Military Review

The first Soviet jet airliner

35



60 years ago, in June 1955, the Tu-104 jet airliner made its first flight. Its take-off and the subsequent launch in 1956 on regular air lines meant the beginning of a new era of civil air transport — reactive.

The first domestic jet passenger plane Tu-104 was built and designed according to the “proprietary” methodology of the OK Tupolev Design Bureau: the Tu-16 bomber, its wings, tail assembly, engines, landing gear, radar, pilot and navigation equipment were used as the basis cabins. By the beginning of the design, the Tu-104 was already in mass production and was reliably tested in operation. New was only sealed fuselage.

Without exception, the multi-passenger passenger planes of A.N. Tupolev were built in this way. It is enough to recall the widely known ANT-9 (PS-9) and ANT-14 (PS-14), created from the famous ANT-4 (TB-1) and ANT-6 (TB-3). ANT-20 "Maxim Gorky" was the development of the six-engine bomber ANT-16 (TB-4) who did not go into the series with the world's largest bomb bay, and the SB-40 high-speed bomber (ANT-35) turned into a passenger ANT-35 (PS-4) passenger bomber (PS-29) turned into a passenger ANT-70 (PS-72) PT-XNUMX (PN-XNUMX) passenger bomber turned into a passenger ANT-XNUMX (PS-XNUMX) high-speed bomber (ANT-XNUMX) turned into a passenger ANT-XNUMX (PS-XNUMX) passenger bomber (PS-XNUMX) became the passenger ANT-XNUMX (PS-XNUMX). Even on the basis of the Tu-XNUMX bomber, an analogue of the B-XNUMX, the Tu-XNUMX passenger car was created with a pressurized cabin on the human XNUMX.



True to his principle when creating each new machine, focus on solving the main problem, A.N. Tupolev, when developing the Tu-104, chose the safety and comfort of passengers as the main one. The main difficulty was to ensure comfortable conditions in the plane for flying at high speeds and in thin air at high altitude. For the new car designed the fuselage of increased diameter (3,5 m). His development and equipment in the passenger cabin, were one of the main tasks in the project of the Tu-104.

Some experience was gained during the construction of the Tu-70, which never went into series: at the end of the forties, the time of mass passenger traffic had not yet arrived. However, the transition from reciprocating to jet aircraft introduced its difficulties - the speeds, heights, loads, vibrations increased. All this required new approaches to design.

Providing safety, the Tu-104 developers sought, above all, to prevent cases of depressurization of the fuselage, the resource of which was originally defined in the 23000 watch. It was assumed that the most likely source of depressurization may be a large glass surface cockpit. In this regard, for the safety of passengers, the crew cabin was separated from the passenger emergency sealed partition, and the crew was provided with special oxygen equipment.

When designing the fuselage of the Tu-104, special attention was paid to the proper endurance of the skin joints, special strengthening of the edging of the cutouts for windows, doors and hatches. Glazing of passenger cabin windows was supplied with large reserves of static strength and endurance. A thin, five millimeter inner glass, supplied for thermal insulation, was able to take over the action of excess pressure when the main glass was destroyed. An additional guarantee on the first machines was an oxygen system with automatically dropping out masks, for each passenger, during depressurization for the necessary three to four minutes of emergency care to a safe height.

Reliable systems for supplying the cabin with air of the required temperature and purity have been developed. The shell of the fuselage for heat and sound insulation is covered from the inside with soft insulation of glass wool. The system of air supply to the cabin was such that the necessary comfortable conditions were provided during the flight and on one engine. The strength and performance of the components of the future airliner, and first of all the fuselage, were confirmed by numerous tests carried out in the hydrobasin.

The factory test phase was conducted by the crew consisting of: the first test pilot Yu.T. Alasheev, co-pilot B. M. Timoshok, navigator P. N. Rudnev, flight engineer I. D. Ivanov, lead test engineer V. N. Benderov, lead engineer from the Tupolev Design Bureau B. F. Petrov.

State tests were conducted by test pilot AK Starikov, and the head machine of the first series of the Tu-104 was lifted into the air by the test pilot of the production plant FF Dotsenko.

The first Soviet jet airliner


Already in March 1956, a sensational international debut of an experimental Tu-104 aircraft took place in London, and then in several other countries. The interest in the plane was huge, the newspapers were full of praise and superlatives of comparison. There were huge queues to the plane, in which there was a mass aviation specialists. The owners showed excessive interest in the airliner's navigation and radio equipment, which for the most part duplicated similar equipment of the Tu-16 medium bomber.

