Pistol Bergmann Mars (Bergmann Mars)




Dividing design activities into two separate areas: the development of a pistol for the civilian market — the Bergmann Simplex and the military pistol — the Bergmann Mars Theodore Bergmann finally achieved success and received the first military order for his weapon.

Gun Bergmann Mars (Bergmann Mars) has external features that resemble the weapon of a potential competitor - Mauser K-96. However, this is only a superficial resemblance, the design of these pistols varies significantly among themselves.



Pistol Bergmann Mars is a major modernization of the early designs of Louis Schmeisser and Theodor Bergmann. At the same time, the recognizable contours of weapons and early design developments were preserved: the placement of a two-row magazine in front of the trigger guard, the presence of a receiver, automation using a short barrel stroke, a simple firing mechanism, as in previous pistols, the return spring is located inside the bolt around the slender drummer.

Pistol Bergmann Mars (Bergmann Mars)


However, the gun has significant differences from the early models. For example, the pistol locking mechanism of the Bergmann Mars uses a vertical movement of the locking wedge. Initially, this locking system was developed by Louis Schmeisser for heavy machine guns and patented in the name of Bergmann. Here is one of the pages of the graphic part of the patent number 723 232 from 24 March 1903 of the year. This new locking system was cheaper from a manufacturing point of view and more reliable than the side locking used in the Bergmann pistols of the 1897 model range of the year.



For the Bergmann Mars pistol, the powerful 9 mm Bergmann cartridge (9x23mm Bergmann) was developed. Currently, a cartridge with similar linear characteristics is known as 9 mm Largo. Prototypes of the Bergmann Mars pistol were made for 7.8 mm Bergmann caliber cartridges, as well as new 10 mm and 11.35 mm cartridges. Especially for the American market was made a pistol chambered for 45 ACP. The purpose of the experiments with the change of caliber was the desire to please potential military customers in the UK, USA and Europe.



The new Bergmann pistol has entered the commercial market under the name of Bergmann Mars 1903 model of the year (Bergmann Mars M 1903). The weapon consists of a frame with a handle, a barrel with a receiver, a bolt, parts of a firing mechanism and a magazine. The magazine release button is located on the inside of the trigger guard. The cheeks of the handle are wooden, made of walnut, the cheeks have a diamond-shaped notch. At the bottom of the handle there is a rectangular untabka for a pistol strap.



On the left side of the frame there is a safety lever, convenient for controlling the thumb. Looking at him for some reason, Mauser C96 Broomhandle comes to mind again. On the left side of the frame there is a button for fixing the right frame cover. By pressing the button you can separate the cover on the right side of the frame and gain access to the details of the firing mechanism. By the way, USM as in previous models of pistols Bergmann simple, single action.



At the top of the pistol bolt Bergmann Mars ejector placed. On the left, a protruding locking wedge is visible. When the bolt is in the extreme forward position, the locking wedge protrudes up above the receiver.



When retracting the bolt by hand or after a shot, the bolt together with the barrel and the receiver move together for the first time. Then the locking wedge, moving along the beveled grooves of the receiver, lowers and becomes level with the surface of the receiver. When this occurs, the disengagement of the barrel and shutter.



After tripping, only the bolt moves to the rearmost position under the influence of the residual recoil energy. When moving back, the sleeve is removed through the upper window in the receiver and the trigger is cocked.



After reaching the rearmost position, the bolt under the action of the return spring begins to move forward and feeds the next cartridge from the magazine to the chamber.



For the convenience of cocking the valve in its rear part, a handle with side grippers is made of a round shape with annular grooves.



The pistol shop Bergmann Mars is box-shaped, detachable with a double-row arrangement of cartridges. Hole for fixing the store with a latch located on the back of the store. In the side walls of the store holes are made to control the availability of ammunition. On the bottom of the store marked the factory number of weapons. In the case of early pistols, the magazine is designed for 6 cartridges, and later on 10 cartridges.



The gun Bergmann Mars Model 1903, the barrel has a length of 108 mm with four right-inclined rifling. A bar with a semicircular front sight is made above the barrel. 908 pistol gram weight.



Pistol gun mounted on a fixed part of the receiver. In the upper part of the locking block, four lines of text are marked “BERGMANN / MARS / PAT. BREV. / SGDG »



The marking on the locking block may be different: “MARS / PAT. BREV. / SGDG. In the upper part of the receiver and the barrel at the chamber there are stamps in the form of the letter “U” under the two crowns.



