Military Review

Ballistic anti-aircraft missiles

26
Ballistic anti-aircraft missiles



In the 50-60-s in a number of countries with the necessary scientific and technical potential, the creation of anti-aircraft missile systems (SAM) was carried out. For medium-range and long-range air defense systems of the first generation, as a rule, radio command guidance of anti-aircraft guided missiles (SAM) was used on the target.

The first missiles were equipped with engines operating on liquid fuel and oxidizing agents (LRE). At the end of the 50-x - at the beginning of the 60-x in the United States were successfully tested and adopted by long and medium-range air defense systems with missiles, whose engines used solid fuel (RDTT).

In the US, the first such anti-aircraft complex with a solid propellant rocket was the NIM-14 long-range air defense system Nike-Hercules (the range of 130 km).


Zour complex "Nike-Hercules"


Despite the absence of the need for time-consuming and dangerous refueling of missiles with liquid fuel and an oxidizer, at first this American anti-aircraft system was purely stationary. This was due to the views of the US military on the formation of the target air defense system in the territories of the United States and Canada. As well as the bulkiness of the electronic components of the first variants of the detection and guidance system.

Later, after modernization, variants of the complex with combat elements adapted for relocation were created. This allowed the Nike-Hercules system to carry out a limited maneuver on the ground and implement these systems in the air defense of the ground forces.

"Nike-Hercules" became the first American air defense complex, the missile defense of which was massively manned with nuclear combat units (TBC) with 2 - 40 CT. This was supposed to increase the likelihood of hitting air group targets under conditions of massive interference, as well as give the air defense missile system anti-missile capabilities.

In an airborne nuclear explosion, a defeat zone in a radius of up to 1 km arose, which largely compensated for the not too high accuracy of firing radio command missiles at high-speed and intensively maneuvering targets, which is especially important when radio interference is set. As of the end of 60, all Nike-Hercules missiles in the USA were equipped with nuclear warheads.


The SAM system of the Nike-Hercules complex with YABCh in 1960 for the first time successfully intercepted the tactical ballistic missile MGM-5 Corporal.

The equipment of the Nike-Hercules air defense missile system deployed in Europe with missiles with nuclear warheads, to some extent, gave them the capabilities of tactical ballistic missiles. After improvements, the ability of anti-aircraft missiles to deliver nuclear strikes at targets with previously known coordinates appeared.

For Soviet medium-range and long-range anti-aircraft missiles, “special warheads” were also created. But compared with the United States, this happened approximately 10 years later. Missiles with "special combat units" were supposed to repel massive enemy raids aviation.

Information relating to tactical nuclear weapons (TNW), in our country is still largely "closed". However, it is reliably known that the low-altitude C-125 SAM system, equipped with a YaBC missile defense system, was able to strike at sea targets and objects on land.



Also at the exercises, the ability to bombard sea and land targets with missiles of the C-300P family was repeatedly demonstrated. Taking into account the fact that for various C-300P variants there were missiles with YABCh, it is logical to assume that these most common anti-aircraft complexes in the anti-aircraft missile forces are also capable of delivering nuclear strikes against ground targets.

At the personal request of Mao Zedong in 1959, several divisions CA-75 Dvina were delivered to the People's Republic of China. At that time, this newest complex had just begun to be mastered by the air defense forces of the USSR.

Despite the relations with the PRC that had begun to deteriorate, this request was granted, since then a real air war was going on in China’s airspace. For the year, PLA Air Force shot down 15-20 American and Taiwanese aircraft, their own losses were also quite substantial. Of particular concern were the flights of high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft RB-57D, which MiG-15 and MiG-17 fighters could not stop at that time.

The first high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft RB-57D in the PRC airspace was shot down not far from Beijing on October 7 of the year 1959. Great assistance in this was provided by Soviet military advisers, under whose guidance the process of combat work was carried out — capture, escort, and defeat an air target. The Chinese leadership until the last moment carefully concealed the presence of Soviet anti-aircraft complexes in the PRC, which ultimately led to painful losses for the Kuomintang Taiwan aviation. 5 high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft were shot down over the territory of the PRC by anti-aircraft missiles, including thanks to the incident near Sverdlovsk, which became the widely known high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft Lockheed U-2. Several Taiwanese pilots who drove them were captured.

