-Catholic pogrom broke out in Vietnam, which resulted in the death of Ngo Dinh Ha's parents and all his brothers and sisters. However, this event further strengthened Ha in his faith. He continued his public service, making a successful career at court and rising to the position of chamberlain and minister of rites. However, after the French deposed the emperor Thanh Tai, Ngo Dinh Ha resigned and engaged in plantation agriculture. His son Ngo Din Ziem was educated at a French Catholic school, a short time was a novice at a monastery, but left the monastery, deciding that monastic life is too difficult for him. After leaving the Ziem monastery, he entered the school of government in Hanoi.
In 1921, he completed a course of study and began serving as a member of the Royal Library of Hue. For modern Russia, and many other countries, the beginning of a civil servant’s career as a librarian looks quite unusual, but in the countries of Confucian and Buddhist culture — China, Vietnam, Korea, Japan, etc. — this is quite an honorary position, with due diligence further career advancement. That is what happened to Ngo Din Ziem. Soon, he was appointed head of the district, which included 70 villages. Sinner wasn’t 25 years old when he became the head of a province from 300 villages. Further rapid career growth Ngo Din S'em contributed to his marriage to the daughter of a Catholic - head of the Council of Ministers Nguyen Huy Bai. However, many officials of the French colonial administration were quite cool towards Zjem, because the young official demanded that Vietnam be given more autonomy in dealing with domestic issues. In 1929, Ngo Din Sien was introduced to the Communists. After a communist leaflet fell into his hands, the content of which angered the young mandarin to the core (he was an ardent opponent of revolutions and popular self-government), Ngo Din Ziem became an active anti-communist and took part in suppressing communist organizations in Vietnam. In 1930, Mr. Ngo Dinh Ziem became governor of Binh Thuan province, where he was able to effectively suppress peasant uprisings, and in 1933, under the patronage of Nguyen Huu Bai, a thirty-two-year-old official was appointed Minister of Internal Affairs at the court of Bao Dai. However, having reached this post, Ngo Din Siem continued to insist on increasing the autonomy of Vietnam, including the introduction of Vietnamese legislation, which the French administration did not like. In the end, just three months after his appointment as Minister of the Interior, Ngo Dinh Ziem resigned. From this time and throughout 21, Ngo Din Ziem did not have an official occupation. The first ten years he lived in Hue, under the supervision of the colonial authorities.
In 1945, the Japanese occupation authorities offered Ziem the post of prime minister, but he refused. However, soon Ziem changed his mind and addressed the Japanese with a statement that he agreed to the role of the head of the Vietnamese government, but the Japanese had already found another candidate by that time. So Ngo Din Ziem kept his “clean” biography and avoided possible accusations of collaborationism and cooperation with the occupation authorities. After the end of World War II, Ngo Dinh Ziem continued political activities and advocated the “third way” of Vietnam’s development, which was different from both the communist model proposed by Ho Chi Minh and the status of the colony in which Vietnam wanted to conserve the French colonial administration. It was at the beginning of the 1950's. It also concerns the establishment of strong contacts with the political elite of the United States. During a trip to the United States, Ziem met the American political analyst Wesley Fishel, who advised the United States government and advocated the creation of an anti-communist and anti-colonial "third force" in Asian countries. By this time, Asian politicians of anti-communist persuasion gained great popularity in the US - they were afraid of repetition of the “Korean scenario”, American leaders were ready to give full support to politicians opposing the communist influence. It was the support of the US ruling circles, including Dwight Eisenhower, that determined the future political future of Ngo Din S'em. 26 June 1954. He took over as Prime Minister of the State of Vietnam.
