Military Review

Polish orders in Russia

“We are more likely to have a friend than a friend,” the sub-moon world is arranged like this; Oh, how precious, how gracious the very nature of this enemy! ”- wrote about his ill-wishers Yevgeny Boratynsky. “Natural enemies” are a headache not only for poets, but also for states.

For centuries, for example, such an enemy has been for Russia (and it remains to be, what is there to breed diplomacy!) Poland. History the rivalry of the two largest Slavic peoples is not, however, our today's topic - we will talk about some benefits gained from long-standing hostility.

Polish orders in Russia

Ivan Aivazovsky. Self portrait. Xnumx

By the beginning of the 18th century, the Commonwealth, which had been terrifying all Orthodox Russia a century ago, had clearly given way to the Eastern European leadership of the Russian monarchy modernized by Peter. Poland has lost the ability to resist, but the former status of a great power has turned many heads. One of them was the Saxon Elector Frederick Augustus, who became Polish King Augustus II in 1697 year.

In 1705, he established the Order of the White Eagle, which had a single degree, and granted them four of his confidants. It is interesting that at the same time four Russian subjects received the award: “Alexashka” Menshikov, Prince Anikita Repnin, Scottish native Baron Georg Benedikt Ogilvi (all three are Field Marshal generals, some in the future, and some already then). The fourth from Russia became, not to be at night be remembered, hetman Ivan Mazepa.

And the next year, the king, as if mocked by fate, officially nicknamed Strong, lost his throne. It was then that Order's diplomacy helped: less than three years later, like the Russians, having defeated the Swedes, they returned Augustus to a shaky throne. Three years later, in 1712, Peter and August exchanged orders: the All-Russian autocrat laid upon his Polish counterpart signs of the Order of St. Andrew the First-Called, and he, in turn, adorned the winner’s chest under Poltava with the White Eagle. The tradition continued in the following decades, including during the last Polish king, the protege of Catherine II (and her lover) Stanislav Poniatowski, to whom we return in the future.

Mikhail Lermontov

The turn of the century was marked for Poland in three sections. From 1807 to 1813, the central part of it, that is, Polish lands proper, existed under the name of the Duchy of Warsaw. At the head of this restless neoplasm, Napoleon, then omnipotent to the west of the Nemunas and the Bug after the Peace of Tilsit, again set the Saxon and, by a funny coincidence, also Friedrich Augustus, who immediately resumed rewarding with the "eagle". True, now the cavaliers were exclusively enemies of Russia, like Marshal of France Jozef Ponyatovsky, nephew of the overthrown king Stanislav.

After the victory of the Russian weapons in Europe, Poland once again changed its owner - now in the status of "the king of Poland" our tsar Alexander controlled it. With the generosity of the winner, he retained for the Rzeczpospolita some independence, however, a ghostly one, including with respect to orders: the Russian tsar complained to them at his own discretion, but only to the local gentry. Nicholas I did away with this idyll: suppressing another Polish uprising, he ordered to introduce two Polish orders - the White Eagle and St. Stanislav - into the Russian award system, where the “eagle” took off quite high, being ranked below the Order of St. Alexander Nevsky.

In this regard, the Order received a new design, quite remarkable.

"The tape is dark blue; there is a badge of order hanging on it depicting a black, crowned, double-headed eagle with golden heads, necks twisted, and wings and tail encircled with gold, on the chest there is a red enamel cross lying on a golden star with three narrow stripes about it, two of which are golden and medium silver; on the sharp corners of the cross there are small golden balls, and between them in the middle are small semicircles; on the cross, supported by a double-headed eagle, there is a white single-headed eagle, facing to the right, having a small golden crown on its head. ”

Thus, the Polish eagle was itself, like an order, on the chest of a Russian eagle.

In addition, the Order had a golden star; in the middle of the star is a fiery cross, having at the edges three narrow strips, of which the middle is red and the other two are gold; around him, on the blue broad band is the motto: “Pro Fide, Rege et Lege (For Faith, Tsar and Law)”.

Order of St. Stanislav I degree

Actually, the motto remains the same, but we will not attribute Augustus II to excessive insight, because the rege from Latin can be translated as “king” and as “king” - depending on the circumstances.

