“The injustice of contemporaries is often the lot of great people, but few have experienced this truth as much as Barclay.”
IN AND. Kharkevich
IN AND. Kharkevich
The famous Russian commander was a representative of the ancient Scottish family of Berkeley. In 1621, two brothers from the Berkeley-of-Tolly clan left their homeland and traveled around the world. After years their descendants settled in Riga. In September, 1721 was signed by the authorized representatives of Tsar Peter I, which ended the Great Northern War. By its terms, among other things, Sweden was inferior to Russia Livonia together with Riga. With the new lands and cities under the scepter of the Russian tsar, thousands of new subjects crossed, among whom were representatives of the Barclay clan. One of them, Weingold-Gotthard, born in 1726, subsequently served in the Russian army and retired as a lieutenant. The poor officer, who had no peasants or land, settled in the Lithuanian village of Pamusys. Here in December 1761 (according to other sources, in 1757, in Riga) he had a third son, who was named Michael. Since the second name of his father, translated into Russian, meant “God-given”, later Barclay de Tolly was called Mikhail Bogdanovich.
When the child was three, his parents took him to St. Petersburg. In the northern capital, he lived in the house of his maternal uncle - the foreman of the Russian army, von Vermelen. The uncle did not spare the funds and found excellent teachers for him, and he himself spent a lot of time with his nephew preparing him for service. From an early age, little Misha stood out with a wonderful memory and assiduity, abilities to mathematics and stories. In addition, Barclay's lifelong distinction: directness, honesty, perseverance and pride. In six years, the boy was enrolled in the Novotroitsk Cuirassier Regiment, which was headed by his uncle. Barclay de Tolly began serving at fourteen in the Pskov Carabinierine. His training, by the way, was much more thorough than that of most officers. After two years of impeccable service and persistent study, sixteen-year-old Mikhail received an officer’s rank, and ten years later became a captain. In 1788, along with his commander, General Lieutenant Prince Anhalt Barclay, went to the first theater of hostilities - to Ochakov.
The fortress was surrounded by the army of Potemkin from June 1788, and the general assault began in severe frosts in December. One assault column was headed by Prince Anhalt. His fighters knocked the Turks out of the auxiliary field reinforcement of the retranshement, and then pressed them against the walls. After a fierce bayonet battle, in which Mikhail Bogdanovich was in the front row, the soldiers broke into the fortress. By the way, the moat in front of the citadel, six meters deep, was littered with corpses - the heat of this battle was so incredibly fierce. For the capture of Ochakov, the young man received his first award — the Order of Vladimir of the Fourth Degree, as well as the first staff officer’s rank of second major.
In July, the Southern Army Potemkin 1789 slowly moved to the Turkish fortress Bender. In mid-September, the advance guard of the army, approaching the town of Kaushany, located in 23 kilometers from Bender, attacked the enemy fortifications. The detachment, in which there was a young second, Major Barclay, was commanded by the famous Cossack Matvey Platov. His soldiers scattered the Turks, captured their commander and occupied the Kaushans. A couple of weeks later, Platov, under whose command Mikhail Bogdanovich continued to serve, occupied the Akkerman stronghold. This victory was even more significant - 89 cannons and 32 banners became trophies of Russian troops. And soon Bender was surrendered without a fight. According to the tradition of helping Turkey, her northern ally Sweden rushed. In this regard, in the spring of 1790, Commander-in-Chief Earl Stroganov instructed Prince Anhalt to seize the well-fortified village of Kernikoski, located west of Vyborg. In that battle, Barclay was next to the commander. During the attack, the cannonball severed the prince's leg. Dying, he presented his sword to Mikhail Bogdanovich, who has not parted with her since.