The Chinese highly appreciated the characteristics of the SA-75, which prompted the Chinese leadership to acquire a license to manufacture this air defense system. In China, the complex received the designation HQ-1 ("Huntsi-1").

In the future, in the People's Republic of China, despite the ceased defense cooperation with the USSR, an improved NQ-2 air defense system was created, which, by its technical solutions and characteristics, basically corresponded to the Soviet C-75. This was made possible thanks to the Soviet military aid going to the warring Vietnam through the territory of the PRC. The Soviet representatives have repeatedly recorded the facts of the loss of goods transported through the territory of the PRC, including aircraft and Zur. But the Soviet leadership was forced to put up with this banal theft, as shipping was much more dangerous and longer.

Taking into account the experience of combat use, the Chinese air defense system HQ-2 was repeatedly upgraded, in general, it followed the path of development of the Soviet counterpart, but with a delay of 10-15 years. To increase the mobility of the fire battalion, the launchers of the HQ-2В complex were mounted on tracked chassis. The most perfect of this family was the SAM NQ-2J.


Chinese ZRK НQ-2J


For a long time, the air defense system of the HQ-2 family was the main one in the PLA air defense forces. The production of HQ-2 was completed in the PRC in the middle of the 90-s, after the start of deliveries from Russia of the C-300PMU, but this type of air defense system is still in service with the PRC.

In the middle of 80-x in the PRC, using elements of the HQ-2 rocket, the M-7 operational-tactical missile (OTR) (8610 project) was developed and put into service. A part of the decommissioned ZUR НQ-2 missile was converted into the OTP. Apparently, this was due to the lack of their own experience in creating tactical missiles for ground forces and an attempt to save money.

The M-7 rocket with the 150 km launch range had a fairly simple inertial guidance system. The mass of the monoblock warhead (CU) was increased compared to the missile defense system several times and reached 250 kg. Later for her cassette and chemical warheads were created.

With a good range for OTP, this rocket had significant drawbacks. Equipped for a relatively light warhead, it had low accuracy. Circular probable deviation (CEP) when shooting at a maximum range reached several kilometers. In the usual equipment M-7 was effective only when shooting at large area targets. The rocket could not be in the filled state for a long time, and after refueling with fuel and oxidizer it required very careful handling, which excluded transportation on rough terrain with large vibration loads. When launching this rocket, it was necessary to carefully select a suitable place for the launch pad, since the falling parts of the first accelerating solid-fuel stage posed a threat to their troops and facilities.

The creation and adoption of OTR with fairly modest combat capabilities made it possible to accumulate the necessary experience of operating and using this type of weapon in the PLA missile units. Apparently, M-7 was considered as an intermediate type of missile weapons, which was operated until the appearance of more advanced models. All liquid OTR M-7 are replaced in the PLA by DF-11 and DF-15 solid-fuel missiles. OTR M-7 decommissioned weapons were used as targets on landfills, and about 90 missiles were exported to Iran.

In Iran, the missiles received the designation "Tondar-69", currently there is at least 30 mobile PU OTR of this type.


Start OTR "Tondar-69"


Given that Iran owns a significant amount of HQ-2 air defense systems received from the People's Republic of China and conducts production and active modernization of missiles to them, it seems quite likely that Iran’s own ground-to-ground missiles will be built on the basis of the SAM.

In addition, Iran has some experience in adapting Soviet missile technologies for its own needs. So, when creating the Iranian OTR, a sustained rocket engine of the 5B28E C-200BE missile system was used, which were supplied from Russia at the beginning of the 90-x.

At the end of 80's in Iraq under Saddam Hussein, an attempt was also made to create a ballistic missile based on Soviet-made air defense systems C-75 (B-750 rocket). Despite numerous test launches, Iraqi specialists have not been able to achieve acceptable accuracy of hitting.

After the US invasion of 2003 by the Iraqi military, several attempts were made to launch C-75 missiles in the direction of coalition forces. However, the Iraqis failed to achieve a special result.