The British press characterized the Tu-104 as an excellent aircraft, marking its excellent flight characteristics and level of comfort for passengers. French Air Marshal Joubert de la Firth said in an interview with a British television reporter: “The Russians are far ahead of us in the construction of such aircraft, and we don’t have jet engines of this size at all.”

It should be noted that success and a long and brilliant career for the Tu-16 and Tu-104 aircraft were provided by the OKB A. A. Mikulin AM-3 (later RD-ZM) engines in 8750 (9500) kg. Considering the car, the British reacted somewhat ironically to only one thing - the pomp of the interior. According to them, she was behind the modern style. However, for the mass exploitation of stoomechny Tu-104B trim simplified, and the internal appearance of the machine was no different from international standards.

A significant event was marked by the 1957 year, when twenty years after the famous flights of the crews of V.P. Chkalov and M. M. Gromov Tu-104 arrived in the USA. A nine-thousand-kilometer transatlantic flight took place in 13 hours 29 minutes. The aircraft was piloted by B. P. Bugaev (later becoming Minister of Civil Aviation of the USSR), I.V. Orlovets and PI Nine.

In a number of countries, an escort of fighters was sent to meet the Tu-104, and later the Tu-114. Once this gave a reason A.N. Instead of greeting, Tupolev asked the American general: “Well, did they check it?” The translator did not understand, and the general responded instantly: “Yes, yes, of course ... everything is ok!” The speed of the plane was as previously stated. By the way, Tu-104 It was the first jet aircraft to fly across the Atlantic with one landing and only the fifth type of Soviet aircraft on the American continent. All of them, except for the TsKB-30 Moscow, were created in the Tupolev Design Bureau.



Editor of the well-known aviation edition R.V. Hotz recalled: “Sir George, the creator of the“ Vaikaunt ”turboprop aircraft project, reproached Tupolev for making the landing gear too heavy for the Tu-104, this has a bad effect on the income payable. “Have you ever had to spend the winter in Siberia? - asked Tupolev. - In that case, do not ask me why I installed such a heavy landing gear on a Tu-104 plane. I did it not because of stupidity, but because this chassis would have to withstand ice, snow and slush on the runways without a hard surface for six winter months in Siberia. If you were not in Siberia in the winter, then you do not need to teach me to design a landing gear for Soviet aircraft. "

Hotz was convinced that Tupolev was right when he saw that even in Kiev, in 1959, there was no paved runway yet. Tu-104 daily made ups and landings from unpaved strips. In Yakutsk, "one hundred and fourth" for the first time in the practice of heavy jet aircraft sat on a dirt strip covered with snow.

15 September 1956, the Tupolev airliner made its first regular flight with 50 passengers en route Moscow - Irkutsk. After seven hours and ten minutes of flight time, having broken 4570 kilometers in Omsk, the plane landed in Irkutsk. Travel time has decreased almost threefold compared to flying on piston aircraft.

And on October 12, 1956 of the year from the Vnukovo airport started the Tu-104, which departed on the first passenger flight abroad on the route Moscow - Prague. The honorable duty to make this flight was assigned to the crew headed by B.P. Bugaev. Two hours later, with a small Tu-104 landed at Ruzyne Prague Airport. This flight was the beginning of the regular operation of jet airliners on the international lines of Aeroflot.

In the same year, the Tu-104 took the line Moscow-Tbilisi, Moscow-Tashkent, Moscow-Khabarovsk.



The introduction of new jet technology into operation was successful. This was facilitated by the high quality and reliability of the machine, and the high skill of the flight and engineering personnel. But there were problems. During mass exploitation at high altitudes, Tu-104 aircraft more often than warplanes encountered thunderstorm clouds and jet currents in the atmosphere, which are associated with large vertical gusts of air masses. Signals began to be received about cases of stall flow and unstable behavior of the aircraft in such conditions. At the same time, the car was delayed at high angles of attack, approaching critical ones, causing a loss of stability. To solve this problem, on a pilot aircraft equipped with a special antistop parachute and means of crew rescue, special flight studies were conducted of the aircraft's behavior when reaching the critical angles of attack. Test pilot A.D. took part in this work. Grischenko, who later became famous for his heroic flights over the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. According to the results of tests on all Tu-104 airplanes, the permissible limits of rear centering were urgently reduced, the angle of installation of the stabilizer and the maximum angles of deflection of the elevator were lowered. After carrying out these improvements Tu-104 aircraft successfully served all subsequent years of operation.

