Military Review

Police carbines family KS-23. Part one

25
From the author.


Dear readers! I return to my favorite topic and continue to acquaint you with rare and interesting samples. weapons. Today I will begin to acquaint you with the Russian carabiner pump action under the cartridges of 4-caliber. I prepared this material for publication back in the spring, and KardeN rendered me a lot of help in preparing and editing the material, for which I thank him. But then I was distracted by a description of the fate of the Romanian destroyers and frigates, so this series of articles comes out very late.

Since the material includes not only the description and performance characteristics of carbines
family of KS-23, but also an excursion into history, user manual, user reviews, description of civilian versions, etc., this was enough for a series of articles. I hope all this has been collected, systematized and written not in vain, and my work will benefit someone.

Sincerely, Mikhail Zadunaysky.




KS-23 (special carbine, mm 23) is a joint development of the Research Institute of Special Equipment of the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs and TsNIITOCHMASH. It was created in Soviet times as an effective, but not lethal weapon for quelling riots in places of detention. That is, for the humane suppression of riots in prisons and colonies. Later, these multifunctional police complexes began to equip ATS units and units of the Interior Troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs for carrying out operations to curb riots, as well as to penetrate stormed objects.

It is said that the former head of the PKU NPO STiS of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, now Lieutenant-General of the retired internal service, V. Khimichev and the head of one of its divisions N. Ya. Dzyuba were at the origins of this topic.

Predecessors

Earlier, Shpagin signal pistols (TSS-44), created under the hunting cartridge of an 4 caliber, were used to combat riots. For them, 26-mm cartridges with Bird-Cherry-2 and Bird-Cherry-4 gas grenades were developed and produced, as well as (according to data not subject to verification) traumatic and carcass ammunition.
But the combat characteristics of weapons did not fully satisfy the peace officers.


Shpagin flare gun (SPS-44)


Police carbines family KS-23. Part one

Cheremukha-4 cartridges for SPSH 1972 year


There was also a marine version: line-throwing devices (line-throwing devices). They were created specifically for fleet on the basis of signal pistols SPSh-44 (later SP-81) and with their help they threw the ends of the mooring lines on the pier or on board another ship.


AL-1 line throwing device set: a pistol, a cartridge for firing a rocket, a rocket, a tench






True, the smooth and short barrel of the SPN could not provide the necessary range of fire, and the shooting accuracy also left much to be desired. The lengthening of the SPS barrel slightly increased the accuracy of shooting, but it became more difficult to hold the gun.

The moment came when it was necessary to subject a weapon either to a deep modernization or to create a new weapon. Began to develop new weapons. I believe that the decision to create a new weapon was made by Soviet gunsmiths not from scratch. Apparently, they took into account the experience of the German gunsmiths, who in the years of the Second World War created the so-called “assault pistols” on the basis of Walter’s signal pistols.

The experience of the German gunsmiths

In 30-ies, the Wehrmacht command set before the gunsmiths the task of creating effective infantry weapons for close combat. German gunsmiths created a lot of interesting and promising designs. Among them are assault pistols based on standard 26-mm “rocket launchers”, which have adapted M-39 (“Egg”) fragmentation grenades for shooting.



Grenades M-39 were originally developed as a dual-use ammunition: when replacing the standard fuse with a special tube, they could be fired from signal pistols.

Leuchtpistole (Leu.P)

This grenade launcher complex consisted of Walther Leuchtpistole signal guns arr. 1928 or 1934 g. And anti-personnel fragmentation grenades. Initially, to increase accuracy, a folding metal shoulder rest with cushions on the back plate and a folding sight, designed for two shooting distances: 100 and 200 m.


Walther Leuchtpistole flare gun. Pay attention to the hole in the frame. The butt pin was inserted into it.


Kampfpistole Z (KmP.Z)

Then, in 1942, a specialized 26-mm pistol with a rifled barrel was developed on the basis of Leuchtpistole. 5 rifling in the barrel significantly improved the combat characteristics of the weapon, but it became possible not only thanks to the barrel. Kampfpistole Z equipped with a graduated sight, and on the left side of the body secured spirit level. In addition, the weapon fired 26-mm grenades with ready-made rifles, which were designed to combat enemy infantry at distances to 200 m. The radius of destruction by shrapnel was 20 m. All this significantly improved its combat performance: increased range, accuracy and effectiveness of fire.


