There are hundreds of materials, dozens of authors write about the soldiers of the Great Patriotic War. Still, the last word is not and can not be. I want this publication to remind about the whole generation of those who defended the Victory, did not return from the fronts, about those veterans who lived and live with us after the war.
These words from his last letter after the German attack tanks, aircraft and infantry on the outskirts of Moscow. There will be more words, but already about him ... when he is gone. My father always shared his short fate with others: in childhood, with hungry but mischievous bedridden boys, including my future mother-in-law; in youth - with half-starved but knowledge-hungry students; in adulthood - with teachers in the Tselinsky district of the Rostov region, who taught not only children but also adults; workers of the collective farm named after May 1, one of the first in the country to receive the highest award of the Motherland - the Order of Lenin.
And in a terrible time, the political officer Chekhov was also the first: with the combatants — on the battlefield, with the dead — in a mass grave ... The rest of his fate was shared by the survivors.
Almost until the war, teachers were not called in to the army — they had to teach children. Therefore, the agenda father handed the day before departure. It seems to be waiting for her, but still it was unexpected. Father and mother - with me in their arms - from the Maysky farm went to the Bed (one X km of one way) to say goodbye to their relatives, returned at night, and in the morning, accompanied by the students and their parents, he and his mother went to Tselina. On the way, he reassured her all, that he would undergo training and soon return.
Soon, with the wife and two children, the invalid of the Finnish war (without legs) Ivan Grigorievich arrived with his wife and two children as the head of the May Primary School No. 61.
On the same day, when it was dark, the mother with the sisters and sister-in-law (their husbands were called earlier) transferred the belongings from the school apartment to the 2-room hut to the grandmother, where two more families with children already lived. Everyone hoped it was temporary. But this “temporary” will last the whole long and difficult war, with which not a single man who has gone to the front will return to this hut. They all three will die. Their wives will remain widows and drown their anguish and grief with songs on the way to and from work, and at night they will cry softly, quenching their sobs in the pillow. But it will be later, but for now my father was suddenly released on a short vacation. I could not believe it. But it was my father!
Soon after the meeting, farewell came again. This time it was delayed - they were escorted by the whole farm to Dyrdina Gully. Then the mother almost ran, and the father with a knapsack behind his shoulders walked quickly. Then they both ran. Tovarniak was already standing and beeping. Father jumped on the bandwagon of the last car and waved his handkerchief until he disappeared in appearance. And her mother, like a drunk, walked and followed, then sat down at the railway embankment and closed her eyes.
The overtaking of the wagons became duller and wilder. Then suddenly it began to grow again. This is from the side of Salsk hurrying to the West one more “freight”. Soldiers waved from the half-open doors. No songs, as shown in the movie, no accordion. They guessed if they didn’t know exactly where and why they were being taken so quickly. Everyone thought about his own, and all together - about the war, with which he, who first entered the battle, would not be destined to return to almost anyone.
... Crying Yaroslavna ... He entered by right history Russia as a moan for the dead soldiers. But he is incomparable with the rivers of tears shed by our women in their fallen husbands and sons, daughters and brothers in that Great War.
... Just before the Germans occupied the Tselinsky district, the postman brought a “postcard”. Everyone who took her in hand, wept bitterly. It was not a postcard, but a photograph of a little two-year-old boy in the grandfather's cherry orchard, taken personally by his father. Covered in blood, and on its reverse side is the address and a short letter to the battalion commander, reporting the circumstances of the “heroic death” of the father.
This photo without an envelope came to us for half a year, but nevertheless it came and entered my heart forever.
... Growing up, we, each in our own way, learned the details of the death of loved ones. I admit, there were plans to find the grave of my father, bow low to her, learn something about those battles, and at least see the places where he fought and died. Every year, I was hampered by my studies, my work, my lack of money, and everything taken together.
Finally, coincidence of circumstances helped. A direct flight to Rostov was expected only tomorrow, we flew through Novosibirsk and Moscow. And tomorrow is not taking Rostov. We are turning round and going from Moscow to Demyansk. We went to the station Lychkovo. Cold and deserted. We accidentally catch a medical UAZ and, so that there is no refusal, with a patter I explain that I traveled thousands of kilometers with 5 for my son, looking for the grandfather’s grave, would get to the military office, I would pay ...
- From Siberia, you say, and from where? I myself am from the Novosibirsk region, and I still have two brothers there. And in these parts I fought, I was wounded, I got married, and I stayed, - the driver was already talking along the way.
