Space horizontal

The national economy requires new means of breeding


The author of the article Spacelessness, Alexander Knivel, has no doubt that near space should be serviced by aerospace systems, since they have many advantages over the traditional method of delivering cargo to near-earth orbit, including reusability and the ability to start from several points. At the same time I am confident that such launch vehicles are actively developing exclusively outside our country. This is not true. Historically, this direction has arisen and developed in Russia.

"Spiral", MAKS, "Buran" - famous names of famous projects. But few have heard of the work of Academician Ivan Filippovich Obraztsov on the creation of the reusable aerospace transport complex "Cosmoplan". The task of removing and returning the spacecraft (SV) Obraztsov proposed to solve at the expense of a system with a horizontal start and landing. Not understanding the essence of this project, the specialists of the rocket technology gave a very negative answer to this proposal of the scientist. A similar view on the exclusivity of the rocket persists to the present day, which contradicts the goals of the further development of space tools of the information and telecommunications state structure.

Space horizontalThe development strategy of launch vehicles (SV) - today it is the Angara launch vehicle (PH) - dooms the developers of spacecraft and valuable scientific equipment to the only way - irrevocable delivery in one direction. The decommissioned or completed spacecraft are turned into space junk.

The strategic direction of modern means of communication is considered to be the maintenance of a mobile object (in the broadest sense) cellular communication and the Internet. This direction is developing at a very fast pace (change of epochs is estimated at 12 years), and the output of cellular systems to the space level with the adopted strategy of rocket production in Russia is impossible neither in terms of implementation, nor in costs, nor, of course, in efficiency. A fundamental revision of the SV design principles is needed: in parallel to the only accepted method of delivery of a launch vehicle, it is necessary to create aerospace aids with a horizontal start and landing (of the type that Skylon is actively developing abroad).

A prerequisite for the consideration of the problem of the inconsistency of the directions of development of space information systems (IS) and SV was the understanding and awareness of the place and importance of the use of relevant technologies in various fields of activity of Russian society. The meaning of data transfer processes is reduced to maximizing the use of all types of knowledge in all socially significant forms of activity with the help of a whole range of organizational and technical measures. A higher stage in the development of mankind is the information society that is emerging before our eyes, changing the institutions of the traditional industrial world.

The emergence of a fundamentally new information economy is becoming the basic component of the next form of social organization that requires a transition to a higher level of development of technology and knowledge. What happens is characterized by the term “high touch” of society and technology. One of the manifestations is the formation of social (collective) intelligence. Its functioning is unthinkable outside the developed technological base of interaction and free communication between all levels of productive forces, knowledge-intensive areas of knowledge and their applications. Interdisciplinary data exchange is a powerful incentive for horizontal mutual enrichment of sciences and the emergence of new areas at the interface of knowledge.

Awareness is the main factor of social intelligence and social will, acting in a comprehensive and purposeful manner. The information network can fulfill its purpose provided it satisfies the growing social, technological, economic and other needs of the society. The telecommunications system should extend to the entire territory of the country in order to provide a wide and continuously increasing composition of complex services to users in all socially significant areas - economy, science, education, health care, culture, entertainment, manufacturing, energy and transport, banking, trade, government structures , law enforcement agencies and law enforcement agencies and other consumers.

According to the totality of the laws of formation and formation of the information community in Russia, all the expected tasks of serving society will be of a complex intellectual nature.

The proposed new Global Terrestrial Space Information System (GLONIS) is designed to provide, at an integrated level, the functions of navigation, communications, control, remote sensing of the Earth, monitoring of the natural environment and human activity in a single ground-space structure.

The conjugation of the GLONIS space segment with permanently operating ground-based IS defines extremely high requirements for reliable spacecraft operation in orbits. This can be achieved by creating an appropriate operating structure for a multi-profile ground-space system, which is distinguished by the following:

-multiple use of each spacecraft after the planned modernization and maintenance on the ground;
- the periodicity of removal of the spacecraft from orbit for improvement, which is determined by the conditions of the change of epochs (approximately every five years) of communication devices;
- a system for launching and returning the spacecraft using an aerospace system (ACS) with a horizontal start and landing;
-AKS operation, maintenance and spacecraft modernization complex.