For the difference in the Battle of Kernikoski, Barclay became Prime Minister and ended up in the St. Petersburg Grenadier Regiment. In 1794, he, commanding the regiment battalion, went to Poland, where Vilno distinguished himself during the assault. In the battles against the rebels, Mikhail Bogdanovich deserved the Order of George of the fourth class and the rank of lieutenant colonel. He became a colonel four years later, having received a jäger regiment under his command. By that time professional and moral principles of the future commander had been formed. Coming from a poor family, who had neither profitable land, nor serfs, who lived on a modest salary, Mikhail Bogdanovich cordially treated his subordinates. In his spare time, he preferred to give not guilt, maps, and red tape, but to intelligent conversation, military science studies, and reading. Yermolov left such a review about him: “Before exaltation, he had a state of extremely limited, constrained needs, restrained desires. I used my free time for useful activities and enriched myself with knowledge. In all respects, he is temperate, unpretentious in his condition, out of habit, pulls down flaws without grumbling. The superiority of talents, not being one of extraordinary people, unduly modestly values its good abilities and therefore has no confidence in itself ... ”.
Jaeger regiments were recruited by selected soldiers — riflemen and scouts capable of raiding the enemy rear, rapid bayonet attacks, multi-kilometer crossings. Combat training from the rangers took an important place. In March, 1799 "for the excellent training of the regiment" Barclay de Tolly was promoted to major general, but he did not get a new position, remaining eight years as a regiment commander. By the way, Mikhail Bogdanovich, with his regiment, made the first campaign against Napoleon in 1805, but did not have time to reach the front line - he came along with the order to return to winter apartments news about defeat at Austerlitz. This march of Barclay was the last peace - it was time for long and difficult wars.
Less than six months, as Napoleon launched a new war with Prussia. Russia was also drawn into the conflict. In mid-November, the French crushed the Prussians near Auerstedt and Jena, and the Russians were alone with Napoleon. One of the avant-gardes, advanced to the shores of the Vistula, was commanded by Barclay, and here he fought for the first time with Napoleon’s marshals. The enemy troops, occupying Warsaw and forcing the river, tried to take the Russian forces concentrated at Pultusk into the ring, but their plan was thwarted by Mikhail Bogdanovich, who in the battle of Pultusk led the tip of the right flank of Bennigsen's army. Under his command, five regiments turned up for the first time (Polish Equestrian, Tengin Musketeers and three Chasseurs), who twice went into hostility, preventing one of the best French generals Lanna from breaking the main forces of Bennigsen. For the bravery shown in battle, Barclay was awarded the third class George.
In January, the 1807 Russians from Poland moved to East Prussia. Under Jankov, Landsberg and Gough, Mikhail Bogdanovich in extremely stubborn battles held back the attacks of the main French forces led by Napoleon, allowing the rest of the army to gather at Preisish-Eylau. A curious message from Mikhail Bogdanovich to commander-in-chief Bennigsen: “... With such inequality in power, I would have retreated in advance, so as not to lose the whole force without benefit. However, he asked through the officers that the main part of the army had not yet been assembled, was on the march and had not taken any position. In this reasoning I considered it my duty to sacrifice myself ... ”. This was all Barclay - with his willingness to sacrifice, honesty and courage.
At the end of January, Mikhail Bogdanovich brought his regiments under Preussis-Eylau, where he was attacked by the Soult corps. He repulsed the attack, but he himself was seriously wounded after the explosion. In an unconscious state, he was taken out of the battle and sent to Memel for treatment. Barclay's hand was terribly disfigured - some surgeons insisted on amputation, others offered to conduct a complex operation. At that time, while Mikhail Bogdanovich was under the supervision of his wife, Elena Ivanovna, he came to Memel to visit the Prussian King Friedrich-Wilhelm III, who was here, Alexander I. himself. After learning about the critical condition of his general, he sent his personal physician Jacob Willy, who, having made an emergency operation, took out a fragment of bones from the hand of a military 32. Anesthesia, by the way, was not there at that time, and Mikhail Bogdanovich had to courageously postpone this procedure. Later, the emperor personally visited the general. A conversation took place between them, during which Barclay expressed a number of thoughts to Alexander, which apparently seemed so interesting to the sovereign - after the Tsar's visit, Mikhail Bogdanovich was promoted to lieutenant-general, as well as Vladimir of the second degree.