Referendum and the creation of the Republic of Vietnam
Interestingly, Bao Dai treated Ngo Din Sin negatively and instructed him to lead the government of the State of Vietnam solely because the main flow of American military and financial aid to South Vietnam was channeled through Zyema, which had connections in the United States. As it turned out, the appointment of Ngo Din S'em played a fatal role in the political career of the Vietnamese ex-emperor himself. Of course, as a politician Ngo Din Ziem was much stronger than Bao Dai, and even the authority of a representative of the imperial dynasty could not help the latter. Ngo Din Szim managed to pacify the former enemies - the armed formations of the largest sects Hoa Hao and Kao Dai, the Vietnamese mafia Binh Xuyen, which controlled Saigon. After gaining a foothold, Ngo Din Ziem launched a campaign against Bao Dai. On the 23 of October, the 1955 of Mr. Ngo Dinh Ziem appointed a referendum on the proclamation of the State of Vietnam as a republic. At the referendum, the citizens of Vietnam had to make a choice between Ngo Dinh Ziem and the republican way of developing the country and Bao Dai and preserving the State of Vietnam in its previous form. Since Ngo Din Ziem possessed incompatible with Bao Dai resources, he won an absolute victory in the referendum - 98,2% of voters voted for the Ngo Din S'em line. However, the referendum was characterized by large-scale fraud. Thus, in Saigon, 600 thousand people voted for Ngo Dinh Zima, while the entire population of the South Vietnamese capital did not exceed 450 thousand people. In addition, supporters of Ngo Dinh Siena actively used the methods of "black PR", trying to slander the former emperor Bao Dai in the eyes of the Vietnamese in every possible way. So, pornographic cartoons were spread on Bao Dai, articles were published with “compromising material” on the former emperor. After the votes were counted, the State of Vietnam ceased to exist. 26 October 1955 was proclaimed the creation of the Republic of Vietnam. On the same day, the former Prime Minister of the State of Vietnam, Ngo Din Siem, took the post of President of the Republic of Vietnam, on which he was destined to remain eight years.
It was during the reign of Ngo Dinh Ziema that South Vietnam had its own political and ideological face, trying to put into practice the main political ideas of its first president. Subsequently, the republic finally turned into a puppet state of the United States, the whole meaning of whose existence was reduced to armed opposition to the North Vietnamese and South Vietnamese communists. But at the beginning of the existence of the Republic of Vietnam, Ngo Dinh Ziem tried to turn it into a developed state, acting from his own ideas about the ideal form of a political system. To begin with, the political views of Ngo Din S'em were influenced by two main sources - the European Christian (Catholic) tradition and the Chinese-Vietnamese Confucian philosophy. Confucian philosophy had the greatest influence on the formation of the ideas of the Eight on how the state should be arranged and what the figure of the ideal ruler is. The strong power of an enlightened ruler is the ideal of political governance for Ngo Din S'em. Being a staunch supporter of Confucian philosophy, Ngo Din Siem was negative about the ability to govern the country of high military command, because he believed that in terms of political literacy, military officers were inferior to civilian officials. Therefore, during the reign of Ngo Dinh Ziem, the positions of the military elite in South Vietnam were still weak, although the president invested heavily in the modernization of the republican army. It should be noted that, in general, the military model of governance was much more characteristic of South Vietnam, but Ngo Din Siem, a native of Annam (the center of the country), tried to implement the political principles that were traditional for his native places. Perhaps this was one of the main reasons for the lack of understanding of the essence of his policies on the part of not only ordinary people of the Republic of Vietnam, but also of senior management, especially from army officers.