The GLONIS project is based on a combination of domestic technologies at the initial stage of development. The important point is the advanced creation of the theory of its construction and application.

Currently, 4G-LTE remains the predominant type of cellular communication, the next 5G era is at the stage of signal structure development. If the question of the possibility of satellite retransmission of a new spectrum is not resolved now, then 5G will take place only in the terrestrial version and there will be no space continuation. It is during the development of the signal structure that communication specialists should be interested in supporting this project. Otherwise, the Russian space segment of mobile communications will not take place and we will remain in the fiber optic era. Only an operated cosmonautics can lift 5G into orbit, because launching an experimental object, conducting tests and removing it from orbit for study, refinement and, if necessary, multiple tests using a reusable system will not cost as much as organized using a PH.

The operated cosmonautics should be under the auspices of the state, which provides relevant services for various IS. With such a formulation of the question, the private sector will invest in its development.

The main contradiction in the goals and objectives of the Russian cosmonautics is known: either deep space - and then we are talking about a rocket launcher (the heavier, the better), or near (economic) information space - and then traditional vertical-launch missiles are not so necessary. This is a question of the state national policy in space, and not the problem of a separate rocket corporation. If the goals and objectives will be determined and solved at the state level, there will be an operated cosmonautics in Russia.
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  1. science fiction writer 21 October 2015 05: 50 New
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    I don’t understand. So we rejoice or be sad about the Russian cosmonautics?
    A lot has been written, but there is little sense in what has been written.
    1. Goga101 21 October 2015 06: 02 New
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      science fiction - the article is “about nothing”, but with our space and without an article, everything is clear how we flew on the Korolev rockets and how we fly. "Modernization" ... the tube electronics was changed to chips and the whole modernization ....
      While Chubais and Kirienko will steer - it will be so, but only where would Kurchatov and Korolev come from now? After Fursenko and Livanov with their USE and other "innovations" - neither Kurchatov nor Korolev, theoretically, can simply happen to us ... request
      1. Andrey Yuryevich 21 October 2015 06: 23 New
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        Quote: Goga101
        neither Kurchatov nor Korolev, simply theoretically, can already happen to us ...

        choyto ??? we seem to have while men with women are sleeping, and not with each other as in a geyrop ... repeat
        1. dvg79 21 October 2015 08: 48 New
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          Maybe a genius will be born, only a modern educational system will make him a moron.
          1. Andrey Yuryevich 21 October 2015 09: 18 New
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            Quote: dvg79
            Maybe a genius will be born, only a modern educational system will make him a moron.

            Our education system, of course, has slipped into a minus, but it does not make de-bills, but the domestic policy of the state and the parents themselves.
            1. The comment was deleted.
            2. The comment was deleted.
        2. Andrey Yuryevich 21 October 2015 08: 54 New
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          Quote: Andrew Y.
          we seem to have while men with women are sleeping, and not with each other as in a geyrop ...
          ah, judging by the minus did not guess ... what
          laughing
          1. Alexander Romanov 21 October 2015 09: 19 New
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            Quote: Andrew Y.
            ah, judging by the minus did not guess.

            Judging by the minus you hit the mark laughing I see someone with a woman not sleeping, preferring a flat hairy chest wassat
            hi hi
            1. Andrey Yuryevich 21 October 2015 09: 24 New
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              Quote: Alexander Romanov
              Judging by the minus you hit the mark

              it scares me! belay Hi Sanya! hi
          2. andj61 21 October 2015 09: 38 New
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            Quote: Andrew Y.
            Quote: Andrew Y.
            we seem to have while men with women are sleeping, and not with each other as in a geyrop ...
            ah, judging by the minus did not guess ... what
            laughing

            Damn - I'm awesome! what
            Judging by the minuses - the site is becoming rosy ... repeat
            1. Alexander Romanov 21 October 2015 11: 02 New
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              Quote: andj61
              Judging by the minuses - the site is becoming rosy ...