While Barclay regained his strength, peace was signed in Tilsit. Russia's foreign policy has changed a lot - the war began with Britain, with Austria and with Sweden. In addition, the hostilities did not stop with Persia and Turkey. The number of Russian army exceeded 400 000 people, but each of them was counted. In a similar position, General Barclay could not remain out of work - having recovered, he left for Finland and led the sixth infantry division. In March, his division 1809 made the transition through the Gulf of Bothnia. At the same time, Mikhail Bogdanovich proved to be an excellent organizer, who had managed to competently prepare an extremely risky operation. The soldiers were given additional uniforms, food was also organized, taking into account that the transition on the ice will take place in secrecy, without making fires. All horses were shod with special studded horseshoes, incisions were made on the wheels of the charging boxes and guns so that they would not slide. For two days, the division of Barclay was about a hundred kilometers, without a fight taking the Swedish town of Umea, which led to the surrender of Sweden. In the campaign 1809, one more feature of the commander was revealed - a humane attitude towards the enemy, in particular towards civilians. When the soldiers of Mikhail Bogdanovich entered the territory of Sweden, he issued a military order that sounded like: “Do not mess with acquired glory and leave a memory in a foreign land that the offspring would honor”. For his success in March, 1809 was awarded the title of General of Infantry to Barclay, appointing him at the same time Commander-in-Chief in Finland.
A great war was advancing, and the problems of the country's defense were to be transferred into the hands of a knowledgeable and intelligent professional. At the beginning of 1810, Alexander I removed from his post of War Minister a pedant and hard administrator Arakcheev, appointing Barclay in his place. From the first days of his activity, Mikhail Bogdanovich began preparations for war. First of all, he modified the structure of the army, reducing all of it into corps and divisions, with each corps including troops of three kinds - cavalry, infantry and artillery and, therefore, could solve any tactical task. Barclay paid great attention to the reserves by organizing a reserve of eighteen cavalry and infantry divisions and four artillery brigades before the war. He devoted considerable attention to strengthening the fortresses, but most of the activities at the time of the invasion of Napoleon were incomplete. Despite this, the enemy did not manage to capture the Bobruisk fortress remaining in the rear of the French army. In addition, important foreign policy actions were carried out in the first half of 1812 - at the end of March (thanks to the victories of Barclay) an allied treaty with the Swedes was approved, and in the middle of May (thanks to the victories of Kutuzov) a peace treaty with the Turks. These treaties ensured the neutrality of the two states located on the southern and northern flanks of Russia.
Mikhail Bogdanovich devoted a lot of time and effort to the work on a major military legislative document containing new methods of command and control of troops. This document - the “Institution for the administration of a large active army” - summed up the activities carried out by the military ministry. The Minister of War also conducted a series of measures to organize regular intelligence, which is systemic in nature. At the beginning of 1812, a Special Chancellery was created, reporting directly to the Minister of War, operating in strict secrecy and not appearing in the annual ministerial reports. The work of the Special Chancellery led in three areas - the search and liquidation of Napoleon’s agents, the collection of information about the enemy troops in neighboring countries and the receipt of strategic information abroad. Shortly before the Patriotic War, Napoleon’s General Jacques Loriston gave Barclay de Tolly the following description: “A man of fifty-five years old, the Minister of War, a great worker, a little haggard, has an excellent reputation.”
In the spring of 1812, Napoleon’s “great army” began to slowly move toward the border with Russia. Grandiose masses of troops came into the movement - together with the allies, more than 600 thousand people took part in the march to the east. The total number of the Russian army before the war was also large - 590 thousand people. But unlike Napoleon’s forces, Russian troops, in addition to the western frontiers with Austria, Poland and Prussia, stood on the Turkish border in the Caucasus and Moldova, in Finland, in the Crimea, on the borders with Iran and in the countless garrisons of the country scattered to Kamchatka.