The overthrow of Muammar Gaddafi in Libya led to the fact that extensive army arsenals were in the hands of various armed formations fighting against each other. Among other things, the Kvadrat medium-range air defense systems (an export version of the Cube air defense system) and the C-125 were captured.

The relatively small size and weight of the missiles of these complexes, as well as the absence of the need for refueling with liquid fuel and oxidizer, allows them to be used from mobile launchers in the earth-to-ground variant. So the group "Dawn of Libya" demonstrated anti-aircraft missiles, prepared for use on ground targets.


Missiles SAM C-125, prepared for firing at ground targets


The “modernization” of the C-125 missiles has come down to the fact that the front stabilizers have been removed from them and the self-destruction mechanism and radio detectors are turned off. At the head of the missile, a pin fuse is installed, which produces an 60 kg detonation of a standard fragmentation warhead equipped with a mixture of TNT and hexagons.


Missiles complex 2K12 "Square" on an armored personnel carrier "Puma"


The 3М9 mobile Kvadrat air defense missile system was subjected to a similar modification, in this case the Italian Pu-tank BTR with a standard PU from an anti-aircraft missile system acts as a “self-propelled gun”.

However, the effectiveness of such "crafts" is in great doubt. Their relatively effective use is possible only for large areal targets in the line of sight, besides, they are extremely vulnerable to enemy fire.

A more successful example of the conversion of obsolete anti-aircraft missiles into operational-tactical complexes was the South Korean Hyunmoo-1 rocket (the name roughly translates as "keeper of the northern sky"). This OTR was created by reworking decommissioned missiles of the American Nike-Hercules air defense system. It has a weight over 5 t and a length of about 12 m.


OTR Hyunmoo-1


South Korean engineers managed to squeeze the maximum possible from obsolete anti-aircraft missiles with a solid-fuel engine. A modified version of this ballistic missile is capable of delivering an 500 kg warhead to a range of about 200 km.
For a long time, Hyunmoo-1 was the only type of OTP in service with the army of the Republic of Korea. In the upgraded version of Hyunmoo-2А, which entered the army in 2009, the firing range was increased to 500 km.

The most advanced tactical missile system created on the basis of an anti-aircraft missile, was the Soviet "Point". But unlike other complexes created in a number of countries, the missiles for the “Point” and its subsequent modifications were made anew, and not altered from existing missiles.

The development of the operational-tactical missile of the Tochka complex began in the Kolomna engineering design bureau (KBM) under the leadership of S.P. Invincible at the end of 60's. The basis for the new missile was taken ZUR B-611 complex M-11 "Storm". This medium-range air defense system, developed in the Fakel ICD under the direction of P.D. Grushin, was used only in the Navy of the USSR. Beginning with 1967, they were armed with large warships, 1123 Ave., 1143 Ave., 1134 Ave.


Start-up of ZUR V-611 complex M-11 "Storm"


In 1973, in Votkinsk, a machine-building plant began assembling missiles of the first experimental batch for testing. Six-wheel floating all-wheel drive chassis developed at the Bryansk Automobile Plant.

The rocket with a length of about 6,5 m and a diameter of 650 mm had lattice rudders with a span of about 1400 mm. Missile mass within 2 t, of which 480 kg falls on the warhead.


Rocket 9M79M "Point"


The rocket of the Tochka complex has an autonomous, inertial control system with a gyro-stabilized platform and an on-board digital computer complex. The control of the rocket on the trajectory takes place with the help of gas-jet rudders of a refractory alloy, mounted on the same shaft with the lattice ones.

Inherited from the anti-aircraft missile "Point" received high thrust-to-weight ratio. A single-stage solid fuel engine equipped with 790 kg of a mixture of rubber, aluminum powder and ammonium perchlorate operates for 25 s, accelerating the rocket to 500 m / s, while providing a range of 70 km. KVO when shooting at a maximum range of 160 m. Missiles of this complex can carry tactical nuclear warheads 10 - 100 CT, as well as chemical, cluster and high-explosive fragmentation warheads.

In 1976, the first Tochka complexes began to enter the troops. OTR "Tochka" has become our "trump card" in Europe. They were originally intended to arm rocket brigades of motorized rifle and tank divisions, but later missile brigades of OTR "Tochka" were transferred to the army.