Political and economic miscalculations Ngo Din S'ema
A supporter of the Confucian doctrine, Ngo Dny Ziem was alien to populism, although he tried to carry out reforms aimed at improving the welfare of the population. But he could not put himself right, to win the sympathy of the masses. “Uncle Ngo”, unlike “Uncle Ho” - Ho Chi Minh, from Ngo Din S'em did not work. Always detached, in the traditional dress of the Confucian official, Ngo Din Siem did not enjoy popular love. He was very arrogant, and his messages were written in a flowery and incomprehensible to most ordinary people language. There was a colossal gap between the Confucian ideal and the real needs of practical politics, but Ngo Din Siem and his entourage were not aware of this gap. Another reason for the relative failure of Ngo Din S'em as head of the Vietnamese state was the initial narrowness of the social base of the ruling regime. Despite his loyalty to the postulates of the Confucian ideology, Ngo Din Siem remained a staunch Christian, a Catholic, and also sought to rely on Catholics. As is known, the spread of Catholicism in Vietnam began in the 16th century. - from the activities of Portuguese missionaries penetrating the country. Later, the Portuguese took over the French, who for several centuries engaged in preaching in all regions of the country and by the beginning of the 19th century had converted no less than three hundred thousand Vietnamese to Catholicism. Attempts were made to Christianize the imperial surname of Vietnam, but without success. But the local population did not like the newly converted Catholics, considering them traitors to their people and agents of foreign influence. Anti-Christian pogroms flared up every now and then, in one of which, as we said above, the family of Ngo Din S'em perished. And, nevertheless, Catholicism managed not only to gain a foothold in Vietnam, but also to gain a significant number of followers. At present, over 5 million Catholics live in Vietnam, and this is despite the fact that many Catholics emigrated to the West after the defeat of South Vietnam. During the reign of Ngo Dinh Ziema, South Vietnam received about 670 thousands of refugees - Catholics from the territory of North Vietnam. Archbishop Ngo Dinh Thuk, the president’s brother, gained great political influence in the country, although the president himself didn’t want to make South Vietnam a purely Catholic, theocratic state. However, reliance on Catholics testified to the short-sightedness of Ngo Dinh Ziem, since striving to build a state, turning the confessional minority that was not loved by the majority of the population into the ruling class - this means laying a time bomb in the form of religious contradictions and offenses.
The situation in the economic sphere was not particularly successful. The first five years of the existence of the Republic of Vietnam were relatively successful for it, since the country's budget maintained a surplus, but since 1961, the budget has become scarce. As early as 1955, immediately after the proclamation of the republic, Ngo Dinh Ziem canceled the action of the old currency, the piastres of French Indochina, in the country and established a new currency, the dong. To develop the country's economy, an agrarian reform was undertaken, according to which unused land was redistributed among Vietnamese farmers. According to the law, every Vietnamese was able to own a land plot of no more than 1 square kilometer, the rest of the land was subject to redemption by the state. Peasants and landowners entered into land use agreements that provided for the payment of rent. But since the peasants did not have means for renting land, huge plots passed to landowners who had the opportunity to pay rent to the state. So, 2 / 3 of Vietnamese agricultural land fell into the hands of landowners. In order to overcome the negative consequences of the first reform, Ngo Dinh Szyomu had to carry out a second reform.
Strengthening the army and strengthening the military elite
Ngo Dinh Diem paid great attention to the modernization of the country's armed forces. After the conclusion of the Geneva Agreements of 1954, the Vietnamese National Army was disbanded, which necessitated the creation of new armed forces. Ngo Dinh Zieme began the formation of the Vietnamese army on January 20, 1955, when he held the post of Prime Minister of the country. An agreement was concluded with the United States and France on assistance in creating an army of the Republic of Vietnam with a total strength of 100 thousand military personnel and 150 thousand reservists. The general of the French army, Paul Ely, was appointed responsible for the creation and leadership of the army, military advisers and weapons came from the United States. After the proclamation of the Republic of Vietnam, on the same day on October 26, 1955, the creation of the country's armed forces was announced, despite the fact that this was contrary to the requirements of the Geneva Agreements. By the end of 1955, the number of American military advisers in the South Vietnamese army reached 342 people. Considering