              Yes, no, there are a couple of communists put the minuses and the liberals joined them lol
              1. adept666 21 October 2015 12: 47 New
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                liberals joined them lol
                Of the sympathizers? laughing
        3. mpzss 21 October 2015 09: 01 New
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          you're right, men are sleeping with women, only now children are born without knowledge, in your case, without knowledge of the Russian language! the words "choyto" in our mighty and great NO!
          1. Andrey Yuryevich 21 October 2015 09: 23 New
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            Quote: mpzss
            you're right, men are sleeping with women, only now children are born without knowledge, in your case, without knowledge of the Russian language! the words "choyto" in our mighty and great NO!

            get it and get rid of "letters" ...Morphological analysis "Choito":

            Choito

            Phonetic analysis "Choito"

            Initial Form: READY

            Part of Speech: Noun

            Grammar: inanimate, masculine, immutable, singular, nominative

            Parsing

            Forms of the word Parsing (grammar)
            almost a noun, inanimate, masculine, unchangeable, singular, genitive
            noun, inanimate, masculine, unchangeable, singular, dative
            noun, inanimate, masculine, unchangeable, singular, accusative
            noun, inanimate, masculine, unchangeable, singular, instrumental
            noun, inanimate, masculine, unchangeable, singular, prepositional
            noun, inanimate, masculine, immutable, plural, nominative
            noun, inanimate, masculine, immutable, plural, genitive
            noun, inanimate, masculine, immutable, plural, dative
            noun, inanimate, masculine, immutable, plural, accusative
            noun, inanimate, masculine, unchangeable, plural, instrumental
            noun, inanimate, masculine, unchangeable, plural, prepositional, and so on!
            1. mpzss 21 October 2015 11: 04 New
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              here you know, I checked ALL dictionaries in the internet and found only these lines of yours:
              Phonetic analysis "Choito"
              Initial Form: READY
              Part of Speech: Noun
              Grammar: inanimate, masculine, immutable, singular, nominative

              But this is only on ONE site, on dozens of others THIS word is NOT! So go to school and learn! This is a new, slang word, it is not recognized in the Russian language and is used only by schoolchildren in the internet, and even then, NOT ALL! but not quite literate! In Russian - 2!
              1. andj61 21 October 2015 11: 11 New
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                Quote: mpzss
                But this is only on ONE site, on dozens of others THIS word is NOT! So go to school and learn! This is a new, slang word, it is not recognized in the Russian language and is used only by schoolchildren in the internet, and even then, NOT ALL! but not quite literate! In Russian - 2!

                Wow! Already on the site "Military Review" in the comments of the article "Space" horizontal "are exams in Russian? what hi
              2. Andrey Yuryevich 21 October 2015 11: 35 New
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                Quote: mpzss
                go to school and learn!

                get rid of thin skin! I graduated from school in the 1970s! Enough with me, go teach children ...
                1. EvgNik 21 October 2015 14: 23 New
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                  Quote: Andrew Y.
                  get rid of thin skin!

                  Do not squeeze, but live! I graduated from school in the 66th year, to the right, poent!
                  And I equate the article with our squabble - at the same level.
                  I would like reusable, and more profitable in the future, and there is less debris in space - yes, many advantages, but ....
        4. Asadullah 21 October 2015 11: 22 New
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          choyto ???


          As usual, they talked about cosmonautics .... EGE and Fursenko are not giving anyone peace. There is a sedative called potassium cyanide.
      2. Genry 21 October 2015 06: 23 New
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        Working out an order for Kiriyenko?
        He has a complete order in RosAtom ... perfect!
      3. The comment was deleted.
      4. science fiction writer 21 October 2015 07: 29 New
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        as we flew on the Korolev missiles, so we fly. "Modernization" ... the tube electronics was changed to chips and the whole modernization ....

