Military Review

A person always has the right ... of the Constitution of the RSFSR and the USSR in the XX century

11
What does the average man in the street know about the Constitution? And not just their own country, but in general the concept of "Constitution"? Probably the first thing that many will say is the Basic Law of the state or a set of laws defining the rights and obligations of the state and its citizens.


A person always has the right ... of the Constitution of the RSFSR and the USSR in the XX century

Photo of Markov-Greenberg

Many, no doubt, will complain with nostalgia that, they say, the Soviet Constitution guaranteed free education and medical care. That's just what it is, because there were several Soviet constitutions? However, this is quite natural, since the Basic Law always fixes the urgent transformations or new gains of power.

LENINIST CONSTITUTION


Thus, the first Constitution of the RSFSR, adopted in the 1918 year, as well as the all-Union, which appeared five years later, were literally imbued with revolutionary rhetoric. “Political and economic counterrevolutions”, “espionage”, and “banditry” were all but mentioned there, but this is not surprising: the young Soviet republic was threatened with a hostile imperialist world from all sides. In addition, the main subject of the new Soviet law was not a citizen or a person, but a “worker”. The main task was determined by the establishment of the dictatorship of the urban and rural proletariat and the poorest peasantry, as well as the suppression of the bourgeoisie and the "destruction of the exploitation of man by man." As a result, a socialist society was to appear without division into classes. Moreover, it was emphasized that access to the union of the republics is open to all - both the already existing socialist republics and those that were only going to form in the future.


Photo of Markov-Greenberg

In honor of the Leninist Basic Law, on the site of the monument to the hero of the Russian-Turkish war 1877 – 1878 of Mikhail Skobelev, was placed the obelisk of the Constitution. A year later, this 26-meter brick stela was supplemented with the Soviet version of the Statue of Liberty, which was molded from the niece of Konstantin Stanislavsky Vera Alekseeva. Looking ahead, we note that the fate of this dubious for its artistic qualities of the monument was sad. In 1941, it was made from very poor-quality material and was blown up under the pretext of "inconsistency with the architectural appearance of the square" and transfer to another place. Later a monument to Yury Dolgoruky appeared on Sovetskaya. And the “obelisk of the Constitution” was, of course, not searched for “another place” ...

STALIN'S CONSTITUTION


The Stalin Constitution, adopted in 1936, was a reflection of a new stage in the development of the country - the building of socialism. She didn’t even have a preamble: it was assumed that what was said needed no preface. Along with the right and duty to work, citizens have the right to rest. Freedom of speech, press, assembly and rallies were also guaranteed exclusively “in order to strengthen the socialist system”. This Constitution looked more democratic, since the USSR sought to attract to its side the sympathies of as many countries as possible — to oppose the spreading fascism.


Bulletin of the session of the Supreme Council, at which the Constitution of the USSR was adopted. Xnumx

The Stalin Constitution proclaimed a planned economy the basis of the socialist economy system. And the property could be either state (that is, national property, to which the land with its subsoil, forests, water, enterprises, transport and communications, as well as banks) were included, or cooperative-collective farm.

For the first time, all Soviet citizens were granted equal universal and direct suffrage by secret ballot, as well as the right to material security in old age and illness, the right to free education, in particular, in their native language.

BREZHNEVSKAYA CONSTITUTION


By the 1960 years in the USSR, the foundations of an industrial society had already been formed, and the 1959 Congress of the CPSU announced the final victory of socialism. There is a need for a new Constitution - a “document of international importance”, and in 1962 a Constitutional Commission was established, headed by Nikita Khrushchev. Probably due to the huge number of units, it could not work effectively enough. Five years later, Leonid Brezhnev declared that a socialist society was built. A new draft of the Constitution was required.


USSR Constitution 1936 of the year

According to many, the Brezhnev Constitution has become the most elaborate Basic Law of all adopted earlier. No wonder, because its creators were tasked with writing a document that would not require constant amendments and additions.

So, besides the “leading and guiding role of the Party,” the document contained many important and new points. With regard to, for example, education: The Constitution of 1977 of the year provided for only the possibility of learning in their native language. This was done because many parents preferred to send their children to Russian-speaking, rather than national schools. The right to scientific and artistic creativity, as well as state protection of copyright was guaranteed.

In addition, the Basic Law obliged parents to take care of children, and children - of parents. Also, citizens were charged with the duty of caring for nature and its wealth, historical monuments and other cultural values.

The social foundation of Soviet society was declared “the inviolable union of workers, peasants and intellectuals”. At the same time, the state should strive for social homogeneity of the society.

The propaganda of war was forbidden in the country. And in foreign policy, the strengthening of the positions of world socialism, support for the struggle of peoples for national liberation, the prevention of wars, general and complete disarmament and the principle of peaceful coexistence of states with different social structures were declared.

Provision was made for the presentation of the most important issues for a referendum.

Actually, this draft Basic Law itself was brought up for national discussion, in which 140 million people took part, that is, more than half of the entire population of the country and 3 / 4 adult citizens of the Soviet Union. As a result, they received 400 thousand proposals for amendments!