Driving along the railway crossing, he told what fights were going on here: “The Germans dug in along the western side of the embankment, we - along the eastern side. Sat in 10 meters from each other. They are ordered not to skip trains to either Leningrad or from it. While there is no train, we do not fight, as appeared - hand-to-hand. Train brigades entered the battle, the wounded, with their help threw the Germans away, and at night they were again under the embankment. Behind the Germans there is a village, only snow is behind us. Only the wounded could survive as I was, they were taken away from us at night, and they threw living force. Every day a fight - and everything repeats. That was such a conveyor. ”
It turns out that these were just “local fights”. And this is not yet a Demyansky cauldron where we get to!
From such a "literacy" creeps crawled. Finally we are in the military. The duty officer, after listening to us, sent him to the department of burial (so many dead that there is such a department), to the major. He opened the black curtains on the map of the area and skillfully told and showed everything. But to my question “How to get there?” He only shrugged. Let's go to the commissar.
We went by bus. We drove up to the village, near which a graveyard could be guessed on a knoll. At the second house there were women, we approached, told who we are and why here.
Women eagerly and confidently answered our questions: “Yes, we well remember this fight, hand-to-hand fought. Fight only in the evening, the verse, our Germans still drove away. And for the rest of the war, he didn’t come farther than that hill. Yes, we definitely remembered the day, it was Old New Year, how not to remember. ”
- And a lot of ours were killed in that battle, and how were they buried?
“Many,” replied one of the women. - About fifty, I guess. They buried them the next day, led by a commissioner, a young woman like that. Yes, we were at the funeral too. The commander spoke, they shot up three times. ”
- How did they bury them, because the land was ashamed, and so much had to be buried?
“And they were dragged to the balochka and covered with snow, and they were reburied in the spring, over that cemetery.” There was a war.
…Father! You are not alone. You lie in the circle of those soldiers with whom you went on the attack. Do not be sad, we will visit you again and give a bow from our native land!
Such an ordinary life
Nikolay Ivancha was born in the village of Lopanka 20 in January 1925, in the family of the chairman of the collective farm “Worker” of the Tselinsky District, Alexander Abramovich, and the simple collective farmer Akulin Prokofyevna Ivancha.
Nikolai was the eldest son in the family. He helped raise his younger brother Ivan and his sister Maria. The generation 1933 had a hungry, cold year. From bitter oilcake and syrepy, the mother baked cakes, gave the children one by one. The cow was the only breadwinner of the family. Thanks to her, everyone was alive. Nikolai moved to the eighth grade. I did not have to continue studying at school. 22 June 1941, the Great Patriotic War struck. The school was closed, and the children were sent under the city of Bataysk to dig trenches. When they returned home, the teenagers, including Nikolai, were sent to courses for tractor drivers.
In March, 1942 of the year, having received the certificate of a machine operator, together with his peers, he plowed, sowed, cultivated, harvested. Meanwhile, the Germans, capturing the city of Rostov-on-Don, rushed to Stalingrad. There was a need to evacuate livestock and equipment. With a pain in the heart, the virgin lands set fire to the elevator so that it would not get to the enemy.
Women and teenagers were driving cattle, equipment to Krasnodar. They did not know that fierce fighting was taking place in this city. Five kilometers from Kugulta, the evacuees were surrounded by a column of Germans and placed in a ring. The Nazis told them to come back with equipment and cattle. For disobedience - execution.
They returned home, leaving the livestock and equipment. So teens saved livestock, tractors and harvesters.
At the end of 1943, the Soviet Army knocked out the fascists from the Tselinsky district. By this time, Nicholas turned 18 years. He volunteered for the front. In April, 1943, taking the oath, fought with the enemy on the front line.
One day, standing guard at a post, he saw Germans in the grass, raised the alarm. Reported to the commander about the proposed deployment of the Germans. The soldiers went on the offensive, destroyed a large number of Germans.
In the battles on the Mius-front was seriously wounded. Was treated in the city of Ulyanovsk. After being discharged from the hospital, he was sent to Syzran for further service. Here Nikolai underwent special training, began to serve in a separate 101-rifle corps under the ROC (counterintelligence department) of the 221 division.
A group of seven people was headed by Ivancha. Counterintelligence penetrated into the rear of the enemy, took "tongues" with important information for the command and documents. His landing SMERSH (death to spies) brought fear to the Germans. Each time, escorting the group to the task, the commander asked:
- Guys! Stay Alive!
They returned, rested, and again went to the rear of the enemy.
After the Victory over Germany, Nikolai’s soldier’s journey did not end. Another five years he served in Czechoslovakia. Performed reconnaissance missions ...
