Military Review

CSTO: Strategy and Practice of Collective Agreement

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From the Middle East to Ukraine, from a terrorist attack to an armed confrontation ... The increasing destabilization in the world is more and more clearly affecting the interests of Russia and its closest political partners - the military-political bloc of the CSTO (Collective Security Treaty Organization), which includes Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan. Recall that история The CSTO began in 1992 with the signing of the Collective Security Treaty in Tashkent. In 2002, an international organization was created on the basis of the treaty, at the same time the Collective Rapid Reaction Force (CRRF) was formed, the number of which is approximately 20 to thousands of people.

Islamic radicalism and frozen conflicts

At what stage of interaction is OKDB at the moment, what are the main challenges facing the participating countries, what can the organization expect in the future?
The most serious and actively discussed world threat is Islamic radicalism led by the “Islamic State” (ISIS). For many members of the organization, ISIS is not an ephemeral world evil at all. The Central Asian republics, in particular Tajikistan, bordering on ever-unstable Afghanistan, without the support of influential neighbors turn into an attractive object of influence and a source of new personnel for the Islamic State. The President of Kyrgyzstan Almazbek Atambayev on this occasion declares: “A direct threat to the security of our region is the tendency of expanding influence on the territory of Afghanistan of the terrorist group ISIL. In addition, the numerous facts of recruitment and exit of citizens of our republics to participate in armed conflicts on the side of ISIL are of particular concern. ”

But even for a country like Armenia, Islamists can be a problem - they are not in Transcaucasia yet, but no one can guarantee that the militants will not pass to Azerbaijan or Turkey. For Russia, the main threat is a new wave of extremism in the North Caucasus. In the event of a real attempt to destabilize, it is possible to use the forces of the CORF or direct support to the participating countries from the Russian Armed Forces, which have fairly large military bases in Tajikistan and Armenia, and an air base in Kyrgyzstan. The efficiency of the CORF is constantly increasing, large-scale exercises are regularly held.

Among the “frozen” confrontations, it is worth noting the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, in which Armenia and Azerbaijan, which is not part of the CSTO, are directly involved. So far from Baku there are threats of military revenge. At the moment, both sides of the conflict have accumulated significant arsenals of weapons, which means that a new outbreak of confrontation can lead to serious consequences. Armenia’s membership in the CSTO in this case serves as an absolute deterrent, not allowing the conflict to flare up with a new force. Another “powder keg” is the Tajik enclave of Vorukh in Kyrgyzstan. Around the question of his identity, small armed clashes had already occurred.

In the CSTO, the participants do what they want?


It is enough to assess the challenges facing the CSTO member countries to understand that one of the organization’s members and Russia will be involved in solving each of the problems. It is extremely difficult to imagine the armed forces of Kazakhstan or Belarus, fighting with the Azerbaijani army in alliance with the Armenian side, or Yerevan, actively participating in the operation against the Taliban on the border of Tajikistan and Afghanistan. In fact, there are not so many real ties between members of the organization - they are mostly all connected with Russia. In addition, the actions of the CSTO members are rarely coordinated with each other - this applies to the same vote on the Crimea, in which Russia was supported only by Armenia and Belarus. Another example of such “freedom” is the sale of arms by the CSTO member states to Azerbaijan, a state officially in a state of war with its Armenian ally (the peace treaty has not been signed after the cessation of hostilities in 1994).

Perhaps it was precisely the dissatisfaction of the CSTO members with the above facts that led to the decision voiced by 15 September 2015 at the CSTO summit in Dushanbe: in the future, the post of the Secretary General of the organization will become rotational. This may allow participating countries to express their position on controversial issues more clearly. Thus, Nikolai Bordyuzha, who has been in office since 2003 of the year, will give way to someone else in the near future.

To some extent, this problem is also characteristic of the NATO bloc, but there it is rather possible to talk about some “subblocks” that have a small independence of actions (and in the case of Turkey itself, quite significant). Although, of course, the United States in the North Atlantic Alliance, of course, play a decisive role.

