In the 50-60-s in a number of countries with the necessary scientific and technical potential, the creation of anti-aircraft missile systems (SAM) was carried out. For medium-range and long-range air defense systems of the first generation, as a rule, radio command guidance of anti-aircraft guided missiles (SAM) was used on the target.
The first missiles were equipped with engines operating on liquid fuel and oxidizing agents (LRE). At the end of the 50-x - at the beginning of the 60-x in the United States were successfully tested and adopted by long and medium-range air defense systems with missiles, whose engines used solid fuel (RDTT).
In the US, the first such anti-aircraft complex with a solid propellant rocket was the NIM-14 long-range air defense system Nike-Hercules (the range of 130 km).
Zour complex "Nike-Hercules"
Despite the absence of the need for time-consuming and dangerous refueling of missiles with liquid fuel and an oxidizer, at first this American anti-aircraft system was purely stationary. This was due to the views of the US military on the formation of the target air defense system in the territories of the United States and Canada. As well as the bulkiness of the electronic components of the first variants of the detection and guidance system.
Later, after modernization, variants of the complex with combat elements adapted for relocation were created. This allowed the Nike-Hercules system to carry out a limited maneuver on the ground and implement these systems in the air defense of the ground forces.
"Nike-Hercules" became the first American air defense complex, the missile defense of which was massively manned with nuclear combat units (TBC) with 2 - 40 CT. This was supposed to increase the likelihood of hitting air group targets under conditions of massive interference, as well as give the air defense missile system anti-missile capabilities.
In an airborne nuclear explosion, a defeat zone in a radius of up to 1 km arose, which largely compensated for the not too high accuracy of firing radio command missiles at high-speed and intensively maneuvering targets, which is especially important when radio interference is set. As of the end of 60, all Nike-Hercules missiles in the USA were equipped with nuclear warheads.
The SAM system of the Nike-Hercules complex with YABCh in 1960 for the first time successfully intercepted the tactical ballistic missile MGM-5 Corporal.
The equipment of the Nike-Hercules air defense missile system deployed in Europe with missiles with nuclear warheads, to some extent, gave them the capabilities of tactical ballistic missiles. After improvements, the ability of anti-aircraft missiles to deliver nuclear strikes at targets with previously known coordinates appeared.
For Soviet medium-range and long-range anti-aircraft missiles, “special warheads” were also created. But compared with the United States, this happened approximately 10 years later. Missiles with "special combat units" were supposed to repel massive enemy raids aviation.
Information relating to tactical nuclear weapons (TNW), in our country is still largely "closed". However, it is reliably known that the low-altitude C-125 SAM system, equipped with a YaBC missile defense system, was able to strike at sea targets and objects on land.
Also at the exercises, the ability to bombard sea and land targets with missiles of the C-300P family was repeatedly demonstrated. Taking into account the fact that for various C-300P variants there were missiles with YABCh, it is logical to assume that these most common anti-aircraft complexes in the anti-aircraft missile forces are also capable of delivering nuclear strikes against ground targets.
At the personal request of Mao Zedong in 1959, several divisions CA-75 Dvina were delivered to the People's Republic of China. At that time, this newest complex had just begun to be mastered by the air defense forces of the USSR.
Despite the relations with the PRC that had begun to deteriorate, this request was granted, since then a real air war was going on in China’s airspace. For the year, PLA Air Force shot down 15-20 American and Taiwanese aircraft, their own losses were also quite substantial. Of particular concern were the flights of high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft RB-57D, which MiG-15 and MiG-17 fighters could not stop at that time.
The first high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft RB-57D in the PRC airspace was shot down not far from Beijing on October 7 of the year 1959. Great assistance in this was provided by Soviet military advisers, under whose guidance the process of combat work was carried out — capture, escort, and defeat an air target. The Chinese leadership until the last moment carefully concealed the presence of Soviet anti-aircraft complexes in the PRC, which ultimately led to painful losses for the Kuomintang Taiwan aviation. 5 high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft were shot down over the territory of the PRC by anti-aircraft missiles, including thanks to the incident near Sverdlovsk, which became the widely known high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft Lockheed U-2. Several Taiwanese pilots who drove them were captured.
The Chinese highly appreciated the characteristics of the SA-75, which prompted the Chinese leadership to acquire a license to manufacture this air defense system. In China, the complex received the designation HQ-1 ("Huntsi-1").
In the future, in the People's Republic of China, despite the ceased defense cooperation with the USSR, an improved NQ-2 air defense system was created, which, by its technical solutions and characteristics, basically corresponded to the Soviet C-75. This was made possible thanks to the Soviet military aid going to the warring Vietnam through the territory of the PRC. The Soviet representatives have repeatedly recorded the facts of the loss of goods transported through the territory of the PRC, including aircraft and Zur. But the Soviet leadership was forced to put up with this banal theft, as shipping was much more dangerous and longer.