Pistol Kampfpistole Z. The letter Z = Zug. (German “rifle”). Near Sprengpatrone-Z caliber grenade with grooves


Since the presence of rifling in the 26 mm barrel did not allow the use of either M-39 fragmentation grenades (the “Egg”) or signal or lighting cartridges, it was decided to expand the range of ammunition. And for the Z model, over-caliber 61-mm anti-tank cumulative grenades mod. 1942 (Panzer-Wurfkopfer fur Leuchpistole 42 LP), which according to various sources at distances of up to 75 m pierced from 50-80 mm of armor. This allowed experienced German grenade launchers to effectively fight at close range with the Soviet tanks T-34.

To facilitate the construction in the production of Kampfpistole, it was not steel that was used, but some light, but expensive alloys. Due to the high cost of the weapon, a batch of 25 thousands of pistols was produced, and their production was stopped, but the idea itself was not forgotten.

Sturmpistole

The very next year (1943), the German gunsmiths gave a simple and original solution: the Leuchtpistole flare gun was equipped with an insert rifled barrel liner (Einstecklauf). This made it possible to shoot as grenades with ready-made rifling, and when the laner was removed, fragmentation grenades, as well as lighting and signal cartridges.

A new weapon called Sturmpistole (assault gun). To increase stability, better hold weapons and improve shooting accuracy - the Sturmpistole assault pistol, like its predecessors, was equipped with the same folding shoulder support and barrel nozzle with a sight.






In the hands of a soldier Sturmpistole with a cumulative Panzer-Wurfkopfer 42 LP. Above the barrel is a detachable sight on 100 and 200 meters.


Unusual Mauser

In several forums I came across this strange photo.



They claim that it is a Mauser 98k rifle, adapted for shooting off ammunition from assault pistols.

In some forums they write that the rifle's “native” barrel was replaced with a rifled barrel from Kampfpistole Z, and she fired rifled grenades. On others, the trunk was removed, the bed was shortened, and the rest was covered with sheet tin. A clamp was installed in front of the slide, which held the bottom of the sleeve of an 4 caliber. They say that the use of a rifle box was supposed to improve the combat characteristics of the hybrid relative to the assault grenade launchers.

Personally, my photo causes distrust and a lot of questions. Let me just say that using the adopted muzzle launchers for the Mauser rifle, it was possible to achieve the same result. In this case, the rifle is intact, and throws grenades.





Whatever the situation with the Mauser edging, I am sure that the Soviet gunsmiths studied the evolution of all the German “pistols” of the Second World War and made the appropriate conclusions.

American footprint

There is an opinion that the KS-23 carbine is not at all a new Soviet development, but only a scaled copy of the Winchester 1300 American shotgun. With shutters, trigger and receiver are the same, and the differences are minor, purely external.

Let's refresh in memory what this gun is and look at it more closely from a different angle. The Winchester 1300 Gun was developed at the end of the 70 (1978-1980) and it was produced for a good quarter of a century, until its production was stopped at 2006 due to the closure of the plant. During this period, on the basis of the Winchester 1300, 33 modifications were developed for the 12 and 20 caliber cartridges.



Winchester 1300 Camp Defender


These guns are still popular among hunters and athletes both in the United States and abroad, due to their simplicity, reliability and high reloading speed.

Winchester 1300 is a typical shotgun, therefore, like most of the representatives of this type, it uses manual reloading with the help of a movable forearm, which is not a dozen years old. The same principle worked and gun Winchester Model 1897, developed by John Browning before the First World War. The barrel of the Winchester 1300 is locked with the help of a pivoting bolt with an 4 stop. The receiver is made of aluminum alloy; trunks are easily removable, and their length depends on the modification and can vary from 457 to 711 mm. Barrels can be cylindrical drilled or 3 interchangeable chokes are included with the gun. The gun has a tubular magazine, which is located under the barrel, and its capacity depends on the modification and can hold 4, 5, 7 and even 8 cartridges. The magazine is loaded through the window at the bottom of the receiver. The stock and butt is wooden or plastic, a rubber butt pad is installed on the butt. A button-type shotgun guard that blocks the trigger. The reloading in the Winchester 1300 is accelerated thanks to the Speed ​​Pump system. Its essence boils down to the fact that the valve is immediately unlocked immediately after the pressure in the barrel decreases to a safe level. As a result, this leads to the fact that sometimes after a shot and a shot cartridge is released, the shutter is either completely open or partially. However, this is not a defect of the mechanism, but a design feature.

The Winchester 1300, in turn, is based on its predecessor, the Winchester 1200. Gun Model 1200 was developed in 1964 year, a year later went on sale and managed to do some fighting in Vietnam. Produced for about 15 years, until it was replaced by an improved model: Winchester 1300.