the army of South Vietnam as a counterweight to the communist North, the United States did not skimp on weapons for the Ngo Dinh Zyem regime. If initially the South Vietnamese army consisted of poorly trained infantry units, then already in 1956 the creation of armored and artillery units began. Four units were created, armed with Tanks, self-propelled guns, armored personnel carriers. On November 1, 1957, with the help of American military advisers, training began for the first South Vietnamese commando unit. In 1958, the commando division already numbered 400 soldiers and officers. By the end of 1958, the armed forces of the Republic of Vietnam reached 150 thousand military personnel; in addition, there were also paramilitary armed forces — the 60th Civil Defense Corps, 45th police and 100th units of village guards. The structure of the South Vietnamese army was based on a sample of the American armed forces, and emphasis was placed on preparing to repel a possible invasion of the communist army of North Vietnam on the country's territory. The number of American military advisers doubled over the course of several years, and in 1960 reached 700. In 1961, US assistance to the South Vietnamese army increased. On December 11, 1961, two US helicopter squadrons arrived in Saigon - the first American regular units in the country. By 1962, South Vietnam took first place among countries receiving American military assistance (until 1961, it was in third place after the Republic of Korea and Taiwan). For 1961-1962 the number of armed forces was increased by 20 thousand people, reaching 170 thousand troops, and civil defense doubled - from 60 thousand to 120 thousand people. By the end of 1962, the number of the country's armed forces was increased by another 30 thousand soldiers and officers and reached 200 thousand people. In April 1962, the first two mechanized companies appeared on the M113 armored personnel carriers as part of the South Vietnamese army. For the convenience of the command, the armed forces of the Republic of Vietnam were divided into four corps. The first corps was based on the border with North Vietnam and had headquarters in Da Nang. The second building was located in the central mountainous regions and had headquarters in Pleiku. The third corps was responsible for the defense of Saigon, and the fourth corps was responsible for the defense of the Mekong Delta and the southern provinces of the country (the headquarters of this corps was in Can Tho). At the same time, the massive arrival of American troops into South Vietnam continued - initially as military advisers, and then as specialists to strengthen the Vietnamese armed forces. By the end of 1963, there were 17 American military specialists on the territory of South Vietnam. These were not only military advisers, but also instructors of the units, pilots, signalmen, engineers, and representatives of other military specialties.
As the size of the armed forces grew, so did the influence of military personnel on the political processes taking place in the Republic of Vietnam. The division of the armed forces into four corps created additional conditions for the growth of the real capabilities of the military elite, since the corps commander was at the same time the head of the civil administration in the corps responsibility area. It turns out that military and civilian power in the regions of Vietnam were united in the hands of the generals. The politicization of the generals and officers of the South Vietnamese army gradually increased. The top military leaders received considerable financial resources in their hands, established contacts with the American military circles and special services, bypassing President Ngo Dinh Zhem and representatives of his administration. Naturally, in the circles of the military elite grew the conviction that the power in the country should belong to the generals, who would be able to more effectively cope with the threat of the North Vietnamese invasion and the active partisan movement. At the end of 1962 - the beginning of 1963. The National Liberation Front of South Vietnam, leading a guerrilla war against the central government, has stepped up its activities. 2 January 1963 The South Vietnamese partisans first defeated the army of the Republic of Vietnam in an open battle at Albac. In the meantime, dissatisfaction with the policy of the Ngo Din S'em government grew in the country. The situation was aggravated by the so-called. “Buddhist crisis” when 8 in May 1963 in the city of Hue was fired upon and thrown by grenades at a Buddhist demonstration. Buddhists protested against discrimination by the Catholic Church, which strengthened its position in South Vietnam under President Ngo Dinh Ziem. An attack on a peaceful demonstration killed 9 people, Buddhists blamed Ngo Dinh Zhem on the tragedy, although the latter tried to shift the responsibility to the Viet Cong guerrillas of the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam. In this situation, dissatisfaction with the activities of Ngo Din S'em on the part of the military increased.