In 1984, the rocket "Tochka-R", designed to destroy radio-emitting targets, entered service. The missile introduced a passive seeker, it captured a radiating target at a distance of about 15 km, the QUO during the shelling of such targets decreased to 40 m.



In 1989, the upgraded Tochka-U complex is adopted. Thanks to an improved fuel recipe, the firing range was increased to 120 km, while the QUO was reduced to 50 m. The missile control system was built on a modern element base, which reduced its mass and increased target accuracy.

Total was built about 300 complexes "Tochka" and "Tochka-U". In the 1991, in the USSR, there were about PU 150 OTP of this type. "Point" was delivered to the allies under the "Warsaw Pact": Czechoslovakia, Poland and Bulgaria, as well as in Yemen and North Korea.

After the collapse of the USSR, OTP “Point” and “Tochka-U”, apart from Russia, were at disposal: Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Ukraine.

OTR "Point" received a "baptism of fire" during the fighting in Afghanistan. The Tochka-U complex was very effectively used by the Russian army during the hostilities in the Chechen Republic. According to unconfirmed reports, these PRPs were used against Georgia in 2008.

The Ukrainian army used the Tochka-U complexes during combat operations in the south-east of the country. The blows were made on the height of Saur-Mogila and the outskirts of Donetsk. However, the accuracy and effectiveness of these missile attacks were very low and did not have a noticeable effect on the course of the hostilities.

At the present time, “Tochka” and “Tochka-U”, despite the adoption of more advanced OTR “Iskander” for service, continue to be in service with the missile units of the Russian ground forces. Thanks to their ability to carry tactical nuclear warheads, they are a powerful deterrent to our "partners."

Based on:
http://missilethreat.com
www.spioenkop.blogspot.ru
http://www.liquisearch.com/hyunmoo
http://rbase.new-factoria.ru
http://otvaga2004.ru/kaleydoskop/kaleydoskop-miss/tochka/
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  1. Arktidianets
    Arktidianets 13 October 2015 07: 09 New
    +7
    It is likely that the American missile defense system in Europe can also be dual-use, not in vain their position areas are under the gun of the Iskanders.
    1. Kubatai
      Kubatai 13 October 2015 07: 28 New
      +6
      It’s not quite likely, and that’s exactly how it is ... moreover, info jumped on the topic that retraining missiles from a pure missile defense to ground-to-ground would take from 3,5 to 6 hours .. so it’s not without reason that our people are outraged about these so-called Missile defense (against Iran) and the eskander promise to pull ...
      1. insafufa
        insafufa 13 October 2015 10: 59 New
        +3
        Quote: Kubatai
        It’s not quite likely, and that’s exactly how it is ... moreover, info jumped on the topic that retraining missiles from a pure missile defense to ground-to-ground would take from 3,5 to 6 hours .. so it’s not without reason that our people are outraged about these so-called Missile defense (against Iran) and the eskander promise to pull ...


        Romania's missile defense is built on the basis of MK41 and the Aegis system
        ъ
        So this installation can launch from tomahawks and air defense missiles to modern stealth missiles with a flight range of up to 2500 km
    2. Mera joota
      Mera joota 13 October 2015 07: 52 New
      -1
      Quote: Arctidian
      It is likely that the American missile defense system in Europe may also be dual-use

      Missiles of a missile defense system deployed in Europe have an active radar targeting system and therefore are not capable of hitting ground targets, the GOS simply will not be able to capture a ground target. Missiles of previous generations could hit ground (or rather surface) targets for radar guidance within the radio horizon. For example, the American SM-1 and SM-2, our SAM from the air defense system Hurricane, Fort, Wasp, Storm.
      1. Alex_T
        Alex_T 13 October 2015 09: 12 New
        +8
        And who will verify which missiles for missile defense will be deployed in Europe, is there some kind of control agreement? And what would prevent, if necessary, using a missile defense launcher to launch ground-to-ground missiles. According to http://ria.ru/politics/20150918/1260189507.html in Europe universal start-up installations Mk 41 (Mark 41) will be installed. For reference: Mk 41 is a unified American naval installation of vertical launch for guided missiles. It is used on ships of the US Navy and other countries to launch Standard-rockets SM-2, SM-3 and SM-6, ASROC, Sea Sparrow, ESSM and Tomahawk.
      2. Bongo
        13 October 2015 09: 15 New
        +9
        Quote: Mera Joota
        Missiles of a missile defense system deployed in Europe have an active radar targeting system and therefore are not capable of hitting ground targets,