It was believed that jet passenger aircraft are unprofitable because of the increased specific fuel consumption. However, the “voracity” of AM-3 (four times more than that of the piston of the same capacity) did not prevent the Tu-104 from proving its economic efficiency. This became especially obvious when, instead of the first series aircraft on the 50-56, passenger seats from the 1958 year began to mass-produce the Tu-104A on the 70 seats, and later released the Tu-104B aircraft with an extended fuselage on the 100, and then on the 115 passengers. Tu-104 intervened passenger 122.



However, in the West, for obvious reasons related to competition, they began to spread information that the allegedly twin-engine, multi-seater passenger aircraft was not reliable enough. Most Western cars at that time were four-engine, primarily due to the lack of suitable high-power engines abroad. Some shadow of doubt appeared in our country. Tupolev was offered to install four engines of somewhat lower power on the Tu-104. After undoing the wing and inserting a new engine section between him and the fuselage, but already for two engines, P. A. Solovyov, Andrei Nikolayevich promptly put the Tu-110 car to the test. According to its flight data, it practically did not differ from the Tu-104. The car did not go into the series, as the AM-3 engines worked reliably, and the Solovyovskie ones needed to be refined. The subsequent operating experience of the Tu-104 confirmed the reliability of a twin-engine multi-seater passenger aircraft. And in 1960, with two D20P engines, a smaller copy of the Tu-104 - the Tu-124 aircraft on the 44-56 passenger seats took off. But about him in the next article.



A military transport version of the Tu-104, the Tu-107, was also created, but it also did not go into the series, primarily because of the success in creating specialized transport airplanes in the Antonov Design Bureau.

In the process of long-term operation, the Tu-104 aircraft were constantly modified while maintaining the comfort of passengers, which was possible due to the presence of the originally built strength reserves of the structure. The concept of turning a bomber into a Tupolev passenger aircraft at this stage fully justified itself. Although this led to a certain increase in the cost of operating the machine in a civilian version, it guaranteed the safety and the possibility of quick training of flight personnel and ground personnel.

Tests on the strength of the aircraft and its individual units were carried out continuously during the entire period of operation. Three gliders of the aircraft were tested completely and an additional five sets of detachable wing parts. One experienced and one serial fuselages were tested in the hydro pool separately. The results of these works and the tests of the Tu-16 design carried out in parallel allowed us to solve the problem of ensuring the service life of the Tu-104 aircraft.

In addition, in 1957, on one of the decommissioned aircraft, the impact on the design of sudden depressurization of the fuselage in the event of glass breakage was specifically investigated, and the survivability of the structure in case of mechanical damage and destruction of individual power sections of the fuselage was checked. After successful tests, extra safety equipment was removed, including an emergency bulkhead, which allowed the passenger compartment of the Tu-104A modification to be converted to one hundred passenger seats.

In the future, there was not a single case of the destruction of the windows of the pilot's cabin and other damage causing depressurization of the fuselage. As a result of all the experimental, maintenance and operational work carried out by the Tupolev Design Bureau in conjunction with TsAGI and the State Research Institute of Civil Aviation, the aircraft's life was brought to 15000 flights and 35000 flight hours. The leader, aircraft # 42400, has completed 18000 flights without fatigue cracks in the main power structure.

In the course of its twenty-five-year career, the Tu-104 had a chance to visit the “role” of the spacecraft and orbital station. Already after the first space flight S.P. Korolev came to the unequivocal conclusion that future astronauts must be taught to be weightless beforehand on earth. After brief meetings of Korolev and Tupolev with the participation of Gagarin and the doctor of the cosmonaut Yazdovskiy detachment, it was decided to re-equip the Tu-104 into a flying laboratory. After discussion at the Academic Council, Tupolev ordered that the work be carried out in the design bureau and in the production of a “green street”. All the excess was removed from the cabin, windows were sealed, the cabin was pasted over with a thick layer of soft foam rubber, the doctors and experimenters were equipped with workplaces. The conditions of weightlessness were created by the appropriate maneuver of the aircraft and were maintained for twenty-five seconds with the aid of an automatic overload. In 1965, film shots appeared, like future astronauts, breaking the gravitational laws, were floating in the air of the Tu-104 cabin.