Taking into account the experience of combat use, the Chinese air defense system HQ-2 was repeatedly upgraded, in general, it followed the path of development of the Soviet counterpart, but with a delay of 10-15 years. To increase the mobility of the fire battalion, the launchers of the HQ-2В complex were mounted on tracked chassis. The most perfect of this family was the SAM NQ-2J.
Chinese ZRK НQ-2J
For a long time, the air defense system of the HQ-2 family was the main one in the PLA air defense forces. The production of HQ-2 was completed in the PRC in the middle of the 90-s, after the start of deliveries from Russia of the C-300PMU, but this type of air defense system is still in service with the PRC.
In the middle of 80-x in the PRC, using elements of the HQ-2 rocket, the M-7 operational-tactical missile (OTR) (8610 project) was developed and put into service. A part of the decommissioned ZUR НQ-2 missile was converted into the OTP. Apparently, this was due to the lack of their own experience in creating tactical missiles for ground forces and an attempt to save money.
The M-7 rocket with the 150 km launch range had a fairly simple inertial guidance system. The mass of the monoblock warhead (CU) was increased compared to the missile defense system several times and reached 250 kg. Later for her cassette and chemical warheads were created.
With a good range for OTP, this rocket had significant drawbacks. Equipped for a relatively light warhead, it had low accuracy. Circular probable deviation (CEP) when shooting at a maximum range reached several kilometers. In the usual equipment M-7 was effective only when shooting at large area targets. The rocket could not be in the filled state for a long time, and after refueling with fuel and oxidizer it required very careful handling, which excluded transportation on rough terrain with large vibration loads. When launching this rocket, it was necessary to carefully select a suitable place for the launch pad, since the falling parts of the first accelerating solid-fuel stage posed a threat to their troops and facilities.
The creation and adoption of OTR with fairly modest combat capabilities made it possible to accumulate the necessary experience of operating and using this type of weapon in the PLA missile units. Apparently, M-7 was considered as an intermediate type of missile weapons, which was operated until the appearance of more advanced models. All liquid OTR M-7 are replaced in the PLA by DF-11 and DF-15 solid-fuel missiles. OTR M-7 decommissioned weapons were used as targets on landfills, and about 90 missiles were exported to Iran.
In Iran, the missiles received the designation "Tondar-69", currently there is at least 30 mobile PU OTR of this type.
Start OTR "Tondar-69"
Given that Iran owns a significant amount of HQ-2 air defense systems received from the People's Republic of China and conducts production and active modernization of missiles to them, it seems quite likely that Iran’s own ground-to-ground missiles will be built on the basis of the SAM.
In addition, Iran has some experience in adapting Soviet missile technologies for its own needs. So, when creating the Iranian OTR, a sustained rocket engine of the 5B28E C-200BE missile system was used, which were supplied from Russia at the beginning of the 90-x.
At the end of 80's in Iraq under Saddam Hussein, an attempt was also made to create a ballistic missile based on Soviet-made air defense systems C-75 (B-750 rocket). Despite numerous test launches, Iraqi specialists have not been able to achieve acceptable accuracy of hitting.
After the US invasion of 2003 by the Iraqi military, several attempts were made to launch C-75 missiles in the direction of coalition forces. However, the Iraqis failed to achieve a special result.
The overthrow of Muammar Gaddafi in Libya led to the fact that extensive army arsenals were in the hands of various armed formations fighting against each other. Among other things, the Kvadrat medium-range air defense systems (an export version of the Cube air defense system) and the C-125 were captured.
The relatively small size and weight of the missiles of these complexes, as well as the absence of the need for refueling with liquid fuel and oxidizer, allows them to be used from mobile launchers in the earth-to-ground variant. So the group "Dawn of Libya" demonstrated anti-aircraft missiles, prepared for use on ground targets.
Missiles SAM C-125, prepared for firing at ground targets
The “modernization” of the C-125 missiles has come down to the fact that the front stabilizers have been removed from them and the self-destruction mechanism and radio detectors are turned off. At the head of the missile, a pin fuse is installed, which produces an 60 kg detonation of a standard fragmentation warhead equipped with a mixture of TNT and hexagons.
Missiles complex 2K12 "Square" on an armored personnel carrier "Puma"
The 3М9 mobile Kvadrat air defense missile system was subjected to a similar modification, in this case the Italian Pu-tank BTR with a standard PU from an anti-aircraft missile system acts as a “self-propelled gun”.