Pistol Bergmann Mars is a typical army pistol. Especially for him was developed a special holster-butt, which was attached to the bottom of the handle.



Finally, after repeated tests of the 5 of September of the 1905 of the year, the Spanish government placed an order for the 3000 9-mm pistols of Bergmann Mars. This was probably the first major success of the entrepreneur. Pistols of Bergmann at that time were produced in small quantities at their own plant in Gaggenau, and the main production was placed with the subcontractor Schilling in Suhl. In 1904, the company of Schilling is bought up by Heinrich Crigoff, who soon breaks off a contract with Bergmanns Industriewerke. Between 1905 and 1908, Theodore Bergmann is looking for a new contractor for the manufacture of pistols and not finding the right enterprise, he has to sell his Spanish order to Anciens Établissements Pieper (AEP) from the Belgian city of Herstal.



According to approximate data, a Bergmann Mars pistol 1000 of the order was made, after which the gun was modernized and it began to be produced under the Bergman Bayard label. Pistols Bergmann Mars M 1903 are not often found at gun auctions, so their cost is quite high. October 16 2013 gun Bergmann Mars, together with a holster-butt at one of the gun auctions was sold for 10 000 dollars.
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  1. avt
    avt 17 October 2015 09: 21 New
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    As always in this series of articles - good
    1. Alex 17 October 2015 10: 30 New
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      Quote: avt
      As always in this series of articles - good

      I join completely and unconditionally. Thanks and "+"!
    2. forwarder 17 October 2015 22: 19 New
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      A wonderful retelling of fairy tales and epics on a given topic. The only pity is unreliable.
      In fact, Bergman developed a pistol named Mars. And it was in 1901. You can’t argue with that. And even set up some semi-handicraft production in Germany. But then he turned to the Belgian manufacturers (in the company Piper, who owned the Bayard trademark). On the subject of launching a pistol in a series. In order to market it to the armies of European states. And the Belgian gunsmiths in those years were the best in this topic. Therefore, they understood it well. The idea itself was not bad, but there were minor troubles. To begin with, they didn’t like the pistol as a whole. And the mechanism, on the contrary, really liked. Therefore, they corrected Bergman. And corrected seriously.
      First things first, this same Bergman Mars was thrown into the trash. Not all, of course. Something remained of Mars. The mechanism, for example. And that’s all. Because Mars was made under the 7,63 mm Mauser cartridge. And it was impossible to sell a weapon on a cartridge of this caliber to the army of any sober-minded state (guess where such weapons were actively invented and produced?). Therefore, the Belgians developed a new, original 9x23 mm Bergmann Bayard Mod cartridge for the Bergman mechanism. 1903. And already under it Bergman piled (remade old Mars) his new pistol. And this new pistol, by a strange coincidence, was also called Bergmann Bayard No. 6 (Sample 1903).
      And the Bergman Mars pistol died in its native 7,63 mm caliber just before 1903. As unnecessary. Although, who knows. Maybe they continued to do it in Germany for some time half-handicraft. But this is not industrial production, so, home-made.
      True, the Spaniards in 1905. redid it under the cartridge .45 ACP for the American army. And even in 1906. in this form he passed tests there. But the matter somehow didn’t work out for them.
      Later based on the cartridge 9x23 mm Bergmann Bayard Mod. 1903 A NEW 9x23 mm Largo cartridge was made. It differs even in geometric parameters. So, this is not the same cartridge, as the author assures us.
      True, there is also a cartridge 9x23 mm Steyr arr. 1911 Therefore, it is generally difficult to say who went from whom. But it is indisputable that the cartridge 9x23 mm Bergmann Bayard Mod. 1903 was the first.
      So, gentlemen, the author of the article is trying to mislead you. For almost all counts.
      1. forwarder 17 October 2015 22: 21 New
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        And a little about ammo. There were wonderful bullets. And the first, and second, and third. And from this the weapon on them was very good. But it did not receive much distribution. Belgium, Denmark, Spain (the largest), a little Greece, Austria, Romania, Czechoslovakia. Trifle pot-bellied. The main motive, rearmament, is always very expensive. All major European countries already had their army pistol cartridges. Worse than Largo / Steyr, but quite bearable. And with these cartridges they went through 2MB. And only one major "player" in the late 20s started rearmament. And it could very well be armed.
        But, "do not feed the horse." As it turned out, the red revolutionary bloomers and devotion to the loafers (proletarians) and the people of the whole world do not replace knowledge. Therefore, it was possible to surprise the whole world with the adoption of 7,62x25 mm TT as the main army pistol cartridge. Army weapons on it were of little use. This accidentally became clear during the course of 2MB. Those. the "first bell" (not yet realization) of what was perfectly known to the Belgian gunsmiths of Piper at the very beginning of the century, reached the "specialists of the Soviet design school" only by the results of a bloody massacre called WWII. Therefore, shortly after its completion, they started rearmament on a 9x18 mm PM cartridge. Which actually was (once, but not now) an excellent police officer (not even army officer) patron. And it is not clear how he ended up in the SA. Those. they managed to surprise the world as much as 2 times in some 22 years. But there were still surprises about the “wonderful intermediate cartridge” of 7,62x39 mm and the ersatzruzma on it (they also did only 27 years). "Amazing" in its incompetence was the country. Continuous rearmament. What to do, the rich have their own habits.
        And only now, in the Russian Federation, they finally began to rearm on a 9x19 mm cartridge (8,8x19 mm according to the Soviet / Russian measurement system) Luger.
        1. bootlegger 17 October 2015 22: 36 New
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          Quote: forwarder
          Therefore, it was possible to surprise the whole world with the adoption of 7,62x25 mm TT as the main army pistol cartridge. Army weapons on it were of little use