"When he complains about the deeds of the military against the enemy, they join the signs of this order two by one, crosswise, of the sword: on the top of the sign under the crown, and on the star so that the middle shield covers the intersection of swords." Here we linger. Of the four thousand people awarded the Order of the White Eagle from 1831 to 1917 a year, only 129 received awards for military merit.

"Two, lying crosswise, sword" added in 1855-m, at the height of the Crimean War. It was this type of order that the great defender of Sevastopol, Admiral Pavel Stepanovich Nakhimov, relied upon. But the naval commander didn’t manage to get his combat “eagle”: on June 28 he was seriously wounded on the Malakhov Kurgan and two days later died in the hands of another great Russian, the surgeon Nikolai Ivanovich Pirogov. That is why on numerous monuments of Nakhimov is depicted with the cross of St. George of 2 class on the neck - for the Sinop victory.

But “White Eagle” “with swords” decorated his uniform filled with gold (not with court sewing, of course, but with deserved crosses and stars), Alexey Petrovich Yermolov, the hero of the Patriotic and Caucasian wars. The general had to fork out, because when awarding swords to the Order of the White Eagle, one hundred and fifty rubles were levied. This is in addition to three hundred more for the order itself, despite the fact that the annual pension for cavaliers did not rely. Well, yes Yermolov had a lot of other, in the good "pension" awards.

But there were gentlemen and people especially peaceful professions. For example, Hovhannes Ayvazyan - yes, our famous painter Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky! The author of the “Singer in the camp of Russian warriors,” Vasily Andreyevich Zhukovsky, was also among those awarded. This award was for the latter, spoiled by both Russian and foreign orders of the poet (he, however, more appreciated his first order - the “Holy Anna” 1812 class received in November of the formidable 2). And from the people of conventionally non-creative we call Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleev. Although, they say, the periodic table occurred to its author as the plot of the picture - to some mystically-minded artist: in a dream.

Order of the White Eagle

And now back to Poland, during the reign of Stanislav Ponyatovsky.

Loved, oh, how the kings and kings loved to add shine and glory to themselves! It was not enough for Peter the Great to cut a window to Europe, so he also instituted the Order of St. Catherine - in honor of his wife, who was re-crossed in Katya Marta Skavronskaya. And Holstein duke Karl Ulrich, referring to podolstitsya to the Russian ruler Anna Ioannovna, very incidentally remembered the grandmother of Christ, St. Anne. As for Poniatowski, it is still more successfully coincided.

He lived in the XI century, killed right during the service by King Boleslaw the Brave (well, the Poles were able to give their rulers nicknames at all times!) And Krakow’s bishop Stanislav, who was already considered to be the heavenly patron of all Poland, and not only the last monarch.

Adopted in the same memorable 1831 year in the chapter of the Russian orders, the Order of St. Stanislav became the youngest in rank and the most common award: before the fall of the Russian Empire in 1917, they were decorated with hundreds of thousands of loyal subjects.

Star of the Russian Order of the White Eagle with the inscription "For Faith, Tsar and Law"

Anyone who has ever been to the Tretyakov Gallery, undoubtedly (if he, of course, has the slightest artistic taste), admired there paintings by Pavel Fedotov, the founder of critical realism in Russian painting. “Widow”, “Major's Matchmaking,” “Anchor, Another Anchor!”, “Breakfast of the Aristocrat” ... Among these masterpieces a small canvas “A Fresh Cavalier” looks worthy. Barefoot, in a greasy gown and file-caps, sticking out his lower lip and chest, the hero of this picture boasts to his serf girl (presumably from him and pregnant) just received the order - the cross of St. Stanislav.

Something, however, is not clear in this picture, if you do not know that in 1845, the awarding of 2 and 3 classes to the order was suspended due to the grumbling that arose among the indigenous Russian nobility. The reason for discontent was as follows. The award of even the lowest degree of “St. Stanislav” (and the “fresh cavalier” demonstrates her, third degree) automatically raised the awarded person to a noble dignity, which could also be inherited. The number of such “new nobles” of merchants and commoners increased massively, which the owners of more “blue” blood did not like. It was one of such rootless upstarts that Fedotov, who came from an impoverished family, but, I suppose, a proud titular adviser, depicted in 1847, in his picture.