In the cabin of the Tu-104, besides cosmonaut training, studies and testing of the device for going into outer space were conducted, the efficiency of the fuel and hydraulic systems was tested, and electric welding units were tested.

Tu-104 aircraft flew on Aeroflot routes until 1979. On passenger lines they were replaced by more economical Tu-154. However, they continued to fly in the Air Force. Only after the disaster of February 17, 1981, which led to the death of the Pacific Command fleet, the fate of the aircraft was finally decided. But this in no way can belittle the fact that over one hundred million passengers were transported on the Tu-104 - almost half the country. On this aircraft in the late fifties, 26 world records of speed and carrying capacity were set.





Sources:
Rigmant V. Tu-104 // Aviation and Cosmonautics. 1999. No.3. C. 33-36.
Vulfov A. Tu-104 // Aviation and Cosmonautics. 2004. # 8. C. 6-15.
Demin A. The first swallow of the jet spring // Civil Aviation. 1996. No.6. C.42-43.
Yakubovich N. The first passenger jet // Wings of the Motherland. 1998. No.2. C. 1-12.
Rigmant V. Hailing from long-range aviation // Wings of the Motherland. 2000. No.10. C. 7-11.
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  1. PlotnikoffDD
    PlotnikoffDD 21 October 2015 06: 30 New
    15
    They knew how to design, and build, and fly. Without import substitution.
    1. shishkin7676
      shishkin7676 18 November 2015 18: 47 New
      0
      I read the old file "Ogonyok" in 1957 - the USSR was three years ahead of the world in terms of passenger jet aircraft !!! in 1958 I read the Resolution of the Central Committee on measures to eliminate the lag in jet aviation ... !! after entering the B 707 line, (the fuel consumption per passenger for the B 707 is 3 or 5 times less ...
  2. BMW
    BMW 21 October 2015 07: 10 New
    +3
    Why then rumors about high accident rates were circulating about these cars. The machinations of imperialism?
    1. mark1
      mark1 21 October 2015 07: 18 New
      +6
      What was it was. By the way, when landing, a brake parachute was used (probably the only passenger plane in the world)
      1. BMW
        BMW 21 October 2015 08: 13 New
        0
        And I didn’t know that. I only remember that people were glad that these cars were removed from the lines, adults just spoke a lot about this, and that’s what remains in my head. I did not fly at them, did not catch them. Il-62 and Tu-154 flew to Kamchatka. Although they could take me to a Tu-104 as a baby. what
        1. gjv
          gjv 21 October 2015 09: 57 New
          +7
          Quote: bmw
          Why then rumors about high accident rates were circulating about these cars. The machinations of imperialism?

          Quote: bmw
          I only remember that people were glad that these cars were removed from the lines, adults just spoke a lot about this, and that’s what remains in my head. I did not fly at them, did not catch them. Il-62 and Tu-154 flew to Kamchatka.

          Accident rate of Tu-104 - 18% (37 out of 201 issued). Much more Tu-154 was lost - 72, however, relative to the released 1026 it is "only" 7% (n ... la - statistics). About the same statistics 7,8% for the IL-62 (23/292). request
      2. The comment was deleted.
      3. gjv
        gjv 21 October 2015 10: 10 New
        +3
        Quote: mark1
        By the way, when landing, a brake parachute was used (probably the only passenger plane in the world)

        But what about the same firm Tu-144, and the modification of Tu-124. They also had parachutes.
        Even the An-72 in the first prototypes was equipped with a brake parachute, but this is of course a military transport, not a civilian one. And on the serial An-72, the parachute was removed.
      4. bastard
        bastard 21 October 2015 16: 16 New
        0
        Quote: mark1
        By the way, when landing a brake parachute was used (probably the only passenger plane in the world)

        The Tu-144 also had brake parachutes.
    2. wk
      wk 21 October 2015 12: 04 New
      0
      Quote: bmw
      Why then rumors about high accident rates were circulating about these cars. The machinations of imperialism?

      not only these ... and 134 and 154 and 144 ... and during operation in the homeland and abroad, they were "famous" for their accident rate ..... such karma on this design bureau .... the most reliable were ILs, especially IL - 62.
      1. FID
        FID 21 October 2015 17: 36 New
        +5
        Quote: wk
        not only these ... and 134 and 154 and 144 ... and during operation in the homeland and abroad, they were "famous" for their accident rate ..... such karma on this design bureau .... the most reliable were ILs, especially IL - 62.