In March, 1812 Barclay left the northern capital for the city of Vilna, where he assumed the rights of commander of the first army, leaving the post of minister of war. In early April, he wrote to the king: “It is necessary for the heads of corps and armies to have drawn plans of operations, which they do not have at this time.” The sovereign did not send any "drawn plans" in response, and meanwhile the war was on the threshold. In mid-April, 1812 Alexander arrived in Vilna and began long meetings in the main apartment. At the center of the discussions was the plan of General Pfoul — a Prussian military theorist in the Russian service. Barclay was against him, but the king remained silent. The ambiguity of this situation was noted in the notes by the Secretary of State Shishkov, who said: “The Sovereign speaks about Barclay as the chief administrator, and Barclay replies that he is only the executor of the tsar’s orders”. Alexander could be understood - he terribly wanted to lead the whole army and win the glory of the winner Bonaparte, but the fear of defeat stopped the emperor from this step. Not daring to become commander in chief, Alexander, worse, did not appoint anyone in his place.
In mid-June, the "great army" began to cross the Neman. The news of this came in Vilna just a few hours later. The sovereign who was at the ball silently listened to the adjutant Barclay and soon sent Mikhail Bogdanovich an order to withdraw the first army to the Sventsians located in 70 kilometers from Vilna. The second army of Bagration was ordered to move to Vileyka. All the next day, Barclay de Tolly sent orders to the commanders of divisions and corps, taking care first of all that no part was cut off by the enemy. By the way, the first army retreated in perfect order, leading rearguard battles, inflicting sudden blows on the enemy and detaining him at crossings. For example, in the first days, the rear guard of the first corps under the command of Yakov Kulnev took a thousand prisoners, and in battle at Vilkomir all day successfully restrained the onslaught of Marshal Oudinot. A participant in this march-maneuver, the future Decembrist Glinka, noted in his diary: “Barclay did not allow himself to be cut off by the slightest detachment, he did not lose a single convoy, not a single cannon.”
However, the matter was complicated by the fact that the emperor constantly intervened in the orders of the commander. Through Mikhail Bogdanovich’s head, he gave many orders that often contradicted Barclay’s instructions. In particular, Alexander, without dedicating anybody to his plans, ordered to accelerate the advance towards the Drissa camp. At the end of June, Barclay wrote to him: “I don’t understand what we will do there with our army ... We lost sight of the enemy, and being imprisoned in the camp, we will be forced to wait for him from all sides”. The king did not respond to the letter, making it clear that his orders are not being discussed. Soon, the first army approached Drissa (now the town of Verkhnedvinsk), but due to the fact that Bagration did not break through to the camp, it was decided to go on. Nevertheless, the short-term presence in Drisse was marked by two important events - in this place the troops were awaited by the first replenishment in the form of nineteen infantry battalions and twenty cavalry squadrons, and the campsite began its work at headquarters. Its organizers, professors of the University of Dorpat, by the decision of Barclay, printed the orders and appeals of the commander to the population and troops, information leaflets and bulletins, appeals to the fighters of the enemy. Subsequently, when the marching printing house was formed a circle of military writers, who became the first historians of the war.
In early July, the army left the camp and headed east. At this time, Alexander left the troops and went to Moscow. Saying goodbye to Mikhail Bogdanovich, he said: “I entrust my army to you, do not forget that I don’t have another one, and let this thought never leave you.” Parting words of the king, the commander always remembered. In fact, it became the core of his tactics - saving the army, saving Russia. Leaving, the king did not give Barclay the authority of the commander in chief with the subordination of the rest of the armies to him. The uncertainty of the position of Mikhail Bogdanovich was intensified by the fact that Alexander asked Arakcheev to "take over the management of the affairs of the military." This unintelligible and vague wording under the current military minister gave rise to numerous frictions between Barclay and Arakcheyev, who did not like him. Meanwhile, the unification of the first and second armies was becoming increasingly difficult — the main forces of the French were wedged in between them, and there was nothing for the Russians to do but retreat.
