Military Review

Prince's special operation

5
Prince's special operation



665 performed since the birth of St.. Blessed Prince Dmitry Donskoy. Of course, everyone has heard of the Kulikovo battle. But it remains obscure that the clash with Mamai was provoked by traitors. And with the name of St. Dmitry in the annals is connected with one of the first references to domestic special operations.

In the XIV century. Muscovy strengthened. But the weight and metropolitan boyars gained weight. The closest adviser to Ivan Kalita was Protasius Velyaminov. He held the post of Moscow tysyatsky - the mayor and judge, he represented the interests of the Muscovites before the Grand Duke, he led the militia. After Protasius tysyatsky, his son Vasily became a counselor with the Grand Duke Semen Proud, even intermarried with him. He gave his daughter for the brother of the sovereign, Ivan the Red.

At such an advantageous position, Velyaminov met with the Horde and Genoese merchants, participated in their affairs, and provided incentives. They, too, did not offend the partner, golden streams flowed into the tysbug. True, Russian merchants suffered, but who would dare to argue with the tsars, the sovereign's relative? Basil used to consider himself almost the second Grand Duke, disposed of in Moscow alone. At the end of his life, he handed over his post to the eldest of his sons, Vasily Vasilyevich.

But the Seeds of Proud were irritated by the Velyaminovs' manners, complaints about their frauds reached. He showed the family that the tysyatsky's position is not at all hereditary, he transferred it to Alexey Bosovolkov, nicknamed Tail. Not here it was! The new trusted boyar immediately found enemies, noticed every sin. Topped up with slander. They screwed up the sovereign, and he returned the post to Velyaminov, and Bosovolkova even drove him out of service.

In 1353, the Grand Duke Semyon died of the plague, the throne went to his brother, Ivan the Red. By nature, he was modest, quiet, and Velyaminov imagines that he will become almighty with him at all. Sovereign - his brother-in-law! He will dictate decisions, reward himself with new awards. But Krasny did not study his brother's best side. About stories with the resignation of Bosovolkov, the sovereign had his own information and was convinced that he had been slandered. He shortened Velyaminov’s ambitions in one fell swoop, discharged tysyatsky from his post and appointed Bosovolkov. Although he held a high position for a very short time. On the morning of February 3, 1356 was found dead at the bazaar. Calculate the perpetrators was not difficult, suspicion and evidence pointed to Velyaminova.

The sovereign was in difficulty. To punish a boyar by law? Behind him stood a powerful clan of kin, foreign merchants, half of Moscow. The screaming crime has stirred up the townspeople. Muscovites seething. Noisy that repeats the story of Andrei Bogolyubsky. That Bosovolkov, like him, took care of ordinary people, and for this he was ruined by the "strong". Still, he did not take out the dirty linen in public and judge a relative. But Vasily Velyaminov indicated that he left the possession of the Grand Duke.

Although the political detective did not end there. In the Horde Khan Janibek did not please the powerful merchant groups, and his son Berdibek killed him. Red had to go to the new Khan, to bother about the preservation of the grand ducal label. However, in Sarai suddenly met the exile Veliyaminova! Horde and Genoese traffickers have not forgotten what services the boyar rendered to them in Moscow. They recommended a useful person to the dignitaries of Berdibek. And they hinted to Red that they should forgive their friend. As a result, the boyar returned to Moscow, was reinstated as a tysyatskiy.

And in 1359, Ivan Red died. The son Dmitry remained the heir. Future Don - but he was 8 years old! For the role of regent Vasily Veliaminov was promoted. Uncle! Now he turned in full force. The treasury was at his disposal, he determined the decisions of the government. He broke the wood pretty much. In the Horde Berdibek stabbed Kulp, his Nauruz. The princes were again required to equip the embassies in Sarai, to distribute "many gifts." However, Velyaminov was stingy. Most likely, he warmed his hands on money and gifts intended for the Khan. Such a boyar happened. But he expected that there was no need to pay, he was hoping for his Saray friends. And in coups someone was cut, the others left Sarai.

As a result, Moscow lost its great reign. He was intercepted by Suzdal Dmitry-Thomas. Velyaminov made a gross miscalculation in relations with neighbors. In Tver two branches of princes were fighting. One, led by Vasily Kashinsky, friendly to Moscow. Another hostile - she was taken care of by the Lithuanian sovereign, Olgerd, he even married the Princess of Tver, Ulyana. Metropolitan of All Russia Alexy, who supported Vasily Kashinsky, was thrown into prison when visiting Kiev. And Velyaminov did not consider it necessary to quarrel with the Lithuanians and to shell out, in Tver the Olgerd relatives took the upper hand.