Military-technical cooperation is the main motivation of CSTO membership

The PTS is one of the most active areas of interaction between the countries belonging to the CSTO. The main prerequisite for this is the ability to purchase weapons from Russia at preferential prices, almost the same as for the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation. This opportunity is most actively used by Belarus, Kazakhstan and Armenia, constantly acquiring large quantities of weapons, including the most modern ones. Thus, Kazakhstan acquired a batch of Su-30CM multi-role fighters and free of charge received five C-300PS anti-aircraft missile systems (ZRK) divisions.

Belarus in the past two months has signed several contracts. One of them is for the supply of a short-range Tor-M2K SAM system in the amount of five units. This deal is interesting because the air defense missile system is located on the wheeled chassis produced by the Minsk plant of wheeled tractors (MZKT), that is, it is actually a product of cooperation. In addition, Belarus is becoming one of the largest foreign customers of the newest Yak-130 combat fighter jets, able to imitate the behavior of various modern machines. Minsk has already received four airplanes (out of eight contracted), ordered as many more, and intends to launch another eight Yak-130 later, bringing their total number to 20. Also, Belarus purchased the 59H6М Opponnik-G radar and a number of upgraded BTR-82A armored personnel carriers. In addition, the country, along with Armenia and Kazakhstan, received several divisions of the C-300PS air defense system free of charge.

Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, even despite the benefits, cannot afford to make major purchases - the military budgets of these countries are barely enough for basic clothing and keeping the army in any combat-worthy condition. Small supplies weapons from Russia there are, but it is mainly equipment and ammunition from warehouses, transferred free of charge.

Cooperation in the military-industrial complex - is it necessary to replace Ukrainian products with Belarus?


In the light of the introduction of anti-Russian sanctions by Western countries and the breakdown of military-technical cooperation with Ukraine, which produced a number of important components necessary for the production of Russian weapons, along with import substitution, which is not always possible in a short time, new suppliers are needed. At the same time, despite the large number of signed documents related to cooperation in the production of weapons (both within the CSTO and directly between the member countries of the bloc), success is not as significant as we would like. Here you should pay attention to each of the CSTO participants.

Belarus is clearly a leader in the field of military-technical cooperation. What is the Minsk Wheel Tractor Plant (MZKT) that manufactures the chassis for the most varied Russian military equipment - from Topol-M and Yars mobile intercontinental ballistic missiles to the S-400 air defense missile systems and Iskander tactical missile systems. Belarusian enterprises are connected with at least 400 Russian plants. Among the “sanctions” novelties, it is worth noting the production of thermal imaging sights for self-propelled anti-tank missile systems “Chrysanthem-S”, which have been debugged as soon as possible by the Belarusian company “Peleng”, which will replace the Ukrainian counterpart. Belarus also participates in new Russian projects: for example, at the MAX-2015 Almaz-Antey air show, which took place in August, showed the UAV of a helicopter-type radar reconnaissance drone, which is the Belarusian basis of a helicopter UAV, which the Russian payload is loaded into - cameras and radar. As for the Belarusian innovations, they also have a lot of Russian components. Nevertheless, one cannot say that Belarus will be able to really replace most of the Western and Ukrainian components.

The contribution of Kazakhstan to the Russian military industrial complex is minimal. Here it is more about the Russian enterprises in Kazakhstan, producing products for the Kazakh army. An example is the JSC Ural Plant Zenit (located in the Kazakhstani city of Uralsk), producing rocket-artillery boats of the 0250 project under license. There are enterprises engaged in the repair of equipment, producing ammunition, communications equipment, etc. However, all this production is still of little interest to Russian weapons manufacturers.
The military-industrial complex of Armenia is also more focused on its market - although there are minimal supplies to Russian manufacturers. This mainly concerns some components used in radio electronics. Some of the enterprises were bought by Russia, but they have not yet received serious development. In recent years, Armenia opened service centers for the repair of military equipment, made many statements and signed many papers, but no real “breakthrough” has been observed.

As for Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, here everything rests on the very low level of the economies of these countries, which are unlikely to be able to produce competitive military products in the near future.
As we can see, the issues of cooperation in the military-industrial complex among the CSTO countries are not fully compliant with the statements, and the issue of import substitution cannot be resolved only with products from Belarus.