          The beginning is easy, but why is everything so categorical?
          The cartridge of 7,62x25 mm TT perfectly laid down in a much later trend of lowering the caliber, decreasing the recoil momentum and increasing the distance of the direct shot. Coupled with an increase in wearable ammunition, of course.
          This is practically the forerunner of automatic rifles and AK. Yes, PPSh is rude in dressing, but quick-fire and in hand-to-hand combat is not useless, unlike MP.
          And 9X19 is the same room cartridge, for 30 -50 meters maximum ...
          1. forwarder 17 October 2015 23: 07 New
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            Quote: bootlegger
            The 7,62x25 mm TT cartridge perfectly fell into the much later concept of lowering the caliber, reducing the recoil momentum and increasing the distance of the direct shot.

            1. The concept of "lowering the caliber," if you are talking about the caliber of pistol cartridges, was developed only after the appearance of bulletproof vests. And even that, up to the Soviet / Russian caliber of 8,8 mm, no less. Just less, it makes no sense to do. It turns out already fart. Approximately, like TT, PPSh and other "ingenious Soviet products" on a TT cartridge.
            2. I absolutely do not understand what the "concept of reducing the recoil momentum" is and why any Soviet pistol and revolver need it. It is impossible to imagine more “tender” products. Even in TT (the most powerful of them), the physiological momentum of recoil could be completely painlessly increased by 20%. But just had to work on the recoil vectors, this also enters the concept of "create weapons". But this is difficult, it is easier to make a sub-gun with a reduced return. And, of course, do not forget to call it "the best in the world." After all, the USSR did not do anything else.
            3. No need to "reinvent the wheel." And invent some kind of "direct shot distance." It is enough to make a balanced weapon of normal power in the correct caliber, and this same distance will organize itself. Everything in the world has already been calculated and calculated a million times.
            That you are now voicing the Russian version of the Luger cartridge for PY. On the one hand, it is very interesting. In terms of recoil momentum, just the jambs of balancing are leaving. As for a direct shot, this is also, but this is already superfluous. With a direct shot, so good.
            Just worried, you can shoot a Russian cartridge from Beretta. What about the "native" Luger from PJ? Will it fall apart?
            Quote: bootlegger
            This is practically the forerunner of automatic rifles and AK.

            Did you decide to make me laugh? Whole 2 times? What does a pistol have to do with an automatic rifle and an assault rifle (AK)?
            Maybe you mean the self-loading rifle SVT? So, also by. Their principle of action was different. Completely different. And the heavy multiply charged automatic rifle on the bipod (in the USSR it was incorrectly called a light machine gun) DP-27, also different.
            Well, about AK, this is a separate conversation. And not even funny. Doesn’t it bother you at all that you haven’t done its analogues anywhere else in the world? And the fact that he stood in production for only 27 years? No, assault rifle weapons have a theoretical right to exist. After all, in a number of countries small-bore machine gun carbines were made. But it is small batch. For special tasks. But why did the clowns arm the whole army with these ersatz? Then she had to rearm. And it cost a pretty penny.
          2. forwarder 17 October 2015 23: 31 New
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            Quote: bootlegger
            into a much later downgrade trend