While Napoleon was in Vitebsk, Mikhail Bogdanovich broke away from him and went to Smolensk. For many Russians, this maneuver caused strong discontent. There was an opinion that it was worth giving the enemy a general battle in front of Vitebsk. Bagration was especially angry - a direct and honest man, brought up under Suvorov's flags and committed to offensive tactics from a young age, could not put up with constant retreat. The retreat of the first army from Vitebsk brought Bagration into a rage. He sent Barclay a message full of reproaches, arguing that the departure from Vitebsk opened the way for Moscow to Napoleon. Subsequently, Yermolov, chief of staff of the first army, wrote about Mikhail Bogdanovich: “He is unhappy, because the campaign is not in his favor, because he constantly retreats ... I defend him not by partiality, but by true justice”. By the word "true justice" was such that half of the "great army" gathered near Smolensk - during the forty days of the war the French lost and left more than two hundred thousand people in the rear garrisons.
Soon after the entry of the first army into Smolensk, Bagration also arrived there. The joy of the meeting of commanders pushed aside all the troubles and strife - having met Peter Ivanovich, Barclay embraced him in a friendly way. The connection of armies by almost all military men was perceived not only as a great success, but also as an indispensable condition for the long-awaited general battle. Soon both armies moved towards the enemy. After a series of maneuvers, the first one got up on the Porechensky tract, and the second one - to the south, on the way to Rudnya. Three days the troops stood in complete inaction. Finally, Barclay learned that the main French forces had gathered not far from the second army. In this regard, the commander found it necessary to go to the Rudny road, Peter Ivanovich, without waiting, moved back to Smolensk. Both armies approached the city of August 4. Under Smolensk, 120 thousands of Russians fought 180 with thousands of Napoleon's soldiers. After painful deliberation, Mikhail Bogdanovich rejected the idea of a general battle. Ordering Bagration to leave Smolensk, he remained to cover the waste. The battle lasted until the night, and the French failed to achieve even the slightest success. Before Barclay again raised the question of the transition to the counteroffensive, however, after weighing the circumstances, the commander ordered to leave the city.
Soon the king sent Mikhail Bogdanovich a letter in which he reproached him for his actions near Smolensk. Leaving the city finally spoiled relations with Bagration - in letters to the emperor, he demanded to put another military commander. The authority of Barclay in the eyes of most generals, officers and soldiers of all Russian armies was plummeting. This time again, the question about the commander-in-chief was transmitted by the king to the specially created emergency committee, which included six people close to Alexander. They discussed five candidates, the last to go was Kutuzov, who was immediately recognized as the only one worthy. Three days later, Alexander I put an end to this question. Immediately to Barclay, Chichagov, Bagration and Tormasov, the following rescripts were sent: “Various important inconveniences ... impose the duty to appoint one chief superior over all four armies. For this I chose Prince Kutuzov ... ”. Having been appointed, Mikhail Illarionovich personally wrote a letter to Barclay. In it, he expressed hopes for the success of their joint work. Barclay replied to him: “In such an extraordinary and brutal war, everything must contribute to one goal ... Under the guidance of Your Grace, now we will strive to achieve it, and the Fatherland will be saved!”
In mid-August in the village of Tsarevo-Zaymishche Barclay apparently calmly surrendered command. However, his pride, of course, was hurt. Mikhail Illarionovich found the soldiers preparing for battle - the regiments took up positions, the fortifications were being built, reserves arrived. The commander in chief met with stormy glee and drove around the troops and ... ordered them to retreat.