With 1855, the rewarding of all grades was resumed, but the hereditary nobility was now given only to owners of orders of the 1 class (which Sevastopol received, by the way, the already mentioned surgeon Pirogov).

Order of the White Eagle with swords

His description and confine. “The cross is gold, covered with a red enamel on the front side, about four ends, each of which is further divided into two sharp ends; on the edges of the whole cross is a double golden border; on eight sharp ends gold balls; and between these ends, in their combination, are golden semi-circles, having the form of striped shells; in the middle, on a white enamel round shield encircled by a gold border, with a wreath green on it, the Latin monogram of St. Stanislaus, red: SS; and near the shield at the corners of the cross, on four sides, are golden Russian double-headed eagles. The back side of the cross is all gold with a white enamel, round, in the middle, a shield, on which is depicted the same monogram SS. ”
This "Saint Stanislav" was worn on "a red wavy ribbon, two and a half inches wide, with a double white border on both sides, through the right shoulder, with a star, on the left side of the chest." “The silver star, about eight rays, relied upon him; in the middle there is a large white round shield surrounded by a wide green stripe with two golden edges on both sides, the inner one of which is narrower and the outer one wider; on a green strip, laurel golden branches, connected in the middle of each by two flowers; in the middle of the shield, in a small golden hoop, in red letters the monogram of St. Stanislav: SS; and around the hoop, in a white field, in golden letters, the Order's motto: Praemiando incitat (rewarding encourages), divided above by a golden flower. ”

As we have said, until 1845, any degree of the order gave the right to hereditary nobility. But there were people who did not need either the nobility or the annual pension, looking only for immortality and fame.

Remember where these lines come from?

... on the overcoat
Back to the tree, lay
Their captain. He was dying.
His chest barely blackened.
Two wounds, his blood slightly
It oozed. But high chest
And it was difficult to rise; eyes
Wandered scared, he whispered:
“Save, brothers. Drag in the mountains.
Wait, the general is wounded ...
They don't hear ... ”He moaned for a long time,
But weaker, and little by little
Calm down and gave the soul to God.
On guns leaning around
Gray mustaches were standing ...
And wept quietly ...
This is “Valerik” by Mikhail Lermontov.

The poet wrote firsthand - he himself participated in that battle with the mountaineers and showed himself to be a real hero. According to the official report, “The Tenginsky Infantry Regiment, Lieutenant Lermontov, during the assault on the enemy’s obstructions on the Valerik River, had the task to observe the actions of the advanced assault convoy and notify the head of the detachment of its successes, which was fraught with the greatest danger for him from the enemy, who was hiding in the forest for the trees and bushes. But this officer, in spite of all dangers, carried out the mission entrusted to him with excellent courage and composure, and with the first ranks of the bravest soldiers broke into the enemy’s rubble. ”

A direct witness clarifies and colors the picture: “The Chechens at once chopped up a side chain and rushed at the cannon. At that moment, Mamatsev (the commander of the threatened Russian battery. - M.L.) saw Lermontov near him, who had grown out of the ground with his team. And how good he was in a red silk shirt with an oblique, unbuttoned collar; a hand gripped the dagger's hilt. Both he and his hunters, like tigers, were guarding the moment to rush at the highlanders, if they had reached the guns. ”

The brave lieutenant was introduced by the commander, General Apollo Galafeev, to the Order of Saint Vladimir of the VI degree with a bow (a special distinction for the military). The superiors, reinsuring, replaced "Vladimir" with "Stanislav" III degree (I think they would have asked for the IV degree, but a year before, in 1839, they eliminated it). However, Nicholas I still struck out the name of the disgraced poet from the award list, the news of what caused Lermontov to once again have a discharge of bile: “I don’t envy either your orders or your flexible backs; I do not envy what you have become through cashing and cringing.

Enjoy the happiness of your servility, this is the order of things; what one wears in his chest, the other wears on his chest. " Rude and unfair, of course.