Its predecessor, the Winchester 1200 Defender.



American gun Winchester 1200 Defender



Soviet carbine KS-23


As you can see, in the American and Soviet models there is a lot in common. In one of the following parts, we will return to American guns in order to compare their mechanisms.

No matter how it was with the Winchester 1300 shotgun, I am sure that in the process of creating the Soviet carbine, the American shotgun left a deep impression.

To be continued ...

Information sources:
Skrylev I. KS-23: Our police carbine.
Mischuk A.M. 23-mm Special Carabiner (KS-23).
Degtyarev M. The birth of "Bekas".
Blagovest A. From what they shoot in the CIS.
Monetchikov S. B. Infantry weapon of the 3 Reich. Pistols
http://www.fastmarksman.ru/108s.htm
http://tipolog.livejournal.com/10706.html?thread=5330
http://ohrana.ru/weapon/valve/36666/
http://www.gunsite.narod.ru/ks23m.htm
http://www.gunsite.narod.ru/ks23.htm
http://weaponland.ru/load/drobovik_modeli_ks_23_ks_23m_ks_23k/43-1-0-163
http://forum.izhmash.at/index.php?topic=1031.0
http://forum.guns.ru/forum_light_message/1/571752.html
http://www.oxota-ru.ru/articles/iz-pushki-po-vorobyam
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/KS-23
https://www.zombiehunters.org/forum/viewtopic.php?f=109&t=62706&hilit=feather&sid=4bbfc6d81ee0b073b60fbfd04206695a&start=4104
https://www.zombiehunters.org/forum/viewtopic.php?f=109&t=62706&hilit=feather&sid=4bbfc6d81ee0b073b60fbfd04206695a&start=4104
http://world.guns.ru/shotgun/rus/ks-23-r.html
http://www.bratishka.ru/archiv/2013/03/2013_3_4.php
http://za-oknom-zima.livejournal.com/139104.html
http://diversant.h1.ru/guns/drobovic/ks23.html
http://shurigin.livejournal.com/88248.html?thread=5713336
http://www.chaso.ru/magazine/2012-05/ruchnaya_artilleriya/
http://www.military-quotes.com/forum/ks-23-a-t103400.html
http://www.red-alliance.net/forum/index.php?action=printpage;topic=24362.0
http://old.morfish.ru/ums/files/spas_sr-va/R4_4.files/R4_4-txt.htm
http://gunmagazine.com.ua/index.php?id=273
http://www.wwiiguns.com/store/images/kampfpistole_wgrenade_400_wwii_0804_e8a.jpg
http://grossfater-m.livejournal.com/1107292.html
http://www.molot.biz/product/b.php
http://www.winchesterguns.com/products/catalog/historic-category.asp?family=012C&offset=0
http://www.gennlab.com/win1300.html
http://humanbonb.free.fr/indexLancesfusees.html
http://alternathistory.org.ua/bezpoleznoe-oruzhie-vtoroi-mirovoi
Training film “Melee with tanks".
Taken at the request of the Wehrmacht in the 1943 year.
Kampfpistole - view from 24 min. 30 seconds

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25 comments
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  1. inkass_98
    inkass_98 13 October 2015 07: 41 New
    +5
    Had to shoot from the COP-23. A harsh thing, a rubber bullet broke the board 20-ku. The distance was not great, 25 meters, but the effect itself is powerful. Well, SPSh is a classic, a noble mechanism. The first time I shot from it - already dropped it, did not expect such a return.
    1. Mister X
      13 October 2015 09: 46 New
      +2
      Quote: inkass_98
      Well, SPSP is a classic, noble mechanism.

      There is an opinion that the SPSS was developed with an eye on the Walther signal pistols.
    2. max702
      max702 13 October 2015 21: 40 New
      0
      I read it in a bourgeois book like that at an exhibition "kind Russians" gave a shot to some venerable western gunsmith .. as a result, a broken jaw ..
      1. max702
        max702 13 October 2015 21: 57 New
        +1
        But I found ..
        "A Western specialist who visited
        Central Research Institute-Tochmash, at the first shot from
        KS-23 fell off the dental bridge, and when
        the second, on which the hospitable insisted
        Russian owners, jaw broke! "
        End of quote.
        Charlie Katshaw. Small arms of Russia. M.,
        2002.
        1. Mister X
          14 October 2015 01: 16 New
          0
          Quote: max702
          One Western specialist who visited the Central Scientific Research Institute-Tochmash, at the first shot from KS-23, had a dental bridge

          hi About this and other reviews - in the following parts.
  2. Vladimirets
    Vladimirets 13 October 2015 07: 45 New
    0
    An interesting article, but I didn’t understand this: "typical shotgun, therefore, like most of this type, uses manual reloading with a movable forend". The author wants to say that most of the multi-shot smoothbore guns have a reloading system moving forend? request But what about P / A?