        I agree. Now tell me the country or countries that operate themselves, manned flights, systematically launches satellites, produces rockets and engines for export, builds cosmodromes, and develops new missiles for yourself and other countries. request And how many Chubais, Kirienko, Fursenko, Livanovs in these countries ??? And they are not offended by money.
        Yes, we have problems like everyone else, it’s already ridiculous to look for the extreme ones and it’s stupid. And the fact that the article is written, where the facts are that these specialists are not involved, one quick and naked review of future technologies, such as if right now it’s tomorrow. no
        1. Goga101 30 October 2015 06: 31 New
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          science fiction - Colleague - quote - "Now tell me the country or countries that operate themselves, manned flights, systematically launches satellites, produces rockets, engines for export, builds cosmodromes, ..."
          And I’ll call it easy - the USSR - hi wink
          and yet, have you heard anything about China’s actions in space exploration? But in vain, very entertaining information ...
      5. WKS
        WKS 21 October 2015 10: 00 New
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        Quote: Goga101
        But where would Kurchatov and Korolev come from now?

        Kurchatov and Korolev appeared when the state allocated almost unlimited material resources and human resources for the development of their scientific programs. Can you imagine that now the Russian state will allocate something comparable, if only for the development of what is described in the article?
      6. NordUral 21 October 2015 23: 30 New
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        Not only this. The main thing in the social system.
    2. Asadullah 21 October 2015 11: 18 New
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      Do not understand....


      smile Similarly. Some sort of babble that is necessary, but no specifics. What about horizontal overclocking? Up to fifteen km everything is OK, but how about the remaining 80 km ??? It is these 80 km that make an ass out of horizontal acceleration, in a mild expression on the face.
    3. Cherdak 21 October 2015 12: 44 New
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      Quote: fiction
      So we rejoice or be sad about the Russian cosmonautics?

      Yes, everything is fine.
      Quietly, but Alexei Komarov for the Volga-Dnepr Group which pepelats developed!
      See more at https://www.rt.com/news/242097-pak-ta-russian-army/
    4. opus 21 October 2015 23: 32 New
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      Quote: fiction
      A lot has been written, but there is little sense in what has been written.

      The nonsense is written.
      Especially about 5G
  2. Andrey Yuryevich 21 October 2015 05: 51 New
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    Mmmmda .. It is a pity that at one time they poached and abandoned the work of Lozino-Lozinsky, did not take into account the prospects. In the meantime ... as in the advertisement: "you need to dream about the Great! .. eat dad" mayonnaise "...!" recourse
    1. ziqzaq 21 October 2015 07: 22 New
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      Quote: Andrew Y.
      Mmmmda .. It’s a pity at one time they poached and abandoned the work of Lozino-Lozinsky, did not take into account the prospects

      I agree with you, Anger Ivanovich - a great designer ....
      1. andj61 21 October 2015 09: 47 New
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        Quote: ziqzaq
        Quote: Andrew Y.
        Mmmmda .. It’s a pity at one time they poached and abandoned the work of Lozino-Lozinsky, did not take into account the prospects

        I agree with you, Anger Ivanovich - a great designer ....

        I dare to correct it - Gleb Evgenievich.
        But they did not abandon it because they did not take into account the prospects. It is expensive to exploit Buran and Energy. The country did not pull economically, she overstrained at that moment. But for Energia there were simply no cargoes suitable for launching into orbit. And, if Gorbachev is for decisions, for example, on the INF Treaty, etc. can and should be criticized, then here he did something that we simply could not do, and nothing more.
    2. Manul 21 October 2015 08: 41 New
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      Quote: Andrew Y.
      It is a pity that at one time they poached and abandoned the work of Lozino-Lozinsky, did not take into account the prospects.

      These are the consequences of the collapse of the country. If the USSR lived, then the ideas of Gleb Evgenievich would certainly come true. Marked knew what to do. He knew and did everything purposefully.
  3. chief.matros 21 October 2015 05: 53 New
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    *** Scourge loot earn, what can you do, is not able to write more. All cosmonautics are in decline, not only ours-Americans without our engines cannot, a geyropa without fuel, here you have the sanctions.
  4. iliitchitch 21 October 2015 06: 05 New
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    Quote: fiction
    I don’t understand. So we rejoice or be sad about the Russian cosmonautics?
    A lot has been written, but there is little sense in what has been written.