In Russia went on their own. Reaching the city of Kolomnya, Lviv region, I had to take part in the defeat of the Kishinev and Shevchenko groups. Bandera strongly resisted. The platoon commander, senior sergeant Nikolai Alexandrovich Ivancha was left in the army. But he was given a well-deserved vacation. He came to his native village and realized that he would not return to military service. He was determined to return to civilian life.
After graduating from the school of foremen-builders, he worked in the Martynovsky district as a foreman of an integrated construction team. After graduating from the year in the highest party school, he worked as secretary of the party organization of the Tselinsky regional food factory. His name is associated with the construction of a winery, caramel, butter workshop, warehouses, offices, mills. Here he worked the miller to retire.
While serving as secretary of the party organization, he was responsive and attentive. Going into his office, the man knew for sure that without solving his problem he would not leave there. Working at a food factory, he was elected people's assessor. Among the combat awards of the countryman - the Order of the Patriotic War of the first degree, two Zhukov medals, the medal “For the Victory over Germany in the Great Patriotic War 1941-1945”, the medal for the liberation of Prague, the Czechoslovak medal for bravery, two Orders of Red Stars, Order of the Red Banner, Medal "For Courage", resilience, courage.
In peacetime, awarded the medal "For Valiant Labor", commemorative medals.
On the main street of Sovetskaya, there used to be a stand “The Best People of the Tselinsky District”, with portraits of the best workers, war and labor veterans. The portrait of Nikolai Alexandrovich occupied his well-deserved place in this series.
With his wife, Raisa Timofeevna, met at a friend's wedding. 58 lived for years in peace, harmony, love - they appreciated, understood and respected each other. 40 days passed, as the beloved woman, mother, grandmother, and great-grandmother passed away. Stroke ... But we must live on. Daughter, Taisiya Nikolaevna, grandson Sergey Vladimirovich, granddaughter Svetlana Vladimirovna Polutsky take care of their father, grandfather. Great-grandsons Matvey and Dima go to kindergarten. They still do not know that their great-grandfather Kolya is a man who made history with his own hands ...
First and last fight
War. Scary word. The war years were very difficult for the entire people of the Soviet Union, and for those who were at the front, their weight cannot be overestimated. Millions of warriors died, millions returned crippled from the front. About one participant of the Great Patriotic War, now living in the farm Tubyansky, which 20 will celebrate its 90 anniversary this November, I want to tell.
Stepan Vasilyevich Lykov was born on November 20 of 1923 in a peasant family in the village of Verkhnyaya Gnilusha of the Upper Mamonovsky District of the Voronezh Region. Like many peasant children, the life of the Stepans was difficult. He learned early the hard work, the poor life, the constant struggle for survival.
At the local school, Stepan graduated from 7 classes, and the state farm board sent him to Pavlovsk Agricultural School, where he received an agronomist specialty and began working at the state farm. But happily live war prevented.
19 December 1941, Stepan Lykov was drafted into the army. After military training, he was enrolled as a medical shooter in the 5 th rifle company of the 335 th rifle regiment. At the beginning of April 1942, the formed regiment was redeployed to the Kaluga Region, and already on April 17 engaged the Germans in the Zaitsev Mountain area.
5-I rifle company led the battle in the main direction of the breakthrough of the enemy defense. This fight for Stepan Vasilyevich was the first and the last. Pulling heavily wounded fighters from the battlefield to a safe place (and saved by the medical instructor 26 people), he was seriously wounded in his left forearm with a bursting bullet. Despite the terrible pain and heavy bleeding, he was able to crawl to our second trench, from where he was immediately transported to the regimental field first-aid post, where on the second day he was awarded the Medal for Military Merit medal. This was how the military work of the paramedic Stepan Vasilyevich Lykov, who was at that time 18 years old, was evaluated.
Three days later, he was sent to a hospital in Moscow, and from there to hospital number XXUMX in Ufa, where he stayed until the end of August 1019.
Due to his state of health, after being seriously wounded, he was recognized as disabled and an arm of the army. This period, Stepan Vasilyevich recalls with great sadness, because already far later from the commanders and fellow soldiers, when they met on Zaitseva Mountain in 1981, he learned that more than 4 thousands of soldiers and officers of the 58 division were killed during the liberation of this area, which included and 335 th infantry regiment.
Returning home disabled, Stepan from the military front came to the front of labor. Worked Stepan Vasilievich as an agronomist at the Pavlovsky, Zubrilovsky state farms of the Chertkovsky district, at the Migulinsky state farm and agricultural organizations of the Verkhnedonsky district.