    "As you can see, the American and Soviet models have a lot in common."

    In the first part is not yet visible. yes
    1. serega.fedotov
      serega.fedotov 13 October 2015 09: 25 New
      +1
      Quote: Vladimirets
      "As you can see, the American and Soviet models have a lot in common."

      There will certainly be a lot in common — how not to squeeze the pump out in a different way — someone has already applied any decisions.
      It’s the same as arguing who has stolen a double-barreled barrel-breaker mechanism.
      1. Vladimirets
        Vladimirets 13 October 2015 13: 19 New
        0
        Quote: serega.fedotov
        It’s the same as arguing who has stolen a double-barreled barrel-breaker mechanism.

        Do you think that they are all the same? There are a lot of different nodes from locks to locking systems for original designs and, by the way, most systems have names by the name of the inventors.
    2. Mister X
      13 October 2015 09: 32 New
      +2
      Quote: Vladimirets
      "As you can see, the American and Soviet models have a lot in common."

      In the first part is not yet visible.


      hi
      In the first part I had in mind the external similarity.
      In the following parts I will compare the individual nodes and mechanisms.
      1. Vladimirets
        Vladimirets 13 October 2015 13: 14 New
        +1
        Quote: Mister X
        In the first part I had in mind the external similarity.

        This is logical.
        Quote: Mister X
        In the following parts I will compare the individual nodes and mechanisms.

        I look forward to it. hi
  3. mishastich
    mishastich 13 October 2015 09: 29 New
    +1
    We look forward to continuing.
  4. Bongo
    Bongo 13 October 2015 09: 32 New
    +2
    Mikhail, as always excellent, very carefully crafted publication good It is felt that a lot of time has been spent on this and that a lot of sources have been shoveled. Unfortunately, I don’t have enough patience for this, I write mainly from memory drinks
    In addition to the above material, I will add that on the basis of KS-23, a "hunting version" TOZ 123 "Selezen" was created.

    The truth is not clear why and who needs this heavy shotgun with crushing returns. what Even in the Far East, we don’t have so much duck. And where are the cartridges for such an assembly?
    1. Mister X
      13 October 2015 09: 35 New
      +1
      hi
      Quote: Bongo
      as always a great, very carefully developed publication

      Thank you!

      Quote: Bongo
      On the basis of KS-23, a "hunting version" TOZ 123 "Selezen" was created.

      It will be continued.

      Quote: Bongo
      Yes, and cartridges for such a unit where to get?

      About cartridges, too, in the sequel.
      1. Bongo
        Bongo 13 October 2015 09: 47 New
        +2
        Quote: Mister X
        It will be continued.

        Michael, so I hurried with my comment hi
        Quote: Mister X
        About cartridges, too, in the sequel.

        Never seen on sale request Yes, and it's just scary to imagine what kind of return it has. belay I actively hunt myself, sometimes 12, after shooting 20-30 cartridges, my shoulder is very full, especially when you are in a hurry with a shot and carelessly apply.
        1. Vladimirets
          Vladimirets 13 October 2015 13: 33 New
          +1
          Quote: Bongo
          sometimes the 12th after shooting 20-30 rounds of shoulder very much stuffs

          I used to break the middle finger with a bracket on TOZ-34 when there was a casual grip. Now the flue pipe P / A tolerates even p / magnum.
          1. Bongo
            Bongo 13 October 2015 13: 47 New
            +3
            Quote: Vladimirets
            I used to break the middle finger with a bracket on TOZ-34 when there was a casual grip. Now the flue pipe P / A tolerates even p / magnum.

            It feels like shooting from a double-barreled shotgun and a semi-automatic are two big differences.
            In the safe there is a Saiga-12C with a long barrel, sometimes I take it mainly for self-defense, when I am eating. But Izh-27 is "first love". Reliable and unpretentious, although he let me down once, the fuse rod jammed. In my opinion, a semiautomatic device is not suitable for running hunting. In addition, when you chase a hazel grouse or a black grouse, you can meet a bear belay And they have not been divorced recently. So I load shot No. 5 into one barrel, and "Poleva" into the other. The main thing is not to confuse the trunks when shooting. Once he shot at a hazel grouse, and then for some time could not understand where his neck had gone (it was successfully torn off by a bullet). lol
            1. Vladimirets
              Vladimirets 13 October 2015 13: 55 New
              0
              Quote: Bongo
              It feels like shooting from a double-barreled shotgun and a semi-automatic are two big differences.