    And Rogozin for what? This one will do what is necessary, and will not ask anyone. And we don’t throw axes at all. We sit, we have a tea.
  5. PlotnikoffDD 21 October 2015 06: 25 New
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    There are no goals, no desire, all by inertia ...
  6. sa-ag 21 October 2015 06: 32 New
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    These reusable systems are expensive, except for a drone, it’s better to watch others jump on a rake than to repeat this exercise yourself
  7. kuz363 21 October 2015 06: 49 New
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    Stupid article. Apparently similarly, space affairs are being done.
  8. vovan50 21 October 2015 06: 58 New
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    The spacecraft have a future, and the near future. Our strategic aviation must go into space and carry combat duty in orbit. And how many cases were there when expensive satellites were put into the wrong orbit or failed due to a petty spare part? And the delivery of crews and cargo to space stations ?. All this can be solved with the help of spacecraft. The cost savings are colossal.
    1. sa-ag 21 October 2015 07: 16 New
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      Quote: vovan50
      The cost savings are colossal.

      and what is the cost savings? Now the goods and crews are delivered by the Union and Progress, the cost of one union is say 50 million, a reusable system will be heavier because it will have to drag at least wings with thermal insulation into space, then another rocket under a different load, this is a different start, and interstart service of the reusable system ?
      1. Manul 21 October 2015 08: 45 New
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        Quote: sa-ag
        and what is the cost savings? Now the goods and crews are delivered by the Union and Progress, the cost of one union is say 50 million, a reusable system will be heavier because it will have to drag at least wings with thermal insulation into space, then another rocket under a different load, this is a different start, and interstart service of the reusable system ?

        Efficiency in any case is higher. We use the lifting force of the air, you can take into account the wind, cost savings on the construction of reusable equipment.
        1. sa-ag 21 October 2015 09: 09 New
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          Quote: Manul
          Efficiency in any case is higher.

          where is it higher when the reusable system drags aerodynamic structures with thermal insulation into space? to lift a certain amount of cargo, it must move more of its weight than the Union does the same?
        2. andj61 21 October 2015 09: 58 New
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          Quote: sa-ag
          Quote: vovan50
          The cost savings are colossal.
          and what is the cost savings?

          That's it - at the current level due to disposable systems, the delivery of 1 kg of cargo into orbit is 10 times lower at cost than reusable ones, and the efficiency is much higher. Reusable systems can be effective in space exploration and launches from orbit. And delivery to orbit can be made cheaper by implementing the idea of ​​a “space elevator” - delivering goods into a geostationary orbit along a “cable” of carbon nanotubes. The main problem was in the materials - they used to propose using something like crystalline diamond filaments for the cable (it was not clear how it would be made), now there is a solution, and a real one. 20 years later, perhaps this elevator will be created. True, the “cable” with a length of 36 km is a non-trivial task.
  9. Tatar 174 21 October 2015 07: 22 New
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    The article is a reminder of what we thought about and did not finish. Everything that is connected with the study and exploration of space will never be cheap, it is clear and therefore it is necessary to spend money and a lot of money on it. But at the same time, no one will argue that the way of delivering goods into orbit, which we still use, is a dead end. It turns out that it is necessary to develop new principles and technologies for putting goods into orbit, and the state should specifically help those who are engaged in this, otherwise we will remain for a long time on the planet and only a little bit about it.
  10. Gormenghast 21 October 2015 07: 23 New
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    By the way, the world's first reusable spacecraft was created in the USSR - a completely unique TKS (Supply Transport Vehicle), weighing under 20 tons and incredible maneuvering capabilities in outer space - he wrote such turns in orbit that the jaws fell off from the amers. Here is his lander was designed to use up to 10 times. TCS flew repeatedly, unfortunately, without pilots.

    I can’t understand at all why not revive it now; he still surpasses all Amer "Orions" and "Dragons", GST-100.