The October Revolution, however, seemed to meet the poet who had predicted it, abolishing all the imperial orders at once. "Stanislav" remained the dynastic reward of the Romanovs, stinging them to this day. But the "White Eagle" returned to his homeland, in Poland.
There he is, perhaps, the place.
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 25 October 2015 08: 04 New
    Thanks, good stuff ..But the "White Eagle" returned to his homeland, in Poland. There he is, perhaps, the place...Really..
    1. avt
      avt 25 October 2015 09: 13 New
      Quote: parusnik
      There, perhaps, a place for him ... Really ..

      ,,Who are you ? I?? White eagle! "- remember this ad? laughing This is enough.
  2. Aleksandr72
    Aleksandr72 25 October 2015 08: 15 New
    As for the orders of the Russian Empire, at one time there was a whole series of articles in the Military History Journal (1990-1991, if my memory serves me right). So, regarding the order of the White Eagle, they wrote that this award among the people awarded it was much less than the other Russian awards, although it had a high status.
    Briefly about the Russian Order of the White Eagle
    Emperor Alexander I restored the order after Poland joined the Russian Empire in 1815. Only natives of Poland should have been awarded, but this rule was not respected.
    In 1831, after the suppression of the Polish uprising and the deprivation of Poland’s autonomy, Emperor Nicholas I finally ranked all Polish orders as Russian. Among the first granted were generals from the cavalry I.O. Witt and P.P. Palen.
    The Order took pride of place in the hierarchy of Russian orders - since 1835, following the Order of St. Alexander Nevsky. Persons not lower than IV class were awarded them. There were changes in the sign of the order, the motto changed to "For faith, the king and the law."
    In 1855, two cross-swords were joined to the signs for military distinctions: on top of the sign under the crown, and on the star - in the center.
    In 1882, they began to hand over diamond signs to the order.
    The badge of the order was worn at the right thigh on a dark blue (moire) ribbon over the left shoulder, the star was worn on the left side of the chest.
    It was abolished by a decree of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee in 1917.
    The order was kept in exile by the Romanov dynasty as a dynastic reward.
    Statute of the Order:
    According to the statute, the Order of the White Eagle stood one step lower than the Order of St. Alexander Nevsky. Unlike other Russian orders, the pension to the Order of the White Eagle was not supposed.
    I have the honor.
  3. moskowit
    moskowit 25 October 2015 10: 00 New
    The image of the Order of the White Eagle is presented in a version that had itself in the Polish kingdom, before being admitted to the Chapter of the Russian Orders.
    The Russian order looked like this:
  4. moskowit
    moskowit 25 October 2015 10: 15 New
    For clarity, I present a portrait of the Cavalier of the Order of the Baron P.F. Unterberger.
    The "White Eagle" on the neck ribbon says that the Baron was awarded the superior Order of "Alexander Nevsky" ...
  5. creak
    creak 25 October 2015 10: 44 New
    To what has been said in the article, I believe, one should add another relatively little-known episode of the awarding of Polish orders to Russian servicemen. After the suppression of the uprising in Poland in 1831, Emperor Nicholas 1 ordered to award all members of the Polish company with various degrees of the highest Polish order "Virtuti Militari" - from lower ranks to generals. medals.
    This order is still preserved in the award system of modern Poland.
    1. moskowit
      moskowit 25 October 2015 11: 05 New
      Absolutely right. The order was five-degree, the fifth (lower) degree was awarded to the lower ranks.
    2. Cap.Morgan
      Cap.Morgan 25 October 2015 14: 51 New
      This step was taken to lower the significance of the order.
      All the soldiers were given several tens of thousands of orders of 5 and 4 degrees, and 2 orders of the first degree were also issued.
      Initially, the order was planned as an analogue to our George - one of the most honorable and rare. The first degree of George knows about two dozen, the last award - Field Marshal Gurko ... it seems so.
      1. moskowit
        moskowit 25 October 2015 16: 26 New
        Total 25 Cavaliers 1 Degrees. Last V.K. Nikolay Nikolaevich the Elder. 1877-1878 years The Commander-in-Chief of the Danube Army.
        29 November 1877 year received St. George 1 degree for the capture of Plevna.
        Gurko and Skobelev were Cavaliers of St. George of the 2 degree ...
        About Gurko is a very good Wikipedia article ...
  6. cayman gene
    cayman gene 25 October 2015 11: 16 New
    and I have a white eagle associated with a stupid advertisement of vodka arr. 90s, and a drunk drisch in the center of the plot. wassat
  7. moskowit
    moskowit 25 October 2015 12: 14 New
    Thanks to the author. He gave his superficial attitude to the material and the presented image of the so-called "Order of the White Eagle with Swords". to expand knowledge of faleristics.
    Believe me, I had to rummage ...
    The presented order was indeed only in the award system of the Kingdom of Serbia ...