        IL-18 - 678 cars were produced, 100 were lost; IL-62 - released - 292, lost - 23; Tu-104 - 201 released, 38 lost; Tu-154 - issued - 1026, lost - 72 ... As for karma somehow ...
    3. The comment was deleted.
    4. FM-78
      FM-78 21 October 2015 23: 18 New
      0
      Do you know how many accidents in Britain ?? The machinations of communism ???
    5. dmi.pris
      dmi.pris 21 October 2015 23: 41 New
      0
      There were two or three tragedies .. Yes, where they were not, when operating new equipment ...
      Quote: bmw
      Why then rumors about high accident rates were circulating about these cars. The machinations of imperialism?
  3. qwert
    qwert 21 October 2015 07: 22 New
    16
    Quote: bmw
    Why then rumors about high accident rates were circulating about these cars. The machinations of imperialism?
    Well, more emergency than the Boeing 707, Caravel and Tu-134 that appeared later, but no more emergency than the previously released DN Comet. The first is always more complicated. By the way, there were also cases of pylon tearing off in flight at the Boeing 707, after which cracks were found on many machines that didn’t have a very large raid. Eliminated. But it could be worse. Plus airfields. Would try to Boeing or Caravel on a primer to plant hi

    And by the way, everyone knows about the high accident rate of the Myasischevsky 4M and M3, about this in each article about these aircraft write. But the fact that the B-52 of the first series was even more emergency is usually not customary to mention. But they even planned to discontinue it and withdraw it from the units, and only from the fact that another B-52 aircraft that could get the USSR with an atomic bomb on board was not allowed to remain in service.
  4. fa2998
    fa2998 21 October 2015 08: 56 New
    +1
    Quote: mark1
    What was it was. By the way, when landing, a brake parachute was used (probably the only passenger plane in the world)

    Airfields were designed for completely different landing speeds. And his military ancestor was just right. Praise to the Tupolevites, a huge number of his military models served passengers. Military developments adapted to civilian needs, and saved money. There are pre-war models, and later ones. It's one thing to develop a passenger plane from scratch, it's quite another to just the fuselage with seats. hi
  5. Walking
    Walking 21 October 2015 09: 01 New
    +3
    In the crash of 1981, the plane was not to blame, the notorious human factor, overload + sudden increase in wind.
  6. Grigorievich
    Grigorievich 21 October 2015 09: 38 New
    +3
    I had a chance to fly it once, very noisy due to the proximity of the engines to the cabin.
    By the way, the "Comet" also.
    1. WUA 518
      WUA 518 21 October 2015 09: 47 New
      +6
      This film is about how, at the cost of their own lives, the crew of Harold Kuznetsov helped the designers and scientists to "bring" the plane, as well as about a real story known to theater-goers and moviegoers called "104 pages about love ...".
  7. forwarder
    forwarder 21 October 2015 09: 48 New
    -12
    The first domestic Tu-104 jet passenger aircraft was built and designed according to the “proprietary” methodology of A. N. Tupolev Design Bureau: the Tu-16 bomber, its wings, tail, engines, landing gear, radar, piloting and navigation equipment were taken as the basis cabins. Without exception, all A.N. Tupolev's multi-seat passenger aircraft were built in exactly this way.

    All Soviet passenger aircraft were built like this. Were either converted (adapted) military models. Or civilian models with extensive use of military model nodes. Therefore, for the purposes of passenger transportation, they were not suitable. It is no longer an analogue of the GAZ-53 with benches in the back, but also not a normal bus. Something like an analogue of the "Ilyich bus". Who is older remember what it is.
    And civilian aircraft construction in its purest form, contrary to popular belief, did not exist in the USSR at all. Generally, in principle.
    Of course, as soon as the borders opened, these hybrids instantly ceased to be in demand. Only if free, from old stocks. Or from new crafts, but also free. Or strictly in order. In this area, there is nothing to catch on the world market of Russia, there is no design experience. Therefore, do not waste time and money on this. It is better to spend them on something useful, with great efficiency.
    1. fa2998
      fa2998 21 October 2015 12: 11 New
      +9
      You’re wrong! We had airplanes that were made specifically for civilian purposes, and only then the military ordered modifications for themselves. From the well-known IL-18s, Yak-40,42, Tu-134,144,154, IL-62,86,96. I can continue ! Can you name from which military transport or bombers these aircraft were redone? These are airplanes from scratch. And experience and some developments in the military sphere are only help to aircraft builders. It’s everywhere around the world. Only there is a bias in military products . hi
      1. forwarder
        forwarder 21 October 2015 13: 57 New
        -4
        Quote: fa2998
        You are wrong! We had planes that were made specifically for civilian purposes