Before the anniversary birthday, I visited Stepan Vasilyevich. More than two hours were talking. To this day, the memory of a veteran is bright: “Often the memory returns me to those distant war years, to which I have great respect and pride. Only it is a pity that my dear people, my wife and daughter, have died. ”
With my wife, Faina Ivanovna, Stepan Vasilyevich lived in peace and harmony for more than 60 years. They gave birth and raised four children - a son and three daughters, one of them died. The old soldier is proud that he was born on the Voronezh land, he worked and lives today on the Upper Don among hardworking tillers, grain growers, hospitable, patient, law-abiding and gullible Russians. I am happy that I lived most of my life in the era of the formation and development of socialism. He speaks kindly about the years he was in the Komsomol, "... that my peers and I were brought up by patriots of the Motherland."
To this day, Stepan Vasilievich considers himself a real Communist: having joined the CPSU in 1963, he is still a member of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation. On his ceremonial jacket, the state awards, which were awarded to a war veteran, disabled person of the second group S.V. Lykov. Among many commemorative awards, the Order of the Patriotic War of I degree, the medal “For Military Merit”, the medal “For Victory over Germany”, the medal “For Valiant Labor in the Great Patriotic War” are the most significant for him.
Yes, he did not accomplish any particular feat. But he among the millions made the feat that we call Victory. And after the victory, he raised our power from the devastation. For people who have gone through the war, I feel deep respect from a young age. With age, it only intensified. This is a very "quality" people. How many tests for their share fell, and the soul did not become stale. Often I think that today young people can lose a lot if they don’t learn to read and respect their elders. Some young, financially secure people (as they say, “packed”), get annoyed when they need to help the old people: give money, buy something. I look at them and think: “What will happen to you after a certain time? Your children can be even more callous. " Is it really necessary to survive the poverty, the difficulties, to be kind and not to be greedy?
Currently, Stepan Vasilyevich Lykov lives alone, a social worker helps him. I didn’t ask him about the reason for such a life, but he didn’t tell.
Live to win and live after
Vasily Z. Kondrashkin, a veteran of World War II, began his military journey at the very beginning of the Second World War. In 1941, he was 17 years old.
Following a huge patriotic upsurge among young people, and not only, he came with a group of 17-year-old guys to the military registration and enlistment office of the city of Kalinin (Tver), demanding that they be sent to the front. The perseverance of the young was satisfied - Basil and a group of comrades were sent for military studies to the city of Podolsk, near Moscow.
The fascists rushed to the capital from all sides, the fighting did not stop either day or night. After a month and a half, the enemy was already under Mozhaisk. Soviet troops defended from the east.
In one of the defensive battles near Moscow, Vasily received his baptism of fire. In this battle, he lost his best friend, Nikolai Shishkin. In the autumn of 1941, Vasily volunteered to go on reconnaissance - to get a “tongue”, for which he received his most valuable award - the medal “For Courage”.
Soviet troops continued to retreat west from Moscow. Novo-Aleksandrovka is the village where the part in which Vasily fought was dug in, more than once passed from hand to hand, and on December 6, in one of the hardest fights he received a concussion. Two and a half months of the hospital - and again to the front. From the 36-th separate motorized rim, where Kondrashkin was the driver of the motorcycle, after contusion and treatment he became the commander of the rifle squad, a member of the defense of Stalingrad.
Here, near Stalingrad, he was overtaken by the second bullet - and again the hospital bed until April 1943. Then six-month courses for junior lieutenants at Volchanets station (Kursk region), after which Vasily became commander of a platoon of PTR of the 53-th separate anti-tank fighter division.
In the 1944 year, Vasily Kondrashkin - platoon commander of the 224 th guards rifle regiment of the 72 rifle division until March of the 1945 year, and then until the end of the war - commander of the rifle company of the 215 th rifle regiment of the 77 rifle division. Participated in the assault and the capture of Budapest, liberated Prague, stormed and took Berlin.
The fire roads of the war from Moscow to Berlin did not pass without a trace for Kondrashkin - he is an invalid of the Great Patriotic War of the 2 group, has awards: Order of the Patriotic War 1 degree, medals "For the Capture of Budapest", "For the Defense of Moscow", "For Liberation Prague "," For the capture of Berlin "," In memory of the 850 anniversary of Moscow ", the sign" 25 years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War "and the labor award - the medal" Veteran of Labor ", received by Vasily Zakharovich in 1986 year.
19 August Vasily Zakharovich celebrated his 87 anniversary. We wish health and longevity to the veteran!
“They will not kill everybody, someone will survive!”