But under pressure from the Patriarchy of St.. Alexia still released. Returning to Moscow, he pushed Velyaminov away from the leadership and headed the government. He took under the auspices of the young Dmitry, began to raise from him the real sovereign. And in the Horde “great confusion” came out, it was split by fights for the Khan's throne. At the next ripening Khan Amurat diplomats of sv. Alexy managed to challenge the great reign. In 1362, Dmitry was crowned in Vladimir.

However, Olgerd in his own way appreciated the collapse of the Horde. Lithuania has already got its hands on the lion’s share of the Russian lands. Now it was possible to grab the rest - the Tatars did not intervene for their subjects. The ambassadors of the German emperor Olgerd frankly stated: “All Russia must belong to Lithuania” and even demanded that the Crusaders renounce “the right to Russians”. And Tver looked like a comfortable springboard. Olgerd made a bet on his spouse's brother, the quarrelsome and unprincipled Prince Michael. He pushed to overthrow his uncle, Vasily Kashinsky, to take Tver. And whether only Tver? Michael had the rights to the throne of the Grand Duke of Vladimir! To crush Moscow, instead of Dmitry, make the Grand Duke a relative, and Northern Russia will slip under Lithuanian domination after South!

The pretext was a dispute over the tiny town of Vertyazina. Vasily Kashinsky and the heir to the former owner, Prince Yeremey turned to Moscow. But Michael did not consider the decision of the Metropolitan. He seized Vertyazin by force, led the Lithuanians to help, laid siege to Uncle Vasily and forced him to renounce Tver. Offended princes again appealed to Moscow, Michael was invited to court. He came, but Lithuania stood behind him! He was bursting with the consciousness of his strength, he became insolent. He splashed out dirty insults and threats in court - even Saint Alexy could not stand it. He and the sovereign Dmitry Ivanovich took Mikhail into custody.

In the dungeon is not planted, made a decent. Let it cool, think again. He really thought better of it. He agreed to concessions. But Tatar ambassadors intervened. After all, legally Tver was not subordinate to Moscow, it was demolished with the khans independently of it. The ambassadors announced that it was not Dmitri who should deal with the Tver litigation, but the Khan. As a result, Michael remained the Grand Duke of Tver, but the controversial Vertyazin gave Yeremei. Although Michael was beside himself with anger. Returning home, he attacked Vertyazin, interrupted the servants of Yeremey and the Moscow people. True, frightened by the beating and fled to Lithuania.

Olgerd was pleased - the reason for the war was excellent. In 1368 and 1369, the Lithuanian hordes poured into Russia. Captured Starodubsky and Obolensky princedoms, having killed princes. They cleaned the villages clean, got people and cattle hijacked. Twice besieged Moscow. But they could not take it - just before that, Dmitry rebuilt the Stone Kremlin. And if for the first time the Lithuanians with tverches took away the huge transports of the stolen, many prisoners, then for the second time the Moscow monarch acted much more competently. Made a backup corps, they moved to the rear of the enemy, cutting off the way back.

Olgerd had to conclude a truce in order to allow him to leave in good time. Michael was terribly disappointed in failure. He considered Olgerd omnipotent! Already imagined how Moscow will writhe in the flames, how it will be elevated to a great reign ... And what is the result? Short truce. And then run again? But in 1370, Mamai won in Horde strife. I took Sarai, planted my puppet khan. Michael caught fire reorienting to other intercessors. I drove not to Lithuania, but to the Horde. Do not skimp on bribes, got into debt to the usurers. Receive a great reign - will return. If the money is not enough, he will pay the tax on the mercy, the creditors will more than return the investments in Russian furs, slaves.

In general, it turned out. Mamai handed Mikhail the coveted label of the Grand Duke. Although the Moscow government did not obey such a decision, the other princes also did not recognize the newly made sovereign. However ... and Mamai did not consider Michael as the "real" ruler. He intended only to tease Dmitry, to scare him and lead to obedience, otherwise he fought off his hands, stopped paying tribute. The Horde ambassador of Sary-Khoja explained in Moscow that it is only necessary to express submission. Survive between the two millstones, the Horde and Lithuania, there was almost no chance. Dmitri Ivanovich decided for the best to accept. In 1371, he visited the Horde. Mamai was extremely happy that he changed his mind, re-formed the label in his name without any problems.