        Quote: fa2998
        Or civilian models with extensive use of military model nodes.

        Read carefully.
        1. fa2998
          fa2998 21 October 2015 15: 29 New
          +1
          The second quote is not mine, but yours. So do not ascribe words to me. I said that experience and some military developments are only a plus to manufacturers. hi
          1. forwarder
            forwarder 21 October 2015 15: 44 New
            -1
            Quote: fa2998
            The second quote is not mine, but yours.

            The second quote is the answer to your first. Answer in advance. The one you did not notice when you wrote your phrase.
    2. Dimon19661
      Dimon19661 21 October 2015 14: 43 New
      +1
      Do not carry nonsense, only the first carcasses were unified with bombers — other civilian aircraft — by the way, this practice was widely accepted at that time throughout the world aircraft industry
      1. forwarder
        forwarder 21 October 2015 14: 48 New
        -1
        Quote: Dimon19661
        Do not carry nonsense

        Problems reading comprehension?
        Quote: Dimon19661
        By the way, this practice was widely accepted at that time throughout the world aircraft industry.

        Really?
    3. The comment was deleted.
    4. anti-Semite
      anti-Semite 24 October 2015 23: 14 New
      -1
      correctly ! close all the factories and aircraft and tractor and automobiles, and for one all the factories of you liberals it is high time to shoot you as a disease like a virus can kill any organism
  8. viktor_ui
    viktor_ui 21 October 2015 10: 10 New
    +6
    My mother, a flight attendant, flew off to the Tu-104 (there were modifications A and B), MORE than 3 years old, and the frequency of flights was such that from the 1st and 3rd grades I remember very little of her being at home. I’m talking about his high accident rate. He himself flew by him a little more than a dozen times, and my favorite place was to lie on the belly of a navigator and look down at the clouds and earth floating beneath me. Awesome bird for its time. Author - thank you for the fond memories of my childhood drinks
  9. Robert Nevsky
    Robert Nevsky 21 October 2015 10: 47 New
    +1
    Tu-104 what a beautiful plane !!!
  10. Pate
    Pate 21 October 2015 10: 47 New
    0
    Then we built passenger planes ourselves and created engines for them, and now if we build, then more than a few dozen a year, and then not with domestic engines.
  11. xomaNN
    xomaNN 21 October 2015 11: 18 New
    0
    It is good to recall that in 1977 they flew to Sukhum on Tu 104, already old, with an additional flight. Rarity. After the Tu-134, 154s., As in a retro airplane laughing
  12. Vasya Steklomoev
    Vasya Steklomoev 21 October 2015 11: 31 New
    +1
    Correcting the title.
    WORLD'S FIRST REACTIVE, PASSENGER PLANE.
    1. Doctorleg
      Doctorleg 21 October 2015 12: 37 New
      +3
      Quote: Vasya Steklomoev
      Correcting the title.
      WORLD'S FIRST REACTIVE, PASSENGER PLANE.

      Better not! Firstly, because not the first. And secondly, make fewer mistakes.
  13. Dan Slav
    Dan Slav 21 October 2015 11: 54 New
    +8
    And everything was his own. Glider, engines, avionics.
    And why? And because there were scientists, engineers, technicians and workers.
    There were no menagers. Sociologists, political scientists, experts, traders, marketers, brokers, bloggers ...
    Specialties in the USSR were taught the right ones! Physics, mathematics, biology .... And now the word of God!
    ! Who is it bothering? It was a hindrance to profit from the current thieves!
    Alas, the leaders of the current country are at odds with common sense and people!
    1. shishkin7676
      shishkin7676 18 November 2015 18: 55 New
      0
      Engines Tu 104 (and MiG 15) English.
  14. RoTTor
    RoTTor 21 October 2015 13: 18 New
    +3
    "... Tu-104 aircraft flew on the routes of Aeroflot until 1979. On passenger lines they were replaced by the more economical Tu-154. However, they continued to fly in the Air Force. Only after the disaster on February 17, 1981, which led to the death of the command of the Pacific Fleet, the fate of the plane was finally decided. "