And on September 9, six front-line soldiers of the Tselinsky district of the Rostov region were presented with commemorative medals "65 years of the liberation of the Republic of Belarus from the Nazi invaders", transferred to the Tselinsky department of the military commissariat by the Belarusian embassy. Veterans of World War II I.P. Efimov, M.U. Lazarev, I.I. Mayevsky, I.S. Grinenko, V.D. Edelkin, M.M. Girfanov was very touched by the fact that the Belarusian people after decades after the end of the Second World War remembers and honors the Russian liberators who brought peace to their homeland.
Unfortunately, on this day, another participant of the liberation "strayed from the system." The fact is that V.I. Shestopalov a month since he moved from the village of Sweet Balk to the city of Salsk. After all, well-being over the years does not get better, and even the old wound makes itself felt. So Vladimir Ivanovich moved with his spouse Alexandra Leontyevna to the children, and they are happy to try to surround their parents with warmth and care.
But back to the medal. "The reward came, and we will hand it out for sure!" - promised military commissar and kept his word. September 13 in the assembly hall of the regional administration V.I. Shestopalov received the long-awaited medal from Belarusians on his jacket. The head of the military commissariat department, Sergey V. Shpakov, wished the veteran good health - this is the most important thing, and at the same time happiness, good spirits and family comfort.
"I serve Russia!" The veteran said proudly.
After the award ceremony, we talked a little with the front-line soldier ... When the war started, Vladimir Ivanovich barely turned 16 years old, he lived in the village of Sladkaya Balka. "They called me to the service. How to behave in battle, everything was taught to us on the run," says VI Shestopalov, "there was no time for intelligible training. And when someone said that he did not understand, the instructor’s only answer was: “You will understand how you will get a bullet in the forehead.” Tough. But such was the reality. In war as in war, it is alive today and tomorrow not. And there is nowhere to retreat ... "
For all his life, Vladimir Ivanovich crashed into the memory of how they, even boys, were sent to break through the blockade of Leningrad, to knock out the German invaders. “We are building along one of the streets of Leningrad with machine guns in our hands,” recalls VI Shestopalov, “we are watching, and our grandmother stands not far from the house that blazes in the fire, and with her palm folded in prayer, she reads:“ Yes, my little sons! Where are you being driven! To the certain death! "And we will chorus her back:" They will not kill everyone, someone will survive! "
And how many battles were still before the end of the war! Every day - a hair from death. About people like Vladimir Ivanovich, they generally say: "He was born in a shirt", because he was not just a fighter, but a sapper! And for the whole war - only one wound. “A projectile exploded a meter away from me, I fell,” says V. Shestopalov, “a friend Vasily Kukushkin rushes over to me and says:“ Yes, are you alive? This is good luck! "We look, and my big toe on the right foot is shot through. That's it: I escaped from a projectile, but stung a bullet. A medical instructor was immediately found, he tied up my leg."
Four months in the hospital - and again to the front. Where only the front road turned on - both to Siberia and Mongolia ... "And what is the memory of the liberation of Belarus?" - I'm trying to vet the veteran. "We sawed trees, made racks of them and transported our tanks through the swamps. They dragged guns behind them. They came in from the rear and knocked out the Germans. Yes, they didn’t expect this. As we smashed them to the left and to the right! Berlin reached, then our troops crossed over to the island of Rügen and there they already finished off the Germans. "
"What, did you win and go home?" - I ask Vladimir Ivanovich Shestopalov. It turned out no. “After the war, I gave the debt to my homeland for another seven and a half years,” he confesses. “He served in Germany, in Bernau. And then he returned to Sweet Beam. There was just a harvesting season ...”
The Great Patriotic War was left somewhere behind - in the last century, in the pages of history textbooks, in films. And forever in the memory of those who fought, who saw it all with their own eyes, who withstood, survived, won! Every evening to V.I. Shestopalov's grandchildren come running (and there are five of them, and even three great-granddaughters) and ask: "Grandfather, tell me about the war, was it scary for you?"
And Vladimir Ivanovich once again tells how he cleared the besieged Leningrad, about his injury, about what he received combat medals, adding: "It is terrible - not scary, they called - it means you have to beat the enemy!" Of course, he does not tell all the horrors of war to children.
“God forbid that this should fall to their lot,” says Vladimir Ivanovich, “let them live and rejoice at every new day. How do I want the war to never happen again. And can I address the residents of the district? Keep the memory of those who died in the distant forties, and treat with respect to the living veterans. "