        I’m sorry, but the presence of an active seeker is not an obstacle to firing at ground targets, especially in the presence of nuclear warheads. The fact is that on long-range missiles, in addition to the active (or semi-active) GOS, radio command or inertial guidance is used at the initial stage of the trajectory. It is known that in the S-300P family air defense system there is a possibility of firing at ground targets (the publication says this). Although, of course, spending expensive long-range missiles to hit ground targets is about the same as hammering nails with a microscope. However, in a combat situation, a variety of situations may arise when a “microscope” is useful to hammer an adversary on the head.
        1. tlauicol
          tlauicol 13 October 2015 09: 28 New
          +1
          in the microscope during the threatened period, there will be nuclear warheads and microscopic accuracy is not needed - they are pulled towards Moscow. it will become cheap and angry
          1. Bongo
            13 October 2015 09: 40 New
            +2
            Quote: Tlauicol
            in the microscope during the threatened period, there will be nuclear warheads and microscopic accuracy is not needed - they are pulled towards Moscow. it will become cheap and angry

            By "microscope" I meant the S-300P SAM. Previously, they were equipped with a “special warhead”, now I don’t know if there are such missiles in the bearing DBs, but in the warehouses of the 12 GUMO there are definitely. True, the firing range of the C-300P on ground targets is not too large - several tens of kilometers.
        2. Mera joota
          Mera joota 13 October 2015 09: 49 New
          +1
          Quote: Bongo
          The fact is that on long-range missiles, in addition to an active (or semi-active) GOS, radio command or inertial guidance is used at the initial stage of the trajectory

          Further, the radio horizon still will not work.
          Well and most importantly, there is no BCH for SM-3 and THAAD missiles

          For attacks on ground targets, they have enough strike aircraft with a wide range of TSA.
          1. tlauicol
            tlauicol 13 October 2015 09: 59 New
            +4
            bullet out. using inertia. won't get in! neither to the ship, nor even to the house. For this, they plan to place the Special BCH - you can also miss a couple of hundred meters. Ours suspect that missile defense missiles in Europe will be equipped with nuclear warheads - and that’s hundreds of supersonic missiles. Because of what the fuss! Almost irresistible blow to bl. and cf. range
            1. Bongo
              13 October 2015 10: 07 New
              +4
              Quote: Tlauicol
              bullet out. using inertia. won't get in! neither to the ship, nor even to the house.

              Certainly! yes But a missile with a nuclear warhead with a continuous destruction zone of such high accuracy is not required request Aiming for a separate house or a ship is unfavorable; you can cover a certain area or naval base.
            2. CTEPX
              CTEPX 13 October 2015 11: 58 New
              -7
              Quote: Tlauicol
              bullet out. using inertia. it’s impossible to hit ... you can also miss a couple of hundred meters.

              That did not stop plowing "Bukami" the Boeing crash site.
              1. Bongo
                13 October 2015 12: 27 New
                +5
                Quote: ctepx
                That did not stop plowing "Bukami" the Boeing crash site.

                Really? no In what place, please show me the arrow?

                Satellite image of Google Earth: the crash site of Boeing 777 of Malaysia Airlines near Grabovo village
                1. CTEPX
                  CTEPX 13 October 2015 14: 22 New
                  -1
                  Quote: Bongo
                  please show me the arrow?

                  But all this spot size 600 on 1100 meters and fired)). Including and beeches.
                  http://topwar.ru/55460-ukrainskaya-armiya-obstrelivaet-zonu-padeniya-boinga-777.
                  html
                  1. Bongo
                    13 October 2015 14: 31 New
                    +4
                    Quote: ctepx
                    But all this spot size 600 on 1100 meters and fired)). Including and beeches.