    This plane crash was in no way associated with the shortcomings of the plane. The large naval Pacific Fleet chiefs, congress delegates and participants in the meetings in Moscow poured scarce imported refrigerators, scarce household appliances, delicacies, overloaded the plane, and disturbed alignment. The ship’s commander, lieutenant colonel, is guilty of succumbing to the rude and boorish coercion of the chief of the Pacific Fleet’s aviation, who threatened to remove him from his post.
    Tu-104 is not to blame!
    1. Horly
      Horly 22 October 2015 15: 47 New
      0
      One amendment - the plane crashed at the airport in Pushkin near Leningrad. At the Kazan cemetery in Pushkin, a monument was erected in memory of this disaster. And so everything is true - overload and violation of centering, plus a gross violation of flight rules - the ship commander succumbed to threats from the commander of the Pacific Fleet. By the way, it was from that disaster that the commanders and their deputies were forbidden to fly on one side.
  15. X Y Z
    X Y Z 21 October 2015 13: 22 New
    +2
    As a child, repeatedly flew on this plane. Of course, compared with modern airliners, a flight on it cannot be called comfortable. If now hygiene packages are distributed to individuals, then in the 60s they were dismantled by many in the cabin. The worst thing on the Tu-104 is air holes. Paul suddenly walks out from under his feet and becomes really scared, and it’s muddying. The noise from the engines was much more noticeable and heavily stuffed up. The decline and landing was much sharper and more intense than today. All these details, of course, are forgotten today and pleasant nostalgic memories remain. Then it was the flagship of Aeroflot and we were very proud of it. But soon the correct understanding came - it is better to make passenger planes from scratch, and not from bombers.
  16. RoTTor
    RoTTor 21 October 2015 13: 28 New
    +1
    Tu-104 was built by the Kharkov aircraft factory. Then KhAZ provided the entire Aeroflot and all fraternal countries with excellent Tu-134s, the main ones for our country.

    Independent Ukraine successfully ruined this wonderful plant, the fool and the thieving ukro-heirs of the Soviet aircraft designer O.K. Antonov, inherited from the USSR.

    Another pleasant memory: in the first years of Tu-104 flights, ALL passengers were presented with excellent sports blue bags with the image of Tu-104 or the Aeroflot emblem, and so that the beautiful stewardesses would not put their ears in take-off candies - “Barberry” and “Duchesse”.

    The stewardesses of the first reactive, and not all manner of fashion models, were real stars
  17. Mooh
    Mooh 21 October 2015 13: 53 New
    +2
    Article is super. I learned a lot for myself. I would also love to see a comparison with competitors in the form of the second part.
    1. BMW
      BMW 21 October 2015 15: 46 New
      +1
      Quote: MooH
      Article is super. I learned a lot for myself. I would also love to see a comparison with competitors in the form of the second part.

      Support. hi
  18. 52
    52 21 October 2015 16: 35 New
    +1
    Firstborn, Yes. Emergency, yes. He was eating kerosene, like a boar of slop. And who did not pump up cones on the way forward? The only thing was that it was not necessary to have such a large series, it was possible to limit ourselves to 20-30 aircraft, gain experience and save lives. But...
  19. bober1982
    bober1982 21 October 2015 18: 00 New
    0
    The Tu-104 never had a high accident rate, like the Tu-16-recognized fighter, very reliable cars. At that time (the 50s .... the beginning of the 60s) the concept of accident rate differed from the current times. flights could not be stopped during a crash, they could take the aircraft into service without receiving it and much more. Compare with the Tu-154,134 (including in terms of comfort) -so aircraft of different generations.
  20. Old26
    Old26 21 October 2015 18: 03 New
    +1
    Twice in my life I managed to fly on this machine. More precisely in the early 60s on the TU-104. We flew from Moscow to Tashkent. Back to IL-18. But it was about 8-10 years old. But on the TU-124 got a hold of flying in the early 70's. Then he flew a lot on IL-18, and on the Yak-40, and on the Tu-134 and Tu-154, on the Il-86. But these two remained in memory