But another question arises - should Russia, which was located in many areas, depending on the Ukrainian military-industrial complex, now become dependent on Minsk? The political situation now is such that it is possible and “do not have time to blink an eye,” as an ally will begin to rapidly change its friendly position. Therefore, the priority should still be to deploy the production of key components of military equipment in Russia, even if it is longer, harder and more expensive. The situation that has developed not on the Russian initiative must be maximally used in its own interests.

Related quotes:


“Today we are faced with an escalation of tension in the zones of smoldering conflict, open hostilities and the emergence of new hotbeds of instability, including near our borders. In such a situation, it is necessary to strengthen the military power and crisis response mechanisms of the CSTO, ”- the President of Belarus Alexander Lukashenko

“Our actions should be based on the need to take into account allied obligations and the opinions of partners, jointly countering initiatives that run counter to the interests of one or several CSTO member states,” President Serzh Sargsyan

“I really wouldn’t want us to have on our border tomorrow what Europe has today, since mass migration of people brings massive security problems for people and the state,” CSTO Secretary General Nikolai Bordyuzha

Magazine "New Defense Order", 2015, No.5 (37)
Author:
Originator:
http://dfnc.ru/politica/odkb-strategiya-i-praktika-kollektivnogo-dogovora/
15 comments
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  1. Same lech
    Same lech 20 October 2015 14: 39 New
    +3
    In addition, the actions of CSTO members are rarely coordinated with each other - this applies to the same vote in the Crimea, in which Russia was supported only by Armenia and Belarus.


    So look who we are a real ally.
    1. vsoltan
      vsoltan 20 October 2015 17: 42 New
      +2
      So somehow and somehow, I think that both the OKBD and the ERAZES and the SCO and the BRICS, the more so the CIS .... the creatures are only tactical, but in the historical and strategic sense they are not very viable. Sluggish so-and-so allies. It is better for Russia to rely only on itself, as they commonly quote, on the army and navy ... well, I would also add a hard-working people ... and you shouldn’t cheerfully feed anyone who is hypothetical friends .... all these krivuli passed during the time of the III International, Khrushchev and Brezhnev .. On the same rake ?. God have mercy, I would like to make a mistake ... recourse but I don’t believe, I don’t believe ...
  2. Are
    Are 20 October 2015 15: 02 New
    +1
    Of course, you need to rely on your own Armed Forces (the Army and the Navy), but you also need to train your CSTO partners in decency ... Until we get used to that it's better together, so there will be "natural" shrimps from Belarus ...
  3. cniza
    cniza 20 October 2015 15: 06 New
    +3
    The matter is the necessary southern and southeastern directions are becoming the most tense.
  4. marshes
    marshes 20 October 2015 15: 07 New
    +6
    Here we are talking more about Russian enterprises in Kazakhstan that manufacture products for the Kazakh army

    Where the author saw Russian enterprises, all enterprises of our military-industrial complex belong to the national company Kazakhstan Engineering.
  5. Lumumba
    Lumumba 20 October 2015 15: 10 New
    0
    Quote: The same LYOKHA
    supported only by Armenia and Belarus


    It is quite significant that all Christian CSTO member states voted for Russia. And the Muslim countries "abstained". So yes, to quote again:

    Quote: The same LYOKHA
    So look who we are a real ally.
  6. Zymran
    Zymran 20 October 2015 15: 17 New
    +6
    Kazakhstan’s contribution to the Russian defense industry is minimal. Here we are talking more about Russian enterprises in Kazakhstan that manufacture products for the Kazakh army. An example is the Zenit Ural Plant JSC (located in the Kazakh city of Uralsk), which produces, under license, rocket-artillery boats of the 0250 project. There are enterprises that carry out repair of equipment, producing ammunition, communications, etc.


    From what fright did Zenit become a Russian enterprise?
    1. marshes
      marshes 20 October 2015 15: 22 New
      +5
      Quote: Zymran
      From what fright did Zenit become a Russian enterprise?

      By the way, the "Balkhash" knot, and here are the free S-300PM.
      Armenians generally received for the base.
  7. xtur
    xtur 20 October 2015 16: 12 New
    0
    > Yerevan, actively participating in the operation against the Taliban on the border of Tajikistan and Afghanistan

    but Yerevan could send up to 20 people to Syria, to protect the Syrian Armenians - if the authorities in Yerevan were adequate.

