Jubilee ruble "100 anniversary of the birth of Lenin"
It’s rare now that the medal (fr. Medaille, lat. Metallum) is, in fact, a coin, and relatively close to us (on a large historical scale, of course) the time when a special ring was attached to the coin , to be worn on a belt or chain. The form best responded to the original direct reward function - reward. By calling a coin-medal it was possible to pay, for example, in a merchant's shop. She had a walk along with the national currency. In order to better imagine what it looked like, it is enough to recall the anniversary ruble 1970 of the year “100 anniversary of the birth of Lenin” or the golden royal chervonets.
True, at first in Russia, preference was given to hryvna - neck jewelery, which gradually transformed into a weight unit, and then into a monetary unit. For the first time chronicles (Nikonovsky list) are mentioned about awarding hryvnia in 1000: “In the summer of 6508 (from“ the creation of the world ”, of course. - M.L.), Volodar came from Kiev to Kiev, and Alexander Popovich was born from his meeting, and kill Volodar and his brother and many others Polovtsi beat, and others in the field of carnage. And when Volodimer heard this, he rejoiced greatly, and put the hryvnia on gold. ”
Getman Ivan Mazepa
The descendants, specific princes, adopted the tradition from the Baptist of Russia, and the great princes of Moscow did not lag behind them. In “The discharge book” (the so-called collections of orders of the Russian government on annual assignments to military, civil and court service in the XVI – XVII centuries) we read about Ivan the Terrible: “And the sovereign granted this service to the noblemen in Novgorod Novgorod and in Moscow. gold, and other for gilded. " "Novgorod" and "Moscow" were called coins by their origin, and the cost of Novgorod was twice as high as that of its metropolitan "sister".
An interesting detail: on the obverse (front side) of the Novgorod, a horseman with a spear was depicted (a horseman with a saber in a jacket), hence the name of a penny - the smallest coin.
But back to the medals. Far from being always rewarded, he needed money so much that he exchanged the coin he was granted. This was especially true for owners of rare Portuguese - the most valuable gold coins with the coat of arms of Portugal on the obverse and, for some reason, the Orthodox did not at all seem unacceptable, a Jesuit cross on the reverse side, on the reverse. Of course, such medalists could be counted on one's fingers, but most often on the market there was a gilded tuxedo - the reward of a gunner, an archer or a Cossack.
Hryvnia, 200 grams. Central Naval Museum, St. Petersburg
Sometimes coins were minted so massively that they were enough not only for the living, but also for the dead. Thus, under Sofia Alekseevna, the Russian ruler and elder sister of Peter the Great, for all of the Crimean campaigns, a total of four hundred gold coins were awarded with medals at a quarter of the chervontsa, and about a hundred thousand veterans were recruited. For those who died, their families received an award. Prince Vasily Golitsyn, the leader of these unsuccessful campaigns, was not forgotten: we don’t know if there was a golden Portuguese in his collection (the prince secretly patronized the Jesuits), but in his lifetime portrait, Golitsyn is depicted with an impressive medal on a chain made especially for him .
Yet the Golitsyn medal does not go to any comparison with the “washer” that they wanted to “decorate” (along with the rope loop, presumably) the neck of the Little Russian hetman Ivan Mazepa at the beginning of the next century and under another Russian ruler. Ironically, it was Vasily Golitsyn who demanded that Mazepa be appointed hetman, accusing the current hetman Ivan Samoilovich of treason and blaming his own mistakes on him.
It’s not even interesting that the denunciation of Samoilovich (probably not unreasonable) was the work of Mazepa: the future gentleman of the “Order” of Judas denounced his boss in intent to tear the Little Russian regions from Russia and form an independent state. It’s hard to say for sure if Samoylovich’s intention was really that, but the fact that in 2000, Ukraine issued a stamp in memory of this hetman (Mazepa had already been portrayed on small Ukrainian bills for a quarter of a century), perhaps in favor of this assumptions.
So, Mazepa. His story, like the story of the most important of his betrayals, we will not describe in detail here. Once again let us touch on the effect that the hetman's treason had on Peter and all of Peter the Great in Russia. The Tsar in every way raised and appreciated Mazepa, so much so that he did not want to believe the numerous denunciations against him and even not quite reasonably gave the scammers to punish them for the failed victim. In one of the personal messages, just about the next denunciation, the Russian tsar wrote to the hetman: “We still don’t want any of these false pretenses as before, knowing us, the great sovereign, your everlasting unshakable loyalty.” To which he answered with a captivating sweetness: "I can never be separated by arrows or fire from the love of the most radiant and most gracious my sovereign."
When the first rumors of treason came, Peter initially refused to believe them: "We know the great sovereign, he has learned that the hetman Mazepa has disappeared without a trace, and we will be confused about how fictitious they are." But the matter was not in the "fiction of the enemy." The prudent hetman made a bet on a stronger, as it seemed to him, political player - the Swedish king Charles.
Soon followed the royal manifesto (from 22 October 1708): “Hetman Mazepa, having forgotten the fear of God and his kiss to our godfather, changed and moved to the enemy our king of Sweden ... so that, with the general consent of him, the Russian land would enslave the Polish and give the churches of God and the holy monasteries to the union. " As for the return of Little Russia under the “Polish possession”, Peter was laughed: Mazepa, like most Ukrainians, hated the Poles and did not dream of surrendering to them.