            If you are talking about lowering the caliber for AKs of different generations, then there is no such trend. It does not exist. These cartridges are equipped with bullets of a completely different principle of action. Therefore, the 5,45 mm caliber is in use today. And if the AK-74 bullet were classic, like the AK-47 or PC, then I doubt that even a mad fox of medium size could be shot from such a weapon. If only she gets into a vital organ. But this is no longer suitable for army weapons. Quality weapons use the full range of damaging factors.
            1. bootlegger 18 October 2015 19: 03 New
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              What does it mean no? There are laws of physics, and they make this trend relevant. Bulletproof vests have absolutely nothing to do with it. A bullet of a larger mass and the same energy pierces the body armor better, ceteris paribus.
              The energy of a bullet is described by the formula M * V * V / 2. Impulse of return = M * V
              It turns out that it is more profitable to raise the energy of a bullet by increasing speed, rather than mass. The energy is the same, but the recoil momentum is less and more precisely fire.
              Flatness also improves due to high speed. Yes, some stopping effect is lost by reducing the caliber. But at a distance of 200-300 meters it is not so important. And these are the most relevant distances for the infantry’s weapons. It’s more profitable to have a wounded enemy in a modern war than a killed one.
              And if the concept of the distance of a direct shot is not familiar to you, then this does not mean that it does not exist. You are sorry, but you have porridge in your head. Systematize as it should ...
              1. forwarder 18 October 2015 19: 20 New
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                Quote: bootlegger
                The energy is the same, but the recoil momentum is less and more precisely fire.

                What nonsense. But what, the fire from the SVD is not accurate? And there is a return, do not compare.
                You just consider the side effect of adopting a cartridge with a bullet of a new principle of action. Nobody strove to achieve this effect; it does not play any role. It happened. Therefore, this insignificant fact is not even worth mentioning. And even more so, discussions.
                Quote: bootlegger
                But at a distance of 200-300 meters, this is not so important. And these are the most relevant distances for infantry weapons.

                Your untruth. For an infantryman, distances from 400-450 m and closer are relevant.
                Quote: bootlegger
                Yes, some stopping action is lost by reducing caliber

                In fact, the stopping power of the AK-74 bullet is higher than that of the AK-47. And this is done on purpose. See picture.
                1. bootlegger 18 October 2015 20: 29 New
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                  Quote: forwarder
                  What nonsense. But what, the fire from the SVD is not accurate? And there is a return, do not compare.

                  Well, by golly, this is not serious. What does the accuracy of SVD? We are comparing different things.
                  I’m talking about the optimal design of the cartridge, and you are telling me that the sniper is more accurate than the mass AK ..
                  You just don’t seem to imagine the mechanism of the shot. You still say that recoil does not affect the trajectory of the bullet at the time of its movement along the barrel and I completely lose interest in the conversation.
                  Quote: forwarder
                  In fact, the stopping power of the AK-74 bullet is higher than that of the AK-47. And this is done on purpose. See picture.

                  This is true partly and only due to the previous design of the bullet. She sometimes just destabilized when hit by a target. From 7.62 this did not happen and from here all these legends.
                  In general, there have always been user complaints about caliber 5.45 in terms of its carcass.
                  Any warrior will tell you that 7.62 AK is preferable to 5,45, in the absence of a shortage of ammunition, of course. And the figures do not reflect slaughter at all distances.
                  Honestly, it’s even funny to hear that the caliber does not affect slaughter.
                  Large animal hunters have always tried to pick up weapons of the maximum caliber and energy bullets.
                  1. forwarder 18 October 2015 21: 02 New
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                    Quote: bootlegger
                    You still say that recoil does not affect the trajectory of the bullet at the time of its movement along the barrel and I completely lose interest in the conversation.

                    The normal return of a powerful balanced weapon on the trajectory of the shot does not affect in any way.
                    You need to bother with the return when:
                    1. It exceeds the physiological limit. But AK in any case is far from that.
                    2. When the weapon is unbalanced (poorly designed). Here for the AK-47 just everything is very relevant. But the AK-74 is not concerned. There the return is generally ridiculous.
                    Therefore, do not reinvent the wheel. No one designed the AK-74 recoil. Designed other items TTX. And the return, which turned out, is such and good. I repeat once again, for the AK-74 this is a completely insignificant detail.
                    Quote: bootlegger
                    She sometimes just destabilized when hit by a target. From 7.62 this did not happen and from here all these legends.

