After analyzing the typical situations, one of the tasks assigned to gunsmiths was precision weapons, allowing to get to the 50x50 square, see the 100-150 m range. Another task was to create a grenade creating a cloud of tear gas with an unbearable concentration of about 30 cube. That is, a new weapon required the ability to fire grenades at sufficiently long ranges and with good accuracy, ensuring that the first grenade could hit the window of a building or car from a distance of one and a half hundred meters.
To increase the firing range and the accuracy of the battle, a longer barrel and a full-fledged butt were suggested, and in addition, it would be nice to consider the possibility of installing an optical sight. A rather overall sample of the weapon loomed, and to create it with a single-shot one was at least inexpedient. And instead of once again adjusting the rocket launcher to the needs of the customer, it was decided to develop a weapon for him “from scratch”.
At first, an experimental smooth-bore magazine rifle for 12 caliber cartridges was developed to replace the signal pistol. Then a smooth-bore pump-action carabiner of the original CCK-26 design (special rifle complex, 26 mm) with a box magazine for hunting cartridges of 4 caliber (26,5 mm) was created.
The design feature of the SSK-26 was reloading, which was driven by moving the forearm together with the barrel. Moreover, the reflection of the shot case occurred when the barrel moved forward (and not back, like all other pump-action shotguns). When moving back the barrel, as it were, “put on” another cartridge. Thanks to the original scheme with a movable barrel located under the magazine, it was possible to abandon the sliding bolt and thereby obtain a significant gain in the magazine capacity (6 12 / 76 or 7 ammo 12 / 70) in the weight and dimensions of the weapon. By the way, the CCK-26 reloading mechanism was subsequently used in a pump-action shotgun with the nary-barrel tubular magazine RMB-93 and in its civilian versions of the PMO-93 “Lynx”.
During the tests of these samples, experts from the Ministry of Internal Affairs concluded that the caliber 23 mm can provide optimal performance, and to obtain acceptable accuracy, the barrel should be cut.
Work on the creation of a new weapons complex was started in the 70s of the last century, at the Research Institute of Special Equipment of the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs. The 4-caliber case from the same rocket launcher was taken as the basis for the ammunition, but taking into account the rifled barrel of the weapon, the caliber of the cartridge was made a little smaller, and it became known as 23-millimeter.
After a series of studies and experiments based on the 26-mm cartridge “Cheremukha-4” shots with chemical grenades filled with tear gas CN “Cheryomukha-6” and “Bird cherry-7” were developed.
The effective firing range of these ammunition was about 150 meters. At the maximum range, grenades broke through two sheets of glass (double-glazed window), and from a distance of 40 - 50 and m grenades were able to pierce a 30-mm wooden board or steel sheet up to 1 mm thick.
26-mm cartridges “Cheryomukha-7” with remote gas grenades of different years of release. Marking of X-7 / 89 is deciphered as follows: “Chermukha-7” 1989. And marking W / 7-90 as “Bird-7” 1990 year of release. Full of confusion with color marking ... Perestroika, the beginning of an economic downturn ...
In the end, it was decided to abandon the sticking detachable box store in favor of the tubular under-barrel (apparently for the sake of compactness), and gunsmiths began to develop a classic pump action weapon with a longitudinally sliding forearm, fixed barrel and the usual principle of reloading: throwing the sleeve - the fore end “on yourself ", loading - handguard" from myself. "
As already written, in order to improve the accuracy of firing, they decided to perform a rifled barrel. Ten rifles give the projectile rotational motion, which ensures sufficient firing accuracy at an aimed fire range. For the new weapon, the possibility of installing an optical sight was foreseen, and to simplify and reduce the cost of production, truncated and lightweight barrels from 23-mm aircraft guns were used.
Rifled carabiners of the KS-23 family. With a barrel from GSH-23. Right hand "Tunguska" ...
Domestic gunsmiths wanted to create a pump that would surpass foreign counterparts. I believe that they managed to surpass them in some way: at least in terms of the power of the ammunition used, the variety of their striking effect and the possibility of using barrel nozzles. And the rest - the classics of the genre.
This, by the way, is one of the first guns developed in the USSR according to the “pump” scheme. And if we talk about serial samples, the first.
Barrel locking occurs when turning the bolt with four radial lugs.
The carbine is powered by a cartridge feeder, which feeds them alternately from a tubular under-barrel magazine with a capacity of three cartridges.
They wrote about the existence of a version of the COP-23-2, in which the capacity of the store was increased to 4-x cartridges, but apparently it remained as a prototype. It is possible that we are talking about extenders of grenade shops, which are produced, for example, by the Taktika-Tula enterprise.
How the magazine of the KS-23 carbine is loaded with cartridges is shown below in a series of photos that KardeN kindly authorized to use.
As in most weapon systems, the KS-23 carbine can also be manually sent a cartridge directly to the chamber. First, it allows you to quickly and silently charge a weapon, and secondly, in the barrel you can submit ammunition with a different type of action: not gas, but expelling. To do this, move it “towards you” and move the forearm back to open the ejector window, insert the cartridge into it, and then, “away from you”, return the forearm to the extreme forward position. In this case, the cartridge is sent to the chamber, the barrel bore is locked and the weapon is ready to fire.