USSR Constitution 1924 of the year

A curious detail: the adoption of the Brezhnev Constitution for three years deprived citizens ... of their legal day off. This happened because the Basic Law adopted October 7 - this date became a new red day. The Stalinist Constitution Day (December 5) was annulled, 7 didn’t have time to celebrate October 1977, of course ... Moreover, this day fell on Friday. And in the next two years, respectively, Constitution Day fell on Saturday and Sunday, and the tradition of transferring holidays if they coincided with weekends did not exist then.
... The question of the termination of the Constitution of 1977 of the year arose after the signing in 1991 of the so-called Bialowieza Agreement - a document establishing the Commonwealth of Independent States. Presidents of the Russian Federation and Ukraine Boris Yeltsin and Leonid Kravchuk, as well as the chairman of the Supreme Council of Belarus Stanislav Shushkevich, put their autographs under it. The agreement declared that the USSR ceased to exist. A little later, the President of the Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev, resigned as head of state. And two years later, in 1993, a new Basic Law appeared in Russia ... But this is another история.
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11 comments
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  1. Boris55
    Boris55 17 October 2015 08: 04 New
    -1
    Video in the topic (from the 5 minute):

  2. Comrade Bender
    Comrade Bender 17 October 2015 09: 09 New
    +5
    One bad thing. They ceased to study, as an object, the Constitution at school, as under Stalin. Young people do not know the basic laws at all.
  3. A1L9E4K9S
    A1L9E4K9S 17 October 2015 09: 43 New
    +6
    And two years later, in 1993, a new Basic Law appeared in Russia ...

    Which was written under the direct dictation of Washington and which it is high time to rewrite for the benefit of Russia and the Russian people.
  4. rfv0304
    rfv0304 17 October 2015 14: 41 New
    +4
    The Bialowieza conspiracy "for three" is a shame and grief for the entire Soviet people. One, the main Alkash, thank God, was removed. Queue for others.
    Now about the RIGHTS. Any Constitution should explicitly state the primary role of DUTIES over rights. And if in the first three it was implied and seemed to be an axiom, now they talk a lot about rights, forgetting about obligations. Perform your duties first, and then remember about the rights!
    1. gladcu2
      gladcu2 17 October 2015 19: 45 New
      +1
      rfv0304

      All is correct. "Your rights are dictated by your duties."

      True, this is from the charter of the Soviet Army. But vital.
    2. UralMan
      UralMan 17 October 2015 20: 48 New
      +1
      A short excerpt from the constitution ...
      Constitution of the Russian Federation
      Article 41
      1. Everyone has the right to health and medical care. Medical assistance in state and municipal health institutions is provided to citizens free of charge from the corresponding budget, insurance contributions, and other income.
      2. In the Russian Federation, federal programs for the protection and strengthening of public health are financed, measures are taken to develop state, municipal, and private health systems, activities that promote human health, the development of physical culture and sports, and environmental and sanitary-epidemiological well-being are encouraged.

      3. Concealment by officials of facts and circumstances that create a threat to the life and health of people entails liability in accordance with federal law.
      USSR Constitution
      Article 42. Citizens of the USSR have the right to protection of health.
      This right is provided by a free qualified
      public health care
      health care; expanding the network of treatment facilities and
      strengthening the health of citizens; development and improvement
      safety measures and industrial sanitation; carrying out
      broad preventive measures; health measures
      the environment; special care for the health of the younger
      generations, including the prohibition of non-child labor
      training and labor education; the deployment of scientific
      research to prevent and reduce
      morbidity, to ensure long-term active life
      citizens.
      ---------------------------------
      Carefully read and compare ... and delve into what was and is ...
      And draw conclusions ...
      And then you can talk about rights about obligations.
      ---------------------------------
      In short, you can understand ...
      If someone or someone doesn’t understand who didn’t budget this or that article for expenses, or I don’t know what kind of paperwork I didn’t send where I need it or hell knows what else is needed there ... then NO MONEY ...
      But there is NO MONEY .... YOU JUST DYE at the hospital door, though if you get an ambulance and you have gasoline at the car .... HIDDEN HATCHED BY THE CONSTITUTION AS A SHAVING.
  5. ALEA IACTA EST
    ALEA IACTA EST 17 October 2015 19: 09 New
    +1
    It is one thing to write the Constitution, and another to execute it ...
    1. UralMan
      UralMan 18 October 2015 10: 36 New
      +1
      Quote: ALEA IACTA EST
      It is one thing to write the Constitution, and another to execute it ...

      In where "the dog is then" .... EXECUTE!
      To whom to execute it? And for whom and by whom is it written?
  6. gladcu2
    gladcu2 17 October 2015 19: 51 New
    +1
    Thanks to the author. Perhaps you will expand the cycle of your articles on this topic. For example, make small comparative analyzes. And also with the most socially oriented constitutions of other countries. Please invest in a readable limit. No more than 15 minutes per article.

    Such articles increase the educational level.

    Thanks again.
  7. moskowit
    moskowit 17 October 2015 20: 43 New
    0
    All signatories of the Bialowieza Agreement to pull up on one aspen, and which Bes tidied up, the aspen stake!
  8. vlavek
    vlavek 23 October 2015 18: 50 New
    0
    The Constitution says that Russia is a federal state, although the Federation in Russia does not smell
  9. UralMan
    UralMan 26 October 2015 17: 06 New
    0
    Quote: vlavek
    The Constitution says that Russia is a federal state, although the Federation in Russia does not smell

    And what part of the constitution did you sniff?
    Go cover ....?
    So you need to read it, not sniff.