              Definitely.
              Quote: Bongo
              In my opinion, a semiautomatic device is not very suitable for sea hunting.

              I also thought so when I took it purely under the goose and the fox in the field. Took MP-155, when they first appeared, weight (hung on electronic) 3050g. Now, if hunting is meant primarily for one type of game, I always take it.
              Quote: Bongo
              In addition, when you chase a hazel grouse or a black grouse, you can meet a bear. And they have not been divorced in our country recently. So I load shot No. 5 into one barrel, and "Poleva" into the other.

              The impossibility of a quick change of the cartridge is the only negative, although there is a cutter, but it also takes some time. But the bear and I are very sparse, therefore tolerant. smile
              Quote: Bongo
              and then for some time I could not understand where his neck went (he successfully detached a bullet).

              But the carcass is whole and without holes. laughing
              1. Bongo
                Bongo 13 October 2015 14: 11 New
                +1
                Quote: Vladimirets
                I also thought so when I took it purely under the goose and the fox in the field.

                Our goose goes mostly high, and sits in inaccessible places of which there are plenty. Therefore, hunting for him is a matter of chance. Nobody beats the fox, it divorced a lot, and it became insolent. It comes to the fact that begging goes to the fire and cars.

                Quote: Vladimirets
                But the bear and I are very sparse, therefore tolerant.

                We have a lot. I haven’t seen this in close proximity, although I have seen it from far away, and in the past there have been very unpleasant meetings, especially when the bear sad

                Quote: Vladimirets
                But the carcass is whole and without holes

                Accident, no more ...
          2. wadim13
            wadim13 13 October 2015 14: 48 New
            +1
            At thirty-four, this is simply a design flaw - the bracket is too long. Other guns do not hit your fingers like that. True, for 27 years he had never been injured, but acquaintances often had to bandage his fingers.
  5. _KM_
    _KM_ 13 October 2015 11: 24 New
    0
    I saw this carbine alive. Interesting thing. The most curious thing is that it is rifled. Although why for rubber buckshot and other short-range ammunition rifled barrel ?! what
    1. Bongo
      Bongo 13 October 2015 12: 44 New
      +1
      Quote: _KM_
      Although why for rubber buckshot and other short-range ammunition rifled barrel ?!

      Rifling is necessary to stabilize rubber bullets and grenades with gas on the trajectory, in addition, when firing at 20-30 m, rifling increases the spread of buckshot.
  6. _KM_
    _KM_ 13 October 2015 15: 50 New
    0
    Either stabilization or scatter. smile

    By the way, according to our testers (who shot KS-23) - rifling does not really increase anything. In addition to the cost and complexity of manufacturing.
    1. Vladimirets
      Vladimirets 13 October 2015 15: 59 New
      0
      Quote: _KM_
      Either stabilization or scatter.

      You are not quite right, different drills act on different shells differently, sorry for the tautology, so everything is logical. In an ordinary smooth trunk, a strong narrowing scatters a large fraction and buckshot, but increases the accuracy of small ones.
      Quote: _KM_
      rifling does not really increase anything.

      Increase accuracy, and dramatically. Even an oval drill (Lancaster) or a small part of the rifled barrel in front of the muzzle ("paradox") increase the accuracy of bullet combat, the only thing is that special types of bullets are needed.
    2. Mister X
      13 October 2015 17: 32 New
      +1
      Quote: _KM_
      rifling does not really increase anything. In addition to the cost and complexity of manufacturing.

      The pro barrel will be in the following part: the KS-23 uses bore and shortened trunks from 23-mm ZSU.
      Perhaps defective. Therefore, their cost and complexity is unlikely to increase.
  7. _KM_
    _KM_ 13 October 2015 16: 07 New
    0
    At the distances of using a rubber bullet, this increase is not necessary. Such characterization can be achieved without rifling. For buckshot, this is not necessary at all, because in smooth-bore weapons this issue is solved quite successfully. There is an elegant solution to a nonexistent problem.

    Perhaps for German signal pistols it was and is needed. Because the Germans fired with short-barrel weapons with caliber grenades and other grenades at a fairly large distance. KS-23 can not shoot such because of the length of the barrel.

    It turns out that the main purpose of the carbine is shooting with rubber and gas. And for them, rifling is not needed ...