70 years ago, 17 in October 1945, by the decision of the Yalta and Potsdam conferences, Koenigsberg with adjacent lands was incorporated into the USSR. In April 1946, the corresponding area was formed within the RSFSR, and three months later its main city received a new name - Kaliningrad - in memory of the deceased 3 of June “All-Union Headman” Mikhail Kalinin.
The inclusion of Königsberg with adjoining lands as part of Russia-the USSR had not only military-strategic and economic significance, and was Germany’s payment for the blood and pain inflicted on the Russian superethnos, but it also had a profound symbolic and historical value. Indeed, from ancient times Prussia-Porussia was part of the vast Slavic-Russian world (superethnos of the Rus) and Slavs-Porussians (Prussians, Borossians, Borussians) inhabited it. Later, the Prussians living on the shores of the Venedic Sea (Veneda is one of the names of the Slavs-Russians inhabiting Central Europe) “historians” who rewrote history to the needs of the Romano-German world, wrote down in balts. However, this is a mistake or deliberate deception. The Balts stood out from the single superethnos of the Russians with the latest. Back in the XIII-XIV centuries. the Baltic tribes worshiped gods common with the Russians, the cult of Perun was especially powerful. The spiritual and material culture of the Rus (Slavs) and the Balts was almost the same. Only after the Baltic tribes were Christianized and Germanized, suppressed by the matrix of Western civilization, were they separated from the superethnos of the Rus.
The Prussians were cut almost completely, as they had a very stubborn resistance to the German "knights-knights". The remains were assimilated, deprived of memory, culture and language (finally in the XVIII century). As before, their sister Slavs, lutus and supporters, were exterminated. Even during the centuries-old battle for Central Europe, where the western branch of the Ruset superethnos lived (for example, few people know that Berlin, Vienna, Brandenburg or Dresden were founded by the Slavs), many Slavs fled to Prussia and Lithuania, as well as to Novgorod land. And the Novgorod Slovens had millennial ties with the Russians of Central Europe, which is confirmed by anthropology, archeology, mythology and linguistics. It is not surprising that Western Russian prince Rurik (Sokol) was invited to Ladoga. He was not a stranger in the Novgorod land. And during the battle of the Prussians and other Baltic Slavs with the “dogs-knights” Novgorod supported relatives, supplied weapon.
In Russia, the memory of a common origin with the Porussians (Borussians) was kept for a long time. Its origins from the Rus (Prussians) Ponemania was deduced by the great princes of Vladimir. This was written by Ivan the Terrible, an encyclopaedist of his era, who had access to chronicles and chronicles that did not reach our time (or were destroyed and hidden). Many noble families of Russia derived their ancestry from Prussia. So, according to the generic tradition, the ancestors of the Romanovs went to Russia "from Prussia". The Prussians lived along the river Rossa (Rusa), as the Neman was called in the lower reaches (today the name of one of the branches of the river - Rus, Rusn, Rusn) is preserved. In the XIII century Prussian lands conquered the Teutonic Order. The Prussians were partly destroyed, partly forced out into the neighboring areas, partly relegated to the position of slaves. The population was Christianized and subjected to assimilation. The last Prussian speakers disappeared in the early 18th century.
Königsberg was founded on the hill of the high right bank in the lower reaches of the Pregel River at the site of the Prussian settlement in 1255. Otakar and the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order of Poppo von Ostern laid the Order fortress Königsberg. The troops of the Czech king came to help the defeated knights from the local population, who, in turn, were invited to Prussia by the Polish king to fight the pagans. Prussia for a long time became a strategic bridgehead of the West in the fight against Russian civilization. First, the Teutonic Order fought against Russia-Russia, including Lithuanian Russia (the Russian state, in which the official language was Russian), then Prussia and the German Empire. In 1812, East Prussia became a place for the concentration of a powerful group of French troops to go to Russia, shortly before the start of which Napoleon arrived in Konigsberg, where he conducted the first reviews of troops. The structure of the French troops were Prussian units. During the First and Second World War, East Prussia was again the springboard of aggression against Russia and more than once became the scene of fierce battles.
Thus, Rome, which was then the main command point of Western civilization, acted on the principle of "divide and conquer," pitting among the peoples of the Slavic civilization, weakening them and "absorbing" part by part. Some of the Slavorus, like the lutus and Prussians, were completely destroyed and assimilated, others, like the western glades - the Poles, the Czechs, submitted to the western "matrix", becoming part of European civilization. Similar processes in the last century have been observed in Little Russia (Little Russia-Ukraine), especially they have accelerated in the last two or three decades. The West is rapidly turning the southern branch of the Russians (Little Russians) into “Ukrainians” - ethnographic mutants, orcs, who have lost their memory of their origin, quickly lose their native language and culture. Instead, the program of death is loaded, the “Orcs-Ukrainians” hate everything Russian, Russians, and become the tip of the West for further offensive on the lands of Russian civilization (the Superethnos Russes). The masters of the West set them one goal — to die in battle with their brothers, weakening Russian civilization with their doom.