Some weapon systems allow you to quickly replace one type of used ammunition to another. For example, extracted from the chamber of expelling and inserted shot shot instead. In KS-23 this is not possible. But the civilian version of the carbine ("Bekas"), created on the basis of the KS-23, already has this feature. I will return to “Snipe” in one of the following parts.
Appearance USM carbines KS-23 family in different angles
But let's go back, think about the American trail and compare the bolts and trigger guns Winchester 1300 and carbine KS-23.
It’s not for me to judge the degree of similarity, let me remind you only that there are many schemes for locking the barrel, trigger mechanisms and cartridge removal mechanisms in the world. The controversy is still going on: whether M. T. Kalashnikov copied the German Sturmgewehr 44 submachine gun, or not, and whether NF Makarov copied the German Walther PP pistol or not. And if copied, to what extent. I decided not to talk about plagiarism, otherwise it turns out that most of the samples of modern weapons are copied from John Browning.
To ensure safety, the KS-23 family rifles are equipped with a button-type fuse and a locking lever that locks the handguard in the rearmost position and prevents it from moving. Thus, the occurrence of abnormal situations is prevented when the trigger is cocked or when the cartridge is in the chamber.
Extract from the instruction manual KS-23
The fuse button (before the trigger) on the KS-23 family carbines. Behind the trigger guard - a lever that blocks the forearm
The locking lever is used every time it is necessary to remove the cartridge case or to send a cartridge into the chamber.
Order of use:
a) turn off the fuse;
b) push the locking lever with the thumb on the tail and bring the handguard to the extreme rear position by a sharp movement “towards yourself”, then return it to the extreme forward position with an energetic movement “from yourself”.
The cartridge in the barrel, the weapon is loaded and ready to fire. You can aim and pull the trigger or fuse. For the next shot, release the trigger and redo it all over again.
Sights at the KS-23 are open type and consist of flies and rear sight. The front sight is movable, mounted on a base with an antiglare notch and is shifted only in the horizontal plane.
The rear sight is unregulated, consists of a piece of aiming strip with dovetail mount, which, in turn, is located on the top of the receiver. This allows the installation of alternative sights. If necessary, you can install an adapter with a Picatinny rail on the dovetail strip.
Still from documentary: Special Forces fighter
Aims from KS-23, equipped with an optical sight PU.
(video at the end of the article)
Aims from KS-23, equipped with an optical sight PU.
(video at the end of the article)
Again, recall the American track and compare the sights of the Winchester 1300 rifle and the KS-23 carbine.
As I wrote above, unlike the KS-23, the receiver is Win 1300
made of aluminum alloy, casting method under high pressure. [/ center]
Removable barrel Winchester 1300. Apparently, the regular fly is unregulated.
The box at the carbine KS-23 is made of wood, and the butt has a rubber shock-absorbing butt pad.
A new model of weapons was adopted under the designation KS-23 (special carbine, 23 mm), and in the middle of 1980-s he began to enter the units of the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs. Immediately after its appearance, the KS-23 has proven itself to be an effective tool for combating riots and for apprehending dangerous criminals. For 30 for years, he was in service with the security forces of the USSR, and after its collapse, continues to serve not only in law enforcement agencies of the Russian Federation and similar structures in some CIS countries.
* USSR - MIA.
* RF - ATS, VV and Border Troops, tax police.
* Ukraine - special units "Berkut".
* Armenia - MIA.
* Kazakhstan - Ministry of Internal Affairs, employees of correctional institutions of the Ministry of Justice, disciplinary military unit of the Ministry of Defense.
* Uzbekistan - the customs committee.
* Moldova - Penitentiary Department.
I am sure that this is an incomplete list of countries-operators. I believe that since the KS-23 was in service with the power structures of the USSR, then a certain number of carbines were in each of the union republics. And after the collapse of the USSR, they have not gone away.
In the classification of small arms the carbine KS-23 is a curious incident. According to GOST 28653-90 “Small arms. Terms and definitions”, small arms are considered to be rifled weapons with a caliber less than 20 mm (over 9 to 20 mm exclusively). Since the KS-23 has a caliber larger than 20 mm, then from the point of view of GOST it can already be considered small-caliber artillery.
But this is not the first and, apparently, not the last incident in the classification of weapons. Recall the confusion with the designations of modifications of the Mauser rifle of the 1898 model of the year: the rifle adopted in 1935 was called the “Karabiner 98-k” (Kurz - “short”), the carbine was called the “Gewehr 98” (Gewehr - “rifle”) and shortened rifle for parachute and mountain infantry units were also called rifle “Gewehr 33 / 40”. That is, the Germans officially called the rifle a carbine, and vice versa.
TO BE CONTINUED…
Skrylev I. KS-23: Our police carbine.
Mischuk A.M. 23-mm Special Carabiner (KS-23).
Degtyarev M. The birth of "Bekas".
Blagovest A. From what they shoot in the CIS.
Monetchikov S. B. Infantry weapon of the 3 Reich. Pistols