                    Oooo Yes, you decided to tell me fairy tales. No, I’ve already come out of this stage in the topic of small arms.
                    Quote: bootlegger
                    In general, there have always been user complaints about caliber 5.45 in terms of its carcass.

                    Yeah Those. the fact that the AK-74 is the same "slaughter" is better than the AK-47 passed by you.
                    Quote: bootlegger
                    Any warrior will tell you that 7.62 AK is preferable to 5,45, in the absence of a shortage of rounds of course.

                    Who else should I ask? Janitor? What can your “warrior” understand in weapons and their ballistics? How does he know what and how it affects the enemy? The “warriors” have their own criteria for “good weapons”. And these criteria are far from always correct.
                    Quote: bootlegger
                    And the drawings do not reflect slaughter at all distances.

                    And what does it reflect? The opinion of the "warriors"? You make me laugh.
                    Quote: bootlegger
                    Honestly, it’s even funny to hear that the caliber does not affect slaughter.

                    You absolutely do not understand the differences between the action of bullets of different types. The well-known drawing of Java has already been cited. And you all do not understand.
                    Then I will explain. In the figure, channels No. 2 and 4 are the channels of classic bullets. In figure 1, the channel of the new small-caliber bullet. In figure 3, the channel of the hunting expansive bullet. These are 3 bullets of different types. Did you notice some difference in the effectiveness of their actions?
                    Further, the figure is cut off on a carcass 15 cm thick. Thicker can not be found. But usually this is something about 10 cm. Where there is a white line.
                    The wound channel is drawn in black. A large halo surrounds the area of ​​contusion of adjacent organs. Now it is clear?
                    Quote: bootlegger
                    Large animal hunters have always tried to pick up weapons of the maximum caliber and energy bullets.

                    It’s an optimal weapon, not a maximum one. When hunting a wild boar, it is not necessary to take a rifle on an elephant.
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  2. kirpich 17 October 2015 10: 28 New
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    I would have created it aesthetically beautiful, like Luger-R 08, or Mauser C-96, you look and would go into life in a large series. And so - the ugly duckling.
  3. Amurets 17 October 2015 11: 06 New
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    Bergman’s weapons always looked archaic, similar to revolvers, although they differed in reliability. Apparently, angularity, archaism and the reason for their low prevalence. At that time, Browning became a cry of fashion, a model of compactness and reliability.
  4. Mountain shooter 17 October 2015 11: 28 New
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    Mauser under the native cartridge - more powerful! And aesthetically more perfect. Catching up is always worse, but these also suffered from primitivism. Therefore, they remained a rarity in history.
    1. forwarder 17 October 2015 22: 36 New
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      Quote: Mountain Shooter
      Mauser under the native cartridge - more powerful!

      So what? And the fact that his 7,63 mm caliber does not bother you? And military experts all over the world were embarrassed and embarrassed. And even specialists from Piper in 1902. it was embarrassing. Therefore, Bergman Mars was set aside, and Bergmann Bayard No. 6 began to do it. This is another gun, although it is very similar to Bergman Mars.
  5. sandrmur76 17 October 2015 13: 54 New
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    An excellent article + The designer did not have his own powerful factory, and the contractors are not very good. It is impossible to compare with Mauser. In general, it is interesting to read about such small-scale weapons. good
  6. gladcu2 17 October 2015 17: 12 New
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    It seems in a series of books about the Bulgarian intelligence agent Emil Boev, the Bayard pistol was mentioned. Author Bogomil Rainov.

    Thanks for the article. Very informative.
  7. Klibanophoros 17 October 2015 19: 44 New
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    On the one hand, it resembles a Mauser miscarriage, and on the other hand it has such a quality of fitting and processing of parts that Russian gunsmiths did not even dream of in the XNUMXst century.
    In general, Bergmann’s weapon is the embodiment of steampunk.
  8. Chukcha 17 October 2015 19: 55 New
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    Very interesting design.
  9. Volga Cossack 18 October 2015 10: 14 New
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    curious gizmo)))))
  10. Massik 18 October 2015 15: 12 New
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    For me it’s so much smarter than a Mauser.