Be that as it may, but, having gone over to the side of the enemy of Russia, the hetman lost his mind: the vaunted Swedish army suffered a crushing defeat at Poltava, and the population of Little Russia did not support betrayal. The Orthodox Church, meanwhile, betrayed Mazepa anathema. Required and secular punishment. But, since it was impossible to get to the escaped hetman, an exemplary civil penalty was staged over his doll. Apparently, the “order” of Judas was not assigned the last role in this ceremony, however, the manufacturers hesitated a bit, and the worthy reward did not find its hero, even in the form of its image. And after the Poltava victory, the traitor himself retired from the human court: in the autumn of 1709, Mazepa died under unexplained circumstances in Turkish Bendery.
What did the “order” of Judas not receive? To begin with, it was not an order, but a medal, albeit a truly gigantic one. Here is her description given when ordering the most beautiful prince Alexashka Menshikov (his spelling): “Make that hour an silver manet weighing ten pounds, and cut Judah on the asin by hanging and at the bottom of the thirty pieces of silver lying, and with them bags, and back signature: the damned son of a perishing Jude, a hedgehog for choking money. Yes, for that maneuver, create a two-pound chap, and send that coin to the military campaign by special mail immediately. ” A subtle point is connected with an aspen: the historical Jude could hardly have found an aspen somewhere in Palestine, but in Ukraine they preferred to hang criminals on this very common tree in those parts, so the reward to the new “destructive Jude” was also, so to speak in the splendor of national color.
The weight of the "order" 10 pounds. Count. One pound was four hundred-odd grams at the time. Ten pounds plus a two-pound “chap” is 5 kg. Where did this weight come from? Some researchers are trying to raise it to the Roman pound (it was called a libra and corresponded to 327,45 d), but in this case the weight of the "order" would be much more, and thirty antique tetradrachms, which, in all likelihood, received biblical Judas, weigh much less - about a pound. However, perhaps, releasing a fair amount of silver efimki, quarters and semi-telephony to make the Order, Peter just wanted to hang Mazepa around his neck for something heavy, like a drowned stone?
It was not necessary for the hetman to carry the silver manet, although she soon found a use. In July, 1710, Yust Yul, the envoy of the Danish kingdom in Russia, after visiting the Tsar’s binge-dress, noted in his “Notes” that “Prince Shakhovskaya, the one who wears the Order of Judas, voluntarily took slaps for chervonets who would give more.” We will not, however, be terrified ahead of time by "eastern barbarism," especially if an arrogant European testifies of him. Yes, an indispensable participant of the Most Consolidated and Most Experienced Council, nicknamed there as “the archdeacon Gedeon”, and in the “peace” held during the reign of the king in the position of chamberlain, Yury Fedorovich Shakhovskaya was a figure ambiguous, to put it mildly.
They wanted to reward this medal with the inscription “The damned son of a perishing Judas, for a sake of avarice,” he deserved! - traitor Mazepa
Here is what Prince Boris Kurakin said about him: “And now we mention especially about Prince Shakhovsky, who was a lot of crazy and a reader of books, only the most evil vessel and drunk, and did evil to everyone from first to last. And he did what he did to see all the ministers of their affairs, and then at the table during His Majesty, everyone of them barked and reproached everyone with their deeds, through which His Majesty's channel knew everything ... ” That is, to put it simply, Yury Fedorovich was a royal earphone. It was easier for him to “work” under the jester's fool.
So the "Order" relied Shakhovsky, we can say by law. The reason for the award was found such (in the program of the same Yust Yulia): “The king told me that this jester was one of the smartest Russian people, but ... when the king once spoke to him about how Judas the traitor sold the Savior for 30 silver coins Shakhovskoy objected that this was not enough, that Judas should have taken more for Christ. Then, mocking Shakhovsky and in punishment for what he ... seemed to be also not averse to selling the Savior ... only for a great price, the king immediately ordered the above-mentioned Order of Judas to be made with the image of this last while he was going to hang himself. " Forgive the foreigner inaccuracy: the "order" of Judas was already made by that time.
By awarding his pet as a joke (and Shakhovskoy was, of course, the emperor's favorite, which some time later followed another, more than serious proof), Peter pursued another goal: to symbolically punish the entire family of the Shakhovskys, because the ancestors of the “archdeacon Gideon” should be noted not distinguished loyalty to the kings. Thus, Prince Grigory Fedorovich Shakhovskaya served consistently to False Dmitry I and II, was implicated in the rebellion of Ivan Bolotnikov, and was called in his chronicles of his time “blood breeder”.
And the cousin of the chamberlain-jester, Matthew Fyodorovich, carelessly boast of his kinship before the Romanovs, played with his relatives a parody of election to the kingdom of Mikhail Romanov, and he played the role of the king in this clown act, which almost cost him his head. It is no coincidence that Prince Fyodor Romodanovsky, in a letter to Peter, once ironically called Yuri Fedorovich "a pious prince of noble root, pious bones."
However, the old boyar scores and rude pranks at the Most Inspiring Council did not prevent Peter from rewarding his confidant royally: in 1711, that is, two years after receiving the "Order" of Judas (who, by the way, the prince wore everywhere with a clown dignity ), Shakhovskoy was appointed ... the head of the entire Russian military police! Like this.
It seems that in the new position he was not able to appear before his subordinates with a funny reward. The last references to the “order” of Judah date back to the time of Anna Ioannovna’s reign, when this cumbersome trinket was made an indispensable attribute of every jester the beloved ruler. Further the trace of the “order” is lost.
But the memory of him is alive and to this day. Just the other day, the Ministry of Defense of Russia expressed a joking intention to award the “Order” of Judah Anton Gerashchenko, an adviser to the Ukrainian Minister of the Interior, who offered to compile and publish lists of Russian pilots fighting in Syria. True, this candidacy seems to be not entirely successful: Gerashchenko does not betray anyone, on the contrary, he faithfully serves as a chain dog to his Western masters.