Although for Moscow such a turn has become profitable. Olgerd immediately agreed to be friends, renounced the patronage of Michael. Alas, the achieved peace was too short. Strife resumed in the Horde, it fell apart - and Olgerd spun politics in the opposite direction. Lithuanian and Tver detachments ravaged the outskirts of Pereslavl-Zalessky, Dmitrov, burned and slaughtered Torzhok. In 1373, a massive invasion repeated. However, this time the hordes of Olgerd were stopped at Lubutsk, firmly battered and not allowed into their land. Only now, having suffered a fiasco, Olgerd rejected aggressive designs. For Mikhail saved Tver, but he vowed never to claim a great reign.
And Vasiliy Velyaminov, the Tsarsky, kept an enormous weight in Moscow. As before, he maintained warm relations with Horde and Genoese traffickers. Through them, he turned his own affairs. Trustee tysyatskogo acted Nekomat, a merchant and rogue indeterminate nationality. And Velyaminov loved money and jewels passionately. It got to the point that at the wedding of Grand Duke Dmitry, he dragged off the gift of his father-in-law, the golden belt. Replaced by similar, but more cheaply and cheaper. Although he could not steal, he was already richer than all the boyars. The sons married the princely daughters, consoled vanity. One of them gave a stolen belt, did not hesitate. Bad rumors spread, but the uncle of the sovereign considered himself invulnerable. Too important figure!

In his successors tysyatsky prepared the eldest son Ivan. When his father grew old, Ivan and Nekomat were already in charge of Moscow on his behalf. Dmitri Ivanovich and St. Alexis the manners of the boyar were long across the throat. Do not forget about the murder Bosovolkov, did not remain a mystery and subsequent outrages. The sovereign Christianly forgave the trick with a belt, kept silent, but ... how much can you tolerate? However, getting rid of Velyaminova was not easy. His friends and partners were now surrounded by Mamai, lending the ruler money!

Nevertheless, the Grand Duke and Metropolitan secretly prepared their steps. At the end of 1374, Vasily Velyaminov died, and here Moscow stirred up news - to the post of the deceased ... no one has been appointed. Sovereign abolished tysyatskogo post. He took over some of the powers, and transferred the rest to the new officials, Moscow governors. Ivan Veliyaminova these innovations stunned. He already felt that he was the continuer of the dynasty — his great-grandfather, grandfather, and father. He owned an exceptional position in the state - and suddenly taken away! Relegated to the level of one of the boyars! But foreign merchants in Moscow were puzzled. Now the servants of the Grand Duke will begin to check what they have been given legally, that it is illegal ... Someone had transferred their fears to Ivan, whispering about something behind closed doors.

In the spring of 1375, another news flown through the capital. Ivan Velyaminov and Nekomat fled! In principle, the boyar had the right to go to any prince. But it was carried out officially, it was required to declare resignation, to take an oath of oath. Son tysyatskogo disappeared in secret, and soon learned that the couple emerged in Tver. Well, Prince Michael did not learn the failures of his adventures. Velyaminov and Nekomat came in handy for him. They outlined their ripe plan. Simple enough, but still he did not come to Michael in the head. Do not rush between Lithuania and the Horde. We must go against Moscow at the same time with Lithuania and the Horde! The fugitives took upon themselves to negotiate with Mamai, and Mikhail had to disturb Olgerd. Neither Lithuania nor the Horde will not be offended, every urvet something for themselves.

The conspirators selflessly shared the skin of the Moscow bear. Michael is a great reign, Velyaminov is to be the second person with him, Nekomat and his companions are monopolies for furs, wax, trade and fur concessions. Time wasted, rushed in different directions. Prince rode in Vilna. Algerd, who had already burned himself, at first reacted to the brother-in-law carefully. But an unexpected option - to join forces with the Tatars - seemed curious to him. He promised that if this was indeed fulfilled, he would single out the troops. And Velyaminov with Nekomat rushed into the Khan's bet. In business circles, both were well known, and promises to provide a monopoly on Russian wealth, to repay income and crafts were very weighty arguments. The travelers, instantly, even without bribes and gifts, were granted an audience with Mamai.

However, Velyaminov had “gifts” for him. With the late father, he was found near the sovereign, he knew the most intimate plans. He laid out that Dmitry Ivanovich verbally recognizes the citizenship of the khans, but he is heading for the independence of Russia. Mamai was beside himself with rage. He announced that he was depriving Dmitry of his grand-princely dignity, and gave Michael a label. Velyaminov, in his joy, appropriated the rank of the capital of the capital of Vladimir Vladimir (such a rank never existed in Russia) and remained in the Horde as the representative of the Prince of Tver. And Nekomat with the Khan ambassador Aci-Khoja rushed in the opposite direction.

Mikhail just managed to return from Lithuania, as he was told: the envoys were already in Tver. Presented a precious label. Mamai himself wrote to him that he would help the “faithful ulusnik” against the despicable Mitka. That's really leaped heart of Michael! Mamai for him, Olgerd for him! He was so excited that on the same day he declared war on Moscow. Oh, hurried Mikhail Alexandrovich! Because Dmitry Ivanovich did not hesitate. He sent out calls to collect troops. At the same time, Rus herself said her vlovo. Nobody supported Michael. Oathbreaker, dirty trick, how many times did the strangers suggest! Shelves from different cities flocked to Dmitry.