The overthrow of Ngo Dinh Siena as the beginning of the end of the Republic of Vietnam
The United States of America, which did not like Ngo Din S'ema’s excessive independence, as well as the low effectiveness of resistance to the communist guerrillas, actually “gave the go-ahead” to the overthrow of the country's first president. The first attempt to eliminate Ngo Din S'em occurred back in 1962 year. 27 February 1962 First Lieutenant Pham Phu Quoc and Second Lieutenant Nguyen Van Ki - pilots of the Air Force of South Vietnam - launched an unsuccessful airstrike on the residence of the President of the country. However, despite the fact that the pilots managed to drop bombs on the Palace of Independence, the president was not injured. Later lieutenants aviation They stated that they held the rally because President Ngo Dinh Zyom focused more on the problems of power and its preservation than on the fight against the communist threat. After the air raid, Ngo Dinh Zyem, who suspected the US CIA in his organization, began to oppose the further expansion of the US military presence in the country. The most likely rival of Ngo Dinh Dyem by this time was General Zyong Wang Min (1916-2001), who was popularly called the Big Ming (Zyong had an unusual height for the Vietnamese of 183 cm.). Unlike Ngo Dinh Zyem, Zyong Wang Min (pictured) was a professional soldier, with experience of participation in hostilities and a completely heroic biography. Unlike Zyem, a native of Central Vietnam, Zyong Van Min was born in the very south of Vietnam - in the Mekong Delta, in the family of a landowner who collaborated with the French colonial administration. In his youth, Zyong enlisted in the native parts of the French colonial troops. He graduated from a military school just before the start of World War II. The zyong was captured by the Japanese, tortured. His teeth were knocked out, after which he always smiled, exposing one remaining tooth, which he considered a symbol of his strength. After being released from captivity, Zyong continued to serve in the army of the State of Vietnam, in 1954 he was captured by the Communists, but fled, strangling the guard. In May 1955, it was Zyong who commanded government forces during the rout of the Bin Xuyen armed groups, a criminal syndicate that controlled parts of Saigon. Zuong also led operations to defeat the armed forces of the Hoa Hao sect, which also claimed power in South Vietnam.
After the defeat of the Binh Xuyen gangsters who terrorized the inhabitants of Saigon, Duong Van Minh became very popular among the population of the Vietnamese capital. He was noticed by American military advisers who sent an officer to study at Leavenworth Military College in the state of Kansas. It was General Duong Wang Ming who was ideally suited to the role of the new ruler of the Republic of Vietnam, instead of Ngo Dinh Zyem, who was not going to follow the plans of the American plans and start a war against North Vietnam. The general began to prepare a military coup, before requesting the United States and receiving an affirmative answer to the question of whether the United States would continue to provide military and financial assistance to South Vietnam after leaving Ngo Din S'em’s political scene. In 13.30 1 in November 1963, the presidential residence was surrounded by rebel soldiers. Zem called the US ambassador in Saigon Lodge, but he replied that "at Washinton it is now four thirty in the morning and the US government does not yet have an established point of view on this question." Then Ngo Din Ziem and his brother Ngo Din Nhu were able to escape from the Palace of Independence unnoticed and hide in a safe house. But the location of the president and his brother became known to the rebels, around 6 in the morning Ngo Din Ziem was able to negotiate with the generals about the surrender in the Catholic Church by telephone. The president and brother were put in an armored personnel carrier and drove to the city center, but on the way Ngo Din Ziem and his brother Ngo Din Nha were killed in the rear compartment of the armored personnel carrier.
The first stage of the existence of the Republic of Vietnam ended with a military coup. It was the overthrow of Ngo Dinh Ziem, incidentally supported by the majority of Saigon residents, that ultimately became the starting point for turning the Republic of Vietnam into a fully puppet state, existing due to US support and devoid of a coherent ideology and ideas about the development of the country and its economy. The meaning of the existence of South Vietnam after the overthrow of the Diam was reduced exclusively to the anti-communist war. The political history of South Vietnam during the subsequent decade of its existence is a series of military coups. Already two months after coming to power, in January 1964, General Duong Wang Minh overthrew Major General Nguyen Khan, who commanded one of the corps of the republican army. In February, 1965 was overthrown by General Nguyen Van Thyeu, who was to lead South Vietnam to its actual end in 1975. In March, 1975, the DRV troops invaded South Vietnam. 21 on April 1975, President Nguyen Van Thyeu, handed over the authority to Vice-President Tran Van Hyong, and on April 30, the Republic of Vietnam capitulated.