23 August, the main Russian forces took to a huge field, located between the New and Old Smolensk roads. The night before the battle of Borodino, Barclay and the head of the artillery of the first army, General Kutaisov, were spent in a peasant hut. According to the memoirs, Mikhail Bogdanovich was unhappy, he wrote and forgot all night long just before dawn, hiding what was written in his coat pocket. Kutaisov, on the contrary, was having fun and joking. The next day he was killed, an artillery order remained his testament: “Artillery must sacrifice itself. Let them take you with guns, but take the last shot at the support ... ".
For the headquarters of the first army, the battle began at dawn. Adjutant Barclay wrote: “The general with orders, in full dress uniform, with a black feather hat was on the battery ... The village of Borodino, located at our feet, was occupied by a brave Life Guards Jäger regiment. The fog hid enemy columns advancing directly on him. The general, who was surveying the area from the hill, sent me with orders that the regiment immediately march out of the village, destroying the bridge after him ... After this work, descending from the hill, the general traveled the entire line. The grenadiers, calmly standing, greeted him. However, Bonaparte struck the main blow on the left flank, and at the decisive moment Mikhail Bogdanovich, having correctly assessed the situation, sent help to Bagration. The reinforcements arrived when the soldiers of Bagration barely held on, and their commander lay mortally wounded on the ground. Peter Ivanovich conveyed to the adjutant of Barclay: “Tell the general that the fate and salvation of the army now depend on him. God bless him. ” These words meant both complete reconciliation and the recognition of the talents of the commander dear to Bagration. The command of the second army took Konovnitsyn, and Barclay himself led the troops against the cavalry corps of the enemy. Two officers fell near him and nine were wounded, but he did not get out of battle until the grandiose section ended in victory. Alexander Pushkin, in the poem “Commander” dedicated to Barclay, wrote: “There, an obsolete leader! as a warrior young, / Lead a cheerful whistle heard for the first time, / You rushed into the fire, looking for the desired death, - / Voshche! ". Late in the evening, Kutuzov ordered Mikhail Bogdanovich to prepare for the continuation of the battle. The commander gave the necessary orders to his generals, but at midnight he received a new order to retreat.
After Borodino, the remnants of the army of Bagration were united with the army of Barclay, but his position was conditional - the commander-in-chief stood above him. And soon the order came about the dismissal of the commander from the post of Minister of War. In addition, Mikhail Bogdanovich came down with a fever, and in mid-September sent Kutuzov a dismissal report. On the day of entry into the Tarutinskaya position, Mikhail Illarionovich granted his petition. Saying goodbye to his adjutants, Barclay de Tolii said: “The great thing is done, it remains only to shake the harvest ... I gave the field marshal a preserved, non-moralized, well-dressed and armed army. This gives me the right to the gratitude of the people, who will now throw a stone at me, but then give me justice. ”
Being out of the army for more than four months, Mikhail Bogdanovich was engaged in comprehending everything that had happened. The fruit of these thoughts became the "Notes" he compiled. And in early November, the commander suddenly submitted to the king a petition for reinstatement. He was appointed commander of the third army, which was previously headed by Admiral Chichagov.
Soon the fighting spread to Europe. In early April, 1813 capitulated to Torun, and the French governor handed over the keys to the fortress to Barclay de Tolly. Three weeks later, after Kutuzov’s death, Mikhail Bogdanovich’s soldiers entered Frankfurt an der Oder. In May, in a battle that lasted for many hours near Konigswart in Saxony, the commander at the head of the twenty-three-thousand detachment suddenly attacked and defeated the Italian division of Perry. Only prisoners of the enemy lost the division commander, 3 brigade generals and about 2000 soldiers. This battle was the prelude to the battle of Bautzen, which was lost by the Allied forces. By the way, under Bautzen Barclay, the only one of the allied generals did without errors. Denis Davydov wrote that the proverb walked among the soldiers: “Look at Barclay and do not take fear.” For the victory at Konigswart the commander was awarded the highest award of the Russian Empire - the Order of St. Andrew the First Called. In addition, Barclay replaced Wittgenstein, who after Kutuzov commanded the combined Russian-Prussian army. The change this time proceeded differently than nine months ago — Wittgenstein himself recommended Mikhail Bogdanovich to his place, telling the emperor that “for the pleasure of honoring himself under his superiors.” At the same time, a new anti-Napoleonic coalition was formed, including Russia, Prussia, Austria, Sweden and England. The commander in chief of all the allied armies was the former ally of Bonaparte - the Austrian Schwarzenberg. Under the new conditions, Barclay occupied a more modest post — the head of the Russian-Prussian reserve as part of one of the armies.