    And I can’t comprehend (it doesn’t fit in my head) the episode of the sale in the 90s of a descent vehicle, which was in space, at an auction to some private person. Typical activity of vile elcinoids.
  11. Neophyte 21 October 2015 07: 31 New
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    A very interesting article! The 6 technological revolution or evolution is coming, how anyone likes it!
    Deep space, of course, is interesting, but also a very expensive program? Yes, and the effect of its implementation is very foggy and this is the topic of the future. More realistic programs of the OZ-space must be solved, life itself suggests that this is necessary.
    1. AlNikolaich 21 October 2015 07: 50 New
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      Quote: Neophyte
      A very interesting article! The 6 technological revolution or evolution is coming, how anyone likes it!
      Deep space, of course, is interesting, but also a very expensive program? Yes, and the effect of its implementation is very foggy and this is the topic of the future. More realistic programs of the OZ-space must be solved, life itself suggests that this is necessary.

      Nothing is coming! Everything has been invented before us! Now the difficult evolution of the already created.
      Breakthroughs do not wait. Real technological capabilities close to the limit! Nanotechnology in
      an embryo. Nanomachines have never been created!
    2. Gormenghast 21 October 2015 11: 00 New
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      Reusability on a rocket engine is on the verge of a technological foul; Looks like Elon Musk puffs, but for now - to no avail.

      There is simply not enough energy in liquid fuels to provide real refillability and maintain acceptable performance. If you don't give a shit about efficiency - yes, you can do it for demonstration purposes.

      Shuttle reusable engines are an example. They wanted efficiency = the engine worked at maximum speed = after each start this reusable engine required an extremely expensive bulkhead = one start cost a billion.

      The technological revolution was "stabbed" by the greens and politicians. Real reusability and the highest efficiency can be provided only by one really existing technology - nuclear (and eventually, thermonuclear) will explode. If this were done, thousands of people would have long flown through the solar system in all directions; the settlements would already be on the Moon and Mars, and perhaps on Titan. Well - and where without it - tens of thousands of tons of military missile cruisers would already be stationed; pictures from Star Wars would be in kind. There are only agreements banning the deployment of nuclear weapons in outer space and banning nuclear explosions in the atmosphere. And in order to lift the detonator into its initial orbit, its engine will have to be launched in the atmosphere, after the starting monstrous solid propellant rocket engines have completed.
  12. fa2998 21 October 2015 07: 45 New
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    Quote: vovan50
    The spacecraft have a future, and the near future. Our strategic aviation must go into space and carry combat duty in orbit. And how many cases were there when expensive satellites were put into the wrong orbit or failed due to a petty spare part? And the delivery of crews and cargo to space stations ?. All this can be solved with the help of spacecraft. The cost savings are colossal.

    Well, first of all, NO ONE PLANE (“COSMOSLETS”) will not go into space on its engines and internal fuel. There is not enough energy. A rocket launcher of appropriate power is needed. This power depends on the cargo being thrown (and the part being returned) So the second question is to return on the royal seven, a charred cone, and returning a whole “spaceship” —this is a big difference in energy — means we’ll lose even more at start-up and acceleration. WHAT IS “COLORFUL ECONOMY” hi
    1. andj61 21 October 2015 11: 24 New
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      Quote: fa2998
      Well, first of all, NO ONE PLANE (“SPACE”) will not go into space on its engines and internal fuel. There will not be enough energy. A rocket launcher of appropriate power is needed.