    II degree
    (II Class)

    V degree with swords
    (V Class w / swords)

    V degree
    (V Class)
    The order was established by King Milan I 23 on January 1883 on the first anniversary of the proclamation of Serbia as a kingdom. A white double-headed eagle was chosen as the state symbol of Serbia, as on the arms of Russia and Austria-Hungary. It was intended to emphasize the dominant influence of Serbia in the Balkans. Milan itself accepted the royal title of Milan I instead of princely Milan IV.
    After the 1903 coup, Mr. Peter I continued awarding the order, but replaced the royal cipher of Milan I on the reverse of the mark on the date “1882” - the year that Serbia was declared kingdom.
    The order had five degrees - the Grand Cross, the grand officer, commander, officer and knight - and was awarded for services to the crown, state and people, military and civilian. 28 May 1915 Mr. Peter I introduced swords for the Order of Military Merit for the Order.
    Badges of the order were produced by many Viennese firms, and after the start of the 1 World War II, by the Paris firm Arthus Bertrand and others.
    Badges of the Order

    The insignia of the Grand Cross includes the badge of the order, the chest star and the ribbon-band.
    The badge of the order is a silver gilded two-headed eagle of white enamel with an oval shield-medallion of red enamel on the chest. The royal coat of arms is placed on the medallion - a white cross with flames in the corners. The reverse of the sign is similar to the obverse, but the royal code of Milan I is placed on the medallion of the issue marks before 1903, and the date “1903” is placed on the issue marks after 1882. The eagle is crowned with a gilded royal crown with two fluttering blue ribbons. The signs of the issue before 1903 on the tape have the Serbian inscription “February 22 February 1882”. The dimensions of the sign ranged from 80x40 mm to 90x50 mm.
    The bib star was a badge of the order superimposed on a gilded silver eight-pointed star. Star diameter - 62 mm.
    Ribbon band - silk moire 102-105 mm wide, with a bow at the hip, red with blue stripes at the edges or red if the award was received in wartime (according to the decree of Peter I).
    Grand Officer's insignia include the cervical badge of the order and the chest star.
    The cervical sign is similar to the sign of the Big Cross and is worn on a tape with a width of 52-54 mm.
    The chest star of a grand officer is similar to the star of the Big Cross, but has a smaller size - 57 mm.
    The commander’s badge is similar to the grand officer’s badge, but is worn on a neckband with a width of 39-40 mm. Officer and knightly signs were worn on the chest on a ribbon folded in a triangle. The officer badge has smaller dimensions - from 56x30 mm to 62x32 mm. The knightly badge is similar to the officer’s badge, but was made of silver plated bronze.
    If the mark of the order has swords, they are crossed and placed between the eagle and the crown. "

    I represent the badge of the Order of the 5 degree with swords ...
    1. ladomir
      ladomir 23 November 2015 12: 32 New
      Rummaged not there. What a superficial attitude! The error is excusable due to the visual range. But the text is correct.
      The author of the article is absolutely right: the Order of the White Eagle with Swords, of course, existed perfectly in Russia. There are no errors in the text. Another thing is that the illustrations do not correspond to the correct text. For example, instead of the Polish-Russian White Eagle with swords, for some reason there is a photo with the Serbian order. And another photo - with the Polish, not the Russian White Eagle. I present a real photo of this order, including "with swords":
      And here is information, if interested, about some Russian gentlemen of the "White Eagle with Swords":