                    Come on, the dense village stands at the site of the fall. The crash site was not fired upon, otherwise there would have been destruction in Grabovo .. If there were artillery and mortar shelling in this area, it is clearly not from the air defense system (there are simply no radio-contrast targets there). You probably do not know the method of using missiles for ground targets. In addition, the number of serviceable missiles in Ukraine is extremely limited. By the way, in the publication the link to which you gave about "Buki" is not a word.

                    In the photo there are traces of artillery shelling of Saur-Grave, near Grabovo there is nothing like it request
            3. mahor
              mahor 23 January 2016 15: 47 New
              0
              Quote: Tlauicol
              bullet out. using inertia. won't get in! neither to the ship, nor even to the house. For this, they plan to place the Special BCH - you can also miss a couple of hundred meters. Ours suspect that missile defense missiles in Europe will be equipped with nuclear warheads - and that’s hundreds of supersonic missiles. Because of what the fuss! Almost irresistible blow to bl. and cf. range



              In a threatened period, a preemptive strike will be delivered. This was repeatedly said to boobies from Poland and Czechoslovakia .... am
          2. Bongo
            13 October 2015 10: 01 New
            +3
            Quote: Mera Joota
            Further, the radio horizon still will not work.

            It is felt that you have certain knowledge, communicate competently enough hi But what prevents them from equipping these missiles with an inertial guidance system or introducing appropriate algorithms into the existing control system?

            Quote: Mera Joota
            Well and most importantly, there is no BCH for SM-3 and THAAD missiles

            Here you are right yes But answer for how long can NSC be installed on these systems? Or is this an insoluble task? It is possible that this was considered at the design stage.

            Quote: Mera Joota
            For attacks on ground targets, they have enough strike aircraft with a wide range of TSA.


            Yes, strike aircraft are indeed quite a few. But for tactical carriers, only the free-falling nuclear bombs of the B61 family are intended. In addition, these carriers are very vulnerable, unlike missiles to air defense systems. Although our capabilities in terms of air defense in comparison with the USSR decreased many times.

            One way or another, I would not rule out the possibility of creating and deploying nuclear strike systems based on components of the American missile defense system in the future.
            1. Kalmar
              Kalmar 13 October 2015 11: 23 New
              0
              answer for how long can NSC be installed on these systems? Or is this an insoluble task?

              If I'm not mistaken, on the SM-3 there is a kinetic warhead weighing something around 25 kg. It’s very, very difficult to squeeze decent DPS into this weight; it will not be suitable for dealing with protected objects. Only if some openly located targets are thrown by dozens of such missiles.
            2. Mera joota
              Mera joota 13 October 2015 15: 06 New
              0
              Quote: Bongo
              Yes, strike aircraft are indeed quite a few. But for tactical carriers only free-falling nuclear bombs of the B61 family are intended.

              The argument is about nothing at all. Not a single missile (even Pershing-2) can destroy the ICBM mines near Uzhur because oooooooooooooooo far. Otherwise, there is no sense NI-KA-KO-GO!
              If we take it purely hypothetically, then with MK.41 you can launch Axes and promising LRASM, is it worth distorting with missiles? True, they also do not have JBL.

              All these speculations are so stupid in the presence of ICBMs both in the USA and in the Russian Federation that even letters are a pity ...
              1. Bongo
                13 October 2015 15: 12 New
                +2
                Quote: Mera Joota
                The argument is about nothing at all. Not a single missile (even Pershing-2) can destroy the ICBM mines near Uzhur because oooooooooooooooo far. Otherwise, there is no sense NI-KA-KO-GO!

                In addition to the mines of ICBMs (which are not only under Uzhur), there are many other "very sweet targets." In contrast to the Kyrgyz Republic, the ballistic missile systems have much shorter flight times. Personally, I don’t think that in the near future the BRDS will appear in Europe, but it’s also not worth it to be so categorical.
        3. Amurets
          Amurets 13 October 2015 10: 09 New
          +5
          Sergey! In the S-75 ammunition there were 20DS missiles. These are missiles with a selection unit for firing at low-altitude targets. Already in March 1970, improvements were made to our launch control system allowing us to use this missile for ground targets in the event of self-defense. I don’t remember the range, it seems something is about 30 km. The story was especially struck when the missile did not self-destruct due to malfunction of the fuses and the roofing felts fell on the roofing felts at the kindergarten and several children died. There was such a case. At 120DS there was an ordinary warhead.
          1. Bongo
            13 October 2015 10: 16 New
            +3
            Quote: Amurets
            Sergey! X-NUMXDS missiles were in the S-75 ammunition. These are missiles with a selection unit for firing at low-altitude targets. Already in March 20, improvements were made on our launch control system consoles allowing the use of this missile for ground targets in case of self-defense.