      Actually, a rocket launcher is not needed to enter space. It is needed to put the device into orbit of the satellite — and these are two different things. A classic challenge from entertaining physics: is it possible to reach the moon with the speed of a bicycle? The answer is theoretically quite possible. Only if you turn off the engines, then the device will fall either on Earth or on the Moon, depending on which planet’s gravity prevails.
      Suborbital hypersonic airplanes (or spaceplanes) are quite possible, and there will be enough energy, there are only problems with engines - based on modern knowledge and the level of technology, they need to have almost three sets: two for flying in the atmosphere: at ordinary and hypersonic speeds, and one for flying in near space.
      But orbital reusable spacecraft at the modern level of technological development - I completely agree with you! hi - obviously losing one-time.
      1. fa2998 21 October 2015 17: 31 New
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        If you noticed, there is a quote in front of my comment. This is an answer to the quote, it does not talk about hypersonic and other LAs. There we are talking about going into space into orbit. We'll talk about flying into suborbital trajectories later. I'm sorry in a hurry! hi
    2. ZAV69 21 October 2015 12: 45 New
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      Engines on other principles have not been canceled.
      1. gridasov 21 October 2015 13: 10 New
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        In theory, you need to understand that there can be no other so-called principles! The conversation can only go on that within the framework of new algorithms for organizing these very and already well-known physical. processes, it is necessary to achieve a sufficient energy density to overcome and resistance of the elastic medium and to overcome gravity, etc. Everything is much simpler than it seems.
  13. ZAV69 21 October 2015 08: 00 New
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    The author is a little skidded. He spoke correctly about astronautics, only these thoughts were published back in the 80s in the magazines "Technique of Youth" and "Young Technician".
    And about the connection, he annealed. He doesn’t like the fiber optic era; give him wireless communication where necessary and not necessary. Now even 4G-LTE is redundant. Well, there is no such need to drive such amounts of data wirelessly. Of course 5G will appear, I do not argue, progress does not stand still.
    1. sa-ag 21 October 2015 08: 32 New
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      Quote: ZAV69
      Well, there is no such need to drive such amounts of data wirelessly.