    > The military-industrial complex of Armenia is also more focused on its own market - although there are minimal supplies to Russian producers. This mainly applies to some of the components used in radio electronics. Some of the enterprises were bought out by Russia, but they have not yet received serious development.


    Unfortunately, this is putting it mildly - for example, 10-15 years ago, the Russian Federation acquired the Mars command apparatus plant ... and turned it into premises for lease. And the plant was designed to cover the needs of the entire CMEA with its products

    > But another question arises - does Russia, which was in many areas dependent on the Ukrainian military-industrial complex, now need to become dependent on ...

    the whole thing is precisely in this, most likely
    1. Yeraz
      Yeraz 20 October 2015 17: 00 New
      +3
      Quote: xtur
      but Yerevan could send up to 20 people to Syria, to protect the Syrian Armenians - if the authorities in Yerevan were adequate.

      How then. And in occupied Karabakh, who will stand ?? Armenia, as it were, does not suffer from an excess of soldiers, but vice versa.
  8. Yeraz
    Yeraz 20 October 2015 17: 02 New
    +2
    Useless organization, which is tied to Russia. If at least the slightest conflict, the soldiers of the Russian Federation will be involved.
    And the same conflict in Karabakh is an example of this. I see how straightforward Cossacks and Kyrgyz in arms are going against their blood brothers from Azerbaijan))) laughter and only. There will not even be Belarusians.
    1. Andruxax
      Andruxax 20 October 2015 17: 13 New
      +1
      Quote: Yeraz
      There will not even be Belarusians.

      Well, if you look at the help of New Russia, then in Karabakh there will be no Russians either.
  9. Andruxax
    Andruxax 20 October 2015 17: 05 New
    +3
    What the fuck ISIS? The greatest danger was and is the west.
  10. Belarus
    Belarus 20 October 2015 17: 34 New
    +1
    In addition, the actions of CSTO members are rarely coordinated with each other - this applies to the same vote in the Crimea, in which Russia was supported only by Armenia and Belarus.


    So look who we are a real ally.


    In Crimea, there is a very twofold position towards the AHL, if you carefully review the many videos that he spoke about Crimea, many questions arise. So I would not be so categorical.
    1. Andruxax
      Andruxax 20 October 2015 17: 42 New
      +1
      Quote: Belarus

      In Crimea, there is a very twofold position towards the AHL, if you carefully review the many videos that he spoke about Crimea, many questions arise. So I would not be so categorical.

      Well, yes, and ours and yours all begin with this.
  11. Anisim1977
    Anisim1977 20 October 2015 19: 36 New
    +1
    It is time to send Grad, Tornadoes, Hurricanes and many, many BC to them on the border with Afghanistan. They are crawling to the border - covering the region and all things in one gulp. It was the USSR that they tried to build socialism, therefore there were a lot of losses - and to cover the border tightly and simply destroy it is completely different and spirits are unlikely to like it.
  12. cniza
    cniza 20 October 2015 20: 11 New
    +3
    [quote = Anisim1977] It's time to send Grad, Tornadoes, Hurricanes and many, many BC to them on the border with Afghanistan.


    It seems that they have already done.
  13. Talgat
    Talgat 20 October 2015 20: 36 New
    +3
    I will say a few words in defense of the CSTO

    Yes, all the caustic remarks are justified - yes, the CSTO is not as good as it could be

    But, on the other hand, all military blocs always had and have internal contradictions. Take the same vaunted NATO - within it there is Greece and Turkey - which you can name the allies and the language will not turn. The United States is constantly putting pressure on members of the bloc to raise their military spending - and they rest

    And in general - they heard it - they read it - the same foreigners themselves say - why all of NATO? Then, in order to keep Rush out (in the sense of Russia outside), Joman Down (Germans under him, crush) and Yues in (and the United States to attend)

    In general, we don’t have to mutilate each other - but rejoice that at least we’ve saved something from the Union — and that the 3 main allies nevertheless unite and integrate economies - borders - defense - are building an analogue of Europe according to our