In a two-day battle near Dresden in mid-August, the 1813 allies under the command of Schwarzenberg were defeated and driven back to Bohemia. Wanting to cut off retreat troops, the French began to pursue, but with a swift maneuver, Barclay's troops blocked their path, surrounding and imposing a battle of annihilation. This battle, which unfolded near the village of Kulm, remained in the history of military art as an example of tactical skill. For the defeat of the thirty-thousandth French corps, Barclay received the Order of George of the fifth class, which before him was awarded only Kutuzov. The defeat at Kulm forced the French to retreat to Leipzig, where the “Battle of the Nations” took place in October, which transferred the war to French territory.
In 1814, Mikhail Bogdanovich took part in the battles of Arsis-sur-Aub, at Brienne and near Fere-Champenois. In mid-March, his soldiers entered the streets of Paris. After the victory, Alexander I, who was touring the troops with Barclay, suddenly took the commander by the hand and congratulated him on the title of field marshal. 18 May 1814 new French government signed a peace treaty, and four days later the Russian emperor went to London. There, along with the king went and his new field marshal. The next three weeks were filled with receptions, festivals and balls, which is very much accustomed to the marching life of the military. In October, he received the 1814 under the command of the first army with headquarters in Warsaw. Mikhail Bogdanovich was pleased with his appointment - far from St. Petersburg, he was given almost complete independence. The most notable of his work of those years were the "Instructions", setting forth the ideas of the commander about the duty of commanders in relation to subordinates. Along with demanding a conscientious attitude to service and strict discipline, Barclay called for treating people carefully, not allowing arbitrariness, cruelty and violence to flourish.
In the spring of 1815 after the appearance of Napoleon in Europe, Barclay marched. Before reaching the Rhine, he learned of the defeat of the “Corsican monster” near Waterloo. Nevertheless, the army commander continued the march and in July for the second time occupied Paris. Here, for political reasons, Alexander decided to demonstrate to the allies the strength and beauty of his troops. The grand parade in Vertyu lasted several days - the 150-thousandth army with 550 guns was commanded by Barclay. All infantry battalions, cavalry squads and artillery batteries showed impeccable bearing and training, coordination of maneuvers and refined movements. Yermolov wrote to his brother: “The state of our troops is amazing. In this place, the troops of all Europe, but there is no one like the Russian soldier! ” For the excellent condition of the entrusted army, Mikhail Bogdanovich was granted the title of prince.
The motto on his coat of arms were the words: "Loyalty and patience."
In the fall of 1815, the bulk of the Russian troops returned to their homeland. The headquarters of Barclay at this time located in Mogilev. The commander continued to lead the first army, which after 1815 included almost all ground forces 2 / 3. In the spring of 1818, Mikhail Bogdanovich went to Europe for treatment. His path passed through Prussia. There, a fifty-six-year-old Barclay fell ill with the disease and 14 died on May. His heart was buried on a dais near the estate of Stilittsen (now the village of Nagornoye of the Kaliningrad region), and the ashes of the commander were taken to his wife's family estate in Livonia, located not far from the present Estonian town of Jygeveste. In 1823, a widow built a beautiful mausoleum on her grave, which has survived to this day.
According to the materials of the books of V. Levchenko "Heroes of 1812 of the Year" and V.D. Melentyev "Field Marshal Victory".