The only way out of this civilizational, historical catastrophe is the return of Little Russia to the united Russian civilization and the denazification of the “Ukrainians”, the restoration of their Russianness. It is clear that this will take more than a decade, but as the history and experience of our enemies shows, all processes are manageable. Kharkiv, Poltava, Kiev, Chernihiv, Lviv and Odessa should remain Russian cities, despite all the intrigues of our geopolitical opponents.
The first time Königsberg almost became Slavic again during the Seven Years War, when Russia and Prussia were opponents. In 1758, Russian troops entered Konigsberg. The inhabitants of the city swore allegiance to the Russian Empress Elizabeth Petrovna. Until 1762, the city belonged to Russia. East Prussia had the status of the Russian Governor-General. However, after the death of Empress Elizabeth, Peter III came to power. Once in power, Emperor Peter III, who did not hide his admiration for the Prussian king Frederick II, immediately ceased military operations against Prussia and concluded the Petersburg world with the Prussian king on conditions that were extremely unfavorable for Russia. Petr Fedorovich returned to Prussia the conquered East Prussia (which by that time had been an integral part of the Russian Empire for four years) and refused all acquisitions during the Seven Years War, which Russia had practically won. All the victims, all the heroism of the Russian soldiers, all the successes were crossed out in one fell swoop.
During World War II, East Prussia was a strategic bridgehead of the Third Reich for aggression against Poland and the Soviet Union. East Prussia had a developed military infrastructure and industry. It housed the bases of the German Air Force and Navy, which allowed to control most of the Baltic Sea. Prussia was one of the most important areas of the German military industrial complex.
The Soviet Union suffered huge losses during the war, both human and material. Not surprisingly, Moscow insisted on compensation. The war with Germany was far from over, but Stalin was looking to the future and expressed the Soviet Union’s claims to East Prussia. December 16 1941 during the negotiations in Moscow with A. Eden Stalin proposed to attach to the draft agreement on joint actions a secret protocol (not signed), which proposed to separate East Prussia and part of it with Koenigsberg to transfer to the USSR for a period of twenty years guarantees of compensation for losses incurred by the USSR from the war with Germany.
At the Tehran conference in his speech 1 December 1943, Stalin went further. Stalin emphasized: “Russians do not have non-freezing ports on the Baltic Sea. Therefore, the Russians need the ice-free ports of Konigsberg and Memel and the corresponding part of East Prussia. Especially since historically they are native Slavic lands. ” Judging by these words, the Soviet leader not only realized the strategic importance of Koenigsberg, but also knew the history of the region (the Slavic version that Lomonosov and other Russian historians set out). Indeed, East Prussia was "originally Slavic land." During a conversation with the heads of government during the November 30 breakfast, Churchill said that “Russia needs to have access to ice-free ports” and “... the British have no objections to this”.
In a letter to Churchill of February 4 1944, Stalin again addressed the Koenigsberg problem: “As for your statement to the Poles that Poland could significantly expand its borders in the west and north, then, as you know, we agree with this one amendment. I spoke to you about this amendment and to the president in Tehran. We claim that the north-eastern part of East Prussia, including Koenigsberg, as a non-freezing port, should be ceded to the Soviet Union. This is the only piece of German territory to which we claim. Without satisfying this minimal claim of the Soviet Union, the concession of the Soviet Union, expressed in recognition of the Curzon line, loses all meaning, as I already told you in Tehran. ”
Moscow’s position on East Prussia on the eve of the Crimean Conference is set out in a brief summary of the note of the Commission on Peace Treaties and Post-War Device “On the Treatment of Germany” of January 12 1945: “1. Changing the borders of Germany. It is assumed that East Prussia will go back partly to the USSR, partly to Poland, and Upper Silesia to Poland ... ”.
Great Britain and the United States for a long time tried to push through the idea of decentralizing Germany, dividing it into several state entities, including Prussia. At the Moscow Conference of Foreign Ministers of the USSR, the USA and the UK (19-30 in October 1943), British Foreign Secretary A. Eden outlined the British government’s plan for the future of Germany. “We would like,” he said, “to divide Germany into separate states, in particular, we would like to separate Prussia from the rest of Germany.” At the Tehran Conference, US President Roosevelt suggested discussing the dismemberment of Germany. He said that in order to “stimulate” the discussion on this issue, he would like to state his plan “to personally dismember Germany into five states two months ago”. So, in his opinion, “Prussia should perhaps be weakened and reduced in size. Prussia should be the first independent part of Germany ... ". Churchill put forward his plan for the dismemberment of Germany. He suggested, above all, to “isolate” Prussia from the rest of Germany. “I would keep Prussia in harsh conditions,” said the head of the British government.