      Video stream for example
  14. Signaller 21 October 2015 08: 02 New
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    Yes, of course, something needs to be developed. Only such a stroke. Recently I learned that the launch of Buran for the USSR was worth hundreds of launches of the Union. How do you like it. ???? So all of these Spirals and others will cost a lot of money. And provided that miniaturization of automatic satellites is taking place, and their weight will soon be quite small, loading the cargo into orbit with expensive systems is not worth the money. And descent is not worth that kind of money. It is simpler to simply introduce a system of descent from orbit into the cargo to be loaded, for the development of a resource or a malfunction, and launch a new one instead, which will cost a penny (exaggerated) in continuous production. A manned space program, it’s actually a two-edged sword. What are astronauts doing on the ISS ???? They grow lettuce, take pictures of the Earth, grow crystals worth millions and ..... fight for their lives. Fly to Mars ???? Yes, complete nonsense. On the same moon, which can be mastered with the help of automata, not very astronauts are needed.
    1. dvg79 21 October 2015 08: 57 New
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      A prototype single model of any equipment is always more expensive than a serial one. Steamboats are much more expensive than sailing ships, but they displaced them from trade and passenger lines. Buran could what the Union could not in principle.
  15. Engineer 21 October 2015 08: 33 New
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    Yes, what a genius Lozino-Lozinsky was.
  16. mpzss 21 October 2015 11: 10 New
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    Why are you all Chubais and people like him scolding !? Yes, I, too, am not happy with him, but this is not a reason to blame EVERYTHING on him, that's about the ministers of education, then I completely agree with you! I just see HOW they are taught at school and in universities ... compared to Soviet education, it is like heaven and earth! At school, you can officially miss classes (compulsory and non-compulsory lessons), in universities they reduce the number of hours in subjects, per day for 4 pairs, 5 pairs for students SHOCK !!! I tell my daughter that after the 2 course we didn’t have less than 6 pairs in our TECHNICUM NEVER and studied on Saturdays (although 4 pairs, but still!). What level of education can we talk about! One thing is good, not all teachers of the OLD school were retired, they give students a shake!
  17. Jurkovs 21 October 2015 11: 32 New
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    Empty article. At least one digit was called, at least hell with a finger compared.
  18. chunga-changa 21 October 2015 12: 03 New
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    Satellites are reduced in size and price. Ahead is the era of mini and micro satellites. Nobody will ever remove them from orbit, if only when clearing the orbits of debris. Large satellites still have a niche of geostationary, research spacecraft, and military. To make a garden with a reusable ship for them, in my opinion, does not make sense. Although the Hubl was repaired directly in orbit, it remains to find out what was cheaper, to repair it twice, or to make and launch a new one. The only reason for us to deal with reusable systems is to prepare an answer to the American X-37.
  19. IAlex 21 October 2015 12: 09 New
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    - "Phobosgrunt reception, reception! This is the center of space communications!"
    - "The MCC has problems, it doesn’t respond from phobosgrunt, and on the air you can only hear the sound of the rustling of bok cabbage, what should I do?"
    - "MCC TsKS. We smile and wave, smile and wave" ...
  20. gridasov 21 October 2015 12: 34 New
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    Smart people have long said that now information technology is already at such a level that information has already created a supersaturated space. Therefore, now analytical technologies are coming to the forefront, which should allow working with this capacious, contrasting and highly dynamic flows of information in this new quality. All this means that space-related technologies should not rely for a long time on objectivity or subjectivity of so-called specialists, but on a knowledge system and a system of analytical developments that could provide decision-makers with a chance to compare the entire possible body of information based not only on the basis of we have and can have, but from an understanding of the essence of the processuality of which processes will lead us to certain results and at different levels of prospects. Therefore, it should be clear to everyone for a long time that space is first and foremost, but at the heart of everything is the physics of the process on the basis of which it is possible to create an “engine”. Which will allow to take off from any position - horizontal, vertical from carriers or any other part and form.
  21. Mama_Cholli 21 October 2015 13: 35 New
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    As for the present of our cosmonautics, I stopped rejoicing when the last orbital station built back in the USSR was removed from orbit.
    So far, I have no reason to rejoice in this sector of the Russian economy.
  22. lazy 21 October 2015 16: 46 New
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    we must return to the ideas of Tsiolkovsky, he had all the steps were reusable. The problem with the shuttles is that many of their parts were disposable. If disposable systems were more economical than reusable systems, then we would now fly on disposable aircraft.
  23. Gormenghast 22 October 2015 07: 22 New
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    Manned ships, by definition, do not obey the trend of miniaturization. Cargo ships that provide human life outside the atmosphere can also not decrease - dwarf astronauts have not yet been withdrawn. Space solar power plants - pure energy (which only thermonuclear can compete with) weigh tens of thousands of tons. Mirrors for lighting the polar regions in the winter - tens of thousands of tons. Projects on the use of extraterrestrial resources (a kilometer iron-nickel asteroid, which are full, can provide the need for metals for hundreds of years) - these are many thousands of tons; tens of thousands if you transport an asteroid closer to Earth.

    For real activity in space mass is needed.

    What is left to do? Build monsters, such as the Chelomeevskaya UR-700M / UR-900 (750 tons in orbit), with a launch mass of 16000 tons (moreover, heptyl and amyl, which by no means improve the environment)?

    Why is this all? Here's what: it is necessary to score for a long time on the liquid propellant rocket engine, as they used to score on steam engines in due time.

    We need to switch to nuclear energy. Nuclear energy = automatic reusability; multiple reduction in transportation costs; increase in output mass beyond the limits possible for rocket engines. There is no future for LRE; this is a stomp on the spot. At the same time, a simple solid-phase nuclear rocket engine on granular nuclear fuel provides a specific impulse of thrust of 10 km / s, and it is guaranteed to put loads into orbit one step; nothing falls to the earth, and does not burn; at the same time, there were NRE projects with a thrust of up to 2500 tons (NERVA / Lox Mixed Cycle) - enough to lift a huge rocket. Gas-phase NRE (for example, the Soviet RD-600 with a thrust of 196 tons already yielded 20 km / sec.) This is the real future.
    1. gridasov 22 October 2015 10: 20 New
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      Explain to me and apparently many please how the thermal energy of a nuclear reactor and process can be converted into polarization energy or the energy of the thrust that is positioned so that it can fly. If you talk about the allocated coolant and steam turbines, then this already disappears.