However, the effectiveness of such "crafts" is in great doubt. Their relatively effective use is possible only for large areal targets in the line of sight, besides, they are extremely vulnerable to enemy fire.
A more successful example of the conversion of obsolete anti-aircraft missiles into operational-tactical complexes was the South Korean Hyunmoo-1 rocket (the name roughly translates as "keeper of the northern sky"). This OTR was created by reworking decommissioned missiles of the American Nike-Hercules air defense system. It has a weight over 5 t and a length of about 12 m.
South Korean engineers managed to squeeze the maximum possible from obsolete anti-aircraft missiles with a solid-fuel engine. A modified version of this ballistic missile is capable of delivering an 500 kg warhead to a range of about 200 km.
For a long time, Hyunmoo-1 was the only type of OTP in service with the army of the Republic of Korea. In the upgraded version of Hyunmoo-2А, which entered the army in 2009, the firing range was increased to 500 km.
The most advanced tactical missile system created on the basis of an anti-aircraft missile, was the Soviet "Point". But unlike other complexes created in a number of countries, the missiles for the “Point” and its subsequent modifications were made anew, and not altered from existing missiles.
The development of the operational-tactical missile of the Tochka complex began in the Kolomna engineering design bureau (KBM) under the leadership of S.P. Invincible at the end of 60's. The basis for the new missile was taken ZUR B-611 complex M-11 "Storm". This medium-range air defense system, developed in the Fakel ICD under the direction of P.D. Grushin, was used only in the Navy of the USSR. Beginning with 1967, they were armed with large warships, 1123 Ave., 1143 Ave., 1134 Ave.
Start-up of ZUR V-611 complex M-11 "Storm"
In 1973, in Votkinsk, a machine-building plant began assembling missiles of the first experimental batch for testing. Six-wheel floating all-wheel drive chassis developed at the Bryansk Automobile Plant.
The rocket with a length of about 6,5 m and a diameter of 650 mm had lattice rudders with a span of about 1400 mm. Missile mass within 2 t, of which 480 kg falls on the warhead.
Rocket 9M79M "Point"
The rocket of the Tochka complex has an autonomous, inertial control system with a gyro-stabilized platform and an on-board digital computer complex. The control of the rocket on the trajectory takes place with the help of gas-jet rudders of a refractory alloy, mounted on the same shaft with the lattice ones.
Inherited from the anti-aircraft missile "Point" received high thrust-to-weight ratio. A single-stage solid fuel engine equipped with 790 kg of a mixture of rubber, aluminum powder and ammonium perchlorate operates for 25 s, accelerating the rocket to 500 m / s, while providing a range of 70 km. KVO when shooting at a maximum range of 160 m. Missiles of this complex can carry tactical nuclear warheads 10 - 100 CT, as well as chemical, cluster and high-explosive fragmentation warheads.
In 1976, the first Tochka complexes began to enter the army. OTR "Point" became our "trump card" in Europe. They were originally intended to arm the rocket brigades of motorized rifle and tank divisions, but later the rocket brigades of the OTR "Point" were transferred to the army submission.
In 1984, the rocket "Tochka-R", designed to destroy radio-emitting targets, entered service. The missile introduced a passive seeker, it captured a radiating target at a distance of about 15 km, the QUO during the shelling of such targets decreased to 40 m.
In 1989, the upgraded Tochka-U complex is adopted. Thanks to an improved fuel recipe, the firing range was increased to 120 km, while the QUO was reduced to 50 m. The missile control system was built on a modern element base, which reduced its mass and increased target accuracy.
Total was built about 300 complexes "Tochka" and "Tochka-U". In the 1991, in the USSR, there were about PU 150 OTP of this type. "Point" was delivered to the allies under the "Warsaw Pact": Czechoslovakia, Poland and Bulgaria, as well as in Yemen and North Korea.
After the collapse of the USSR, OTP “Point” and “Tochka-U”, apart from Russia, were at disposal: Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Ukraine.
OTR "Point" received a "baptism of fire" during the fighting in Afghanistan. The Tochka-U complex was very effectively used by the Russian army during the hostilities in the Chechen Republic. According to unconfirmed reports, these PRPs were used against Georgia in 2008.
The Ukrainian army used the Tochka-U complexes during combat operations in the south-east of the country. The blows were made on the height of Saur-Mogila and the outskirts of Donetsk. However, the accuracy and effectiveness of these missile attacks were very low and did not have a noticeable effect on the course of the hostilities.
At the present time, “Tochka” and “Tochka-U”, despite the adoption of more advanced OTR “Iskander” for service, continue to be in service with the missile units of the Russian ground forces. Thanks to their ability to carry tactical nuclear warheads, they are a powerful deterrent to our "partners."