However, Moscow was against the dismemberment of Germany and in the end achieved a concession to part of East Prussia. Britain and the United States agreed in principle to satisfy Moscow’s proposals. In a message to JV Stalin received in Moscow 27 February 1944, Churchill indicated that the British government considered the transfer of the USSR Koenigsberg and its adjacent territory “a fair claim from Russia ... The land of this part of East Prussia is stained with Russian blood generously spilled for a common cause ... Therefore, the Russians have a historical and well-founded claim to this German territory. ”
In February, the Crimean Conference was held on 1945, at which the leaders of the three Allied Powers practically resolved issues related to the future borders of Poland and the fate of East Prussia. During the talks, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and US President F. Roosevelt stated that in principle they were in favor of dismembering Germany. The British Prime Minister, in particular, once again developed his plan for the separation of Prussia from Germany and "the creation of another large German state in the south, the capital of which could be in Vienna."
In connection with the discussion at the conference of the “Polish question” it was essentially decided that “the whole of East Prussia should not be transferred to Poland. The northern part of this province with the ports of Memel and Königsberg should depart to the USSR. The delegations of the USSR and the USA agreed with the provision of compensation to Poland “at the expense of Germany”, namely: parts of East Prussia and Upper Silesia “down to the line of the Oder River”.
Meanwhile, the Red Army practically resolved the issue of the liberation of East Prussia from the Nazis. As a result of the successful offensive summer of 1944, the Soviet troops liberated Belarus, part of the Baltic states and Poland, and approached the German border in East Prussia. In October, 1944 was conducted Memel operation. Soviet troops not only liberated part of the territory of Lithuania, but also entered East Prussia, surrounding the city of Memel (Klaipeda). Memel was taken on 28 on January 1945 of the year. The Memel region was annexed to the Lithuanian SSR (a gift from Stalin to Lithuania). In October, the 1944 was conducted Gumbinnen-Goldapa offensive operation. The first assault on East Prussia did not lead to victory. The enemy had too strong a defense here. However, the 3 Belorussian Front advanced 50-100 kilometers and took over a thousand settlements, preparing a springboard for a decisive throw on Konigsberg.
The second assault on East Prussia began in January 1945. During the East Prussian strategic operation (it was divided into a number of front-line operations), Soviet troops broke through the German defenses, reached the Baltic Sea and eliminated the main enemy forces, taking East Prussia and liberating the northern part of Poland. 6 - 9 April 1945, during the Königsberg operation, our troops stormed the fortress city Königsberg, defeating the Königsberg group of Wehrmacht. 25 operation was completed by the destruction of the enemy's Zemland grouping.
Soviet fighters storming Konigsberg
At the Berlin (Potsdam) Conference of the leaders of the three allied nations 17 July - 2 August 1945, which took place after the end of hostilities in Europe, the issue of East Prussia was finally resolved. On July 7, at the seventh meeting of the heads of government, the question of the transfer of the Konigsberg region to East Prussia to the Soviet Union was considered. At the same time, Stalin declared that “President Roosevelt and Mr. Churchill, at the Tehran Conference, gave their consent on this matter, and this issue was agreed between us. We would like this agreement to be confirmed at this conference. ” During the exchange of views, the delegations of the United States and Great Britain confirmed their agreement, given in Tehran, to the transfer to the USSR of the city of Konigsberg and the surrounding area.
The protocol of the Potsdam Conference stated: “The conference considered the proposals of the Soviet government that, until the final settlement of territorial issues during the peace settlement, the part of the western border of the USSR adjacent to the Baltic Sea ran from the point on the East coast of the Danzig Bay to the east of Braunsberg-Goldan the junction of the borders of Lithuania, the Polish Republic and East Prussia. The conference agreed, in principle, with the proposal of the Soviet Union to transfer the city of Königsberg and the surrounding area to it, as described above. However, the exact limit is subject to expert research. ” In the same documents in the “Poland” section, the expansion of Polish territory at the expense of Germany was confirmed.
Thus, the Potsdam Conference recognized the need to exclude East Prussia from Germany and transfer its territory to Poland and the USSR. “Research experts” did not follow this because of a change in the international situation, but this does not change the essence of the matter. No deadlines (“50 years”, etc., as some anti-Soviet historians claim), to which the Koenigsberg and the adjacent area were allegedly transferred to the USSR, were not established by the Allied powers. The decision was final and indefinite. Königsberg with the surrounding area became Russian forever.
16 August 1945 between the USSR and Poland signed an agreement on the Soviet-Polish state border. In accordance with this document, the Mixed Soviet-Polish Demarcation Commission was formed, and in May 1946, the demarcation work began. By April, 1947, the state border line was demarcated. 30 on April 1947, the corresponding demarcation documents were signed in Warsaw. 7 April 1946, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR issued a decree on the formation in the city of Königsberg and the adjacent region of the Königsberg region and on its inclusion in the RSFSR. 4 July it was renamed Kaliningrad.
Thus, the USSR eliminated a powerful enemy bridgehead in the north-western direction. In turn, Königsberg-Kaliningrad became the Russian military-strategic foothold in the Baltic. We have strengthened the sea and air capabilities of our armed forces in this area. As Churchill correctly noted, being an enemy of Russian civilization, but a clever enemy, it was a fair act: "The land of this part of East Prussia is stained with Russian blood generously shed for a common cause ... Therefore, the Russians have a historical and well-founded claim to this German territory." Russian superethnos returned part of the Slavic land, which was lost many centuries ago.