            Good evening, Nikolai! hi This would be effective only for radio-contrast targets such as a bridge or when using a "special warhead."

            Quote: Amurets
            Officers coming from Vietnam said that when the self-liquidator failed, the rockets flew for 120-150km. The story was especially struck when the rocket did not self-destruct due to malfunctions of the fuses and the roofing felts fell on the roofing felts at the kindergarten and several children died. There was such a case.

            It's not about the failure of the self-liquidator, the Vietnamese in order to increase the firing range specifically turned it off. Stopped doing this after this tragic incident.
            1. Amurets
              Amurets 13 October 2015 10: 45 New
              +4
              The manual on combat work was that only self-defense was fired. But for 15D with a nuclear head there was no documentation. It was stored in a special battery but was not issued to divisions. Although there were storage facilities for them in each division. Then, in 1970, the divisions put on a hospital and began to bury it in the ground. Yes, it can be seen for the intact structures. Thank you for clarification by the self-liquidator. I don’t understand one thing, there was a balloon balloon and an ampule battery capacity for 20s. Their range was 56-60km for 11-34- 36 km. What turned off the self-liquidator. they no longer had air on the steering wheels for the passive flight.
        4. Rus2012
          Rus2012 13 October 2015 20: 47 New
          +1
          Quote: Bongo
          I’m sorry, but the presence of an active seeker is not an obstacle to firing at ground targets, especially in the presence of nuclear warheads.


          In the case of CM3 - the situation is such that it is with a "kinetic interception", i.e. the entire smart head with fifty kilograms, with homing, should be cut into the attacking BB. There is no room for JLL. To install - requires a new rocket ...

          The whole "chip" with PU MKNUMX ... where you can put a lot of what is prohibited ...
      3. Alex_T
        Alex_T 13 October 2015 09: 30 New
        0
        On the Euro ABM and its dual use, there was already an article on topwar http://topwar.ru/82630-.html
      4. Rus2012
        Rus2012 13 October 2015 20: 34 New
        +1
        Quote: Mera Joota
        Missile defense systems deployed in Europe have an active radar

        ... the conversation is not about missiles, but about the universal missile launcher MK41, which can be quickly recharged to different types of missiles.
        In Europe, your 3,13 endos are going to put them together with SM3.
        Mk 41 (Mark 41) - the unified shipboard American vertical launch launcher for guided missiles. It is used on ships of the US Navy and other countries for launching Standard rockets SM-2, SM-3 and SM-6, ASROC, Sea Sparrow, ESSM and Tomahawk
  2. Tanker55
    Tanker55 13 October 2015 08: 48 New
    +1
    Funny Christmas trees in the second photo! wassat
  3. Koh
    Koh 13 October 2015 10: 43 New
    +4
    Thank you for the article !
  4. Old26
    Old26 13 October 2015 12: 08 New
    0
    Quote: Bongo
    Here you are right. But answer for how long can NSCs be installed on these systems? Or is this an insoluble task? It is possible that this was considered at the design stage.

    The question is different. In the presence of such a YABCh. Alas, the Americans do not have them in stock (with such weight and size characteristics)
  5. Zaurbek
    Zaurbek 13 October 2015 17: 46 New
    +1
    The POINT complex is probably too early to write off, a good device. It can be upgraded in accuracy as Iskander and used with the same range.
    1. mahor
      mahor 23 January 2016 15: 51 New
      0
      Quote: Zaurbek
      The POINT complex is probably too early to write off, a good device. It can be upgraded in accuracy as Iskander and used with the same range.



      That's for sure. Especially due to electronics, control algorithms and the use of new fuels from Mace ... bully