With the declaration of war, only three weeks passed, and Tver found itself under siege. Mamai just did not have time to react! And Olgerd sent a host. But the Lithuanian commanders learned that Tver had a huge army. Preferred not to destroy the soldiers, turned back. Michael had to give up. He recognized himself as the "younger brother" of Dmitry. That is, I had to obey the elder. He promised to "observe" the great reign - the hereditary "patrimony" of the Moscow sovereigns. A clause was added to the contract that would have seemed suicidal just yesterday. Against the Horde! “And the Tatars or you will ride on us, beating us with you with one against them. Or we will go to them, and to you with us from one to them. ” But after the betrayal of Velyaminov, did it make sense to keep it secret? For the first time, the Grand Duke openly declared: Russia is no longer the same as before. She will fight back predators.

But at the rate of Mamai wielded "Vladimir tysyatskiy" Ivan Velyaminov. It was with his participation that plans for a big war against Russia were worked out. Although Velyaminov suggested something else - the root of evil in Mitka. If you eliminate it, to cope with the Russian is not difficult. Mamai agreed - act thousandth. If you can, we will not be lost.

The end of this story came in the 1378 year, after the battle of Voge. The army of Dmitry Ivanovich won a brilliant victory over the body of Begić. Tatars lined the corpses of Ryazan meadows or fled. They threw tents, carts. Thousands of captives and servants have gained their freedom. Among them, in the enemy camp, a man in the vestments of a priest was caught. It seems to be speaking our way, but something in him was alien, not Russian. He seemed suspicious, he was searched and dried roots were found in the bag, herbs were not harmless. The stranger was taken into circulation. He broke up - sent by Ivan Velyaminov, had to penetrate to the Grand Duke, to lime him with poison and damage.

During interrogations, it turned out that Vel'yaminov cherished hopes to win over his cousin Dmitry, Vladimir Andreevich Serpukhovsky, to his side. Promise him the throne, and for that he will help subjugate the country to Mamaia, fulfill the conditions of Velyaminov and the Horde merchants. The false priest was supposed to make contact with him, throw his fishing rods ... Well, the traitor measured others by himself. When Vladimir Andreevich found out what role the conspirators had predicted for him, he was deeply outraged and offended. With brother, they lived in perfect harmony and back to back, propping up each other!

But they calmed down, discussed with Dmitry Ivanovich and thought, why not to cheat? Played the script, which now would be called a special operation. A messenger from Vladimir Andreevich went to Velyaminov to the Horde. The prince reported that the "priest" with deadly drugs got to him. That, in principle, he could accept "tempting" offers. But for this, he invited the "Vladimir tysyatskogo" secretly to come to his Serpukhov. Let him personally confirm that Mamai will support his candidacy. And let the coup help to organize, find associates at court. In general, lured. Velyaminov appeared in Serpukhov, and there he was tied up.

Dmitry Ivanovich was a rather gentle person. He forgave his servants, the governor. Forgive the princes who opposed him. Who does not happen, the demon lured. You will forgive - and the Lord will forgive you. But he did not forgive the geek selling the Fatherland. At the confluence of the Moscow people, the former first boyar had his head cut off. The execution was carried out on Kuchkovy field. Probably, the place was chosen not by chance. They remembered about the traitor boyar Kuchka, executed by Yury Dolgoruky. They remembered Kuchkovichs who destroyed St. Andrei Bogolyubsky. Judah was sent to a decent company.
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5 comments
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 25 October 2015 07: 29 New
    +4
    How often the personal ambitions of the oligarchs negatively influenced the history of our Fatherland ...
    1. Vend
      Vend 25 October 2015 11: 45 New
      +4
      The article is interesting. It gives an answer why the Lithuanians were not in a hurry to the Battle of Kulikovo. However, the author is not indicated where he got this information from from what sources.
      1. Spnsr
        Spnsr 25 October 2015 16: 57 New
        +1
        Quote: Wend
        The article is interesting. It gives an answer why the Lithuanians were not in a hurry to the Battle of Kulikovo. However, the author is not indicated where he got this information from from what sources.

        Karamzin most likely!
  2. tundra
    tundra 25 October 2015 10: 14 New
    +5
    Our projects were far from being finger-made. Able ..... !!! Vladimir we are expecting that ,,, !!!! The USA is the same horde, THE FLAH BLAH IS NOT Well, God forbid, God grant, HE IS WITH US.
  3. wow
    wow 25 October 2015 22: 56 New
    0
    